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2010 Coherence Conference - James Oschman, Ph.D.


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  • 1. Biological Coherence James L. Oschman, Ph.D. Nature’s Own Research Association Dover, New Hampshire USA
  • 2. We begin with the Bose–Einstein condensate, a state of matter first predicted by S. N. Bose and Albert Einstein in 1924–25. Satyendra Nath Bose Albert Einstein
  • 3. Bose was an Indian mathematician and physicist who wrote a paper in 1924 describing a statistical theory for light. Bose SN, 1924. Plancks Gesetz und Lichtquantenhypothese. (Planck's Law and the Hypothesis of Light Quanta). Zeitschrift für Physik 26:178-181)
  • 4. Bose and Einstein collaborated to develop a mathematics called Bose-Einstein statistics, that describes the gas-like qualities of both electromagnetic radiation (light) and collections of coherent electrons or atoms.
  • 5. Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics apply under conditions when quantum effects are important and the particles become "indistinguishable".
  • 6. There are two main categories of indistinguishable particles: bosons, which can share quantum states, and fermions, which do not share quantum states due to the Pauli exclusion principle. Examples of bosons are photons, gluons, phonons, and helium-4 atoms. Examples of fermions are electrons, neutrinos, quarks, protons and neutrons, and helium-3 atoms.
  • 7. The Bose-Einstein condensate is a dense collection of bosons, which are elementary particles or atoms with integer spin, named after Bose. The theory describes the behavior of a group of particles in the same energetic state and accounts for the cohesive streaming of laser light and other quantum phenomena.
  • 8. Interest in this subject began to take off in the mid 1990’s. Here we see the annual number of published papers (as of 2001), which have the words “Bose” and “Einstein” in their title, abstracts or keywords. From the 2001 Nobel Lecture of Wolfgang Ketterle.
  • 9. Seventy years after the proposal by Bose and Einstein, the first gaseous condensate was produced by Cornell and Wieman in 1995 at the University of Colorado using a gas of rubidium atoms cooled to 170 nanokelvin. For their achievements Cornell, Wieman, and Wolfgang Ketterle received the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics. Eric A. Cornell Wolfgang Ketterle Carl E. Wieman
  • 10. WHEN ATOMS BEHAVE AS WAVES: BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATION AND THE ATOM LASER Nobel Lecture, December 8, 2001 by WOLFGANG KETTERLE Department of Physics, MIT-Harvard Center for Ultracold Atoms, and ResearchLaboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02139, USA.
  • 11. The MIT atom laser operating at 200 Hz. Pulses of coherent sodium atoms are coupled out from a Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a magnetic trap (field of view 2.5 x 5.0 mm2). Every 5 ms, a short rf pulse transferred a fraction of these atoms into an unconfined quantum state. These atoms were accelerated downward by gravity and spread out due to repulsive interactions. Each pulse contained between 105 and 106 atoms.
  • 12. A Bose-Einstein condensate is a state of matter of a dilute gas of weakly interacting bosons confined in an external field and cooled to temperatures very near to absolute zero. Under such conditions, a large fraction of the bosons occupy the lowest quantum state. Quantum effects become apparent on a macroscopic scale.
  • 13.  
  • 14. One of the leading theorists in the field of superconduction, Herbert Fröhlich, demonstrated that Bose-Einstein condensation can take place in living tissues at body temperatures and pressures because of the high degree of order or crystallinity.
  • 15. Fröhlich’s initial focus was on the cell membrane, which is composed of an array of phospholipid molecules, and which has an enormous electrical potential across it, amounting to some millions of volts per meter.
  • 16. In 2000, I pointed out that the conditions for biological coherence exist in a variety of tissues in animals. These tissues constitute the bulk of the animal body. Oschman, J.L., 2000. Energy Medicine: the scientific basis. Churchill Livningston/Harcourt Brace, Edinburgh.   Muscle connective cell membranes water tissues
  • 17. Mae-Wan Ho and her colleagues in England identified a variety of biological liquid crystals in certain cellular and tissue components.
  • 18. Liquid crystals Liquid crystallinity gives organisms their characteristic flexibility, exquisite sensitivity and responsiveness, and optimizes the rapid noiseless intercommunication that enables the organism to function as a coherent coordinated whole. Ho, M-W., 1997. Quantum coherence and conscious experience. Kybernetes 26, 265-276, 1997.   Muscle connective cell membranes water tissues
  • 19.
  • 20. When a gas consisting of uncoordinated atoms turns into a Bose-Einstein condensate, it is like when the various instruments of an orchestra with their different tones and timbres, after warming up individually, all join in the same tone. ~ Svanberg, S., 2001. The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001 presentation speech.  
  • 21.  
  • 22. 1994 PO Box 1935 Dover, NH 03821
  • 23. Electromechanical oscillators can become resonantly coupled together through coherent sound, light, matter and other emissions to form extended Fröhlich systems. The quantum aspects of such coupling in biological systems were discussed by Avery, Bay and Szent-Györgyi in 1961. Avery, J., Bay, Z., and Szent-Gyorgyi, A., 1961. On the energy transfer in biological systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 47:1742-1744.  
  • 24. Avery, Bay and Szent-Györgyi discussed two different mechanisms for energy transfer, an individual resonant transfer and a collective transfer in which the energy is delocalized, meaning that it behaves more like a wave than a particle.
  • 25. The circles represent an aggregate of molecules receiving a quantum of energy, with one molecule in the aggregate labeled “m” close to another molecule or molecular aggregate labeled “S” (representing an energy sink ) that will use the absorbed quantum of energy.
  • 26. The circles represent an aggregate of molecules receiving a quantum of energy, with one molecule in the aggregate labeled “m” close to another molecule or molecular aggregate labeled “S” (representing an energy sink ) that will use the absorbed quantum of energy.
  • 27. These concepts apply to the chloroplast of the green plant. Photons from the sun impart their energy to chlorophyll molecules. The energy is handed from one chlorophyll molecule to another until the energy either reaches a reaction center, where the energy is passed on to the metabolic processes that trap the energy in starch, or is radiated back into space.
  • 28. Ho used this diagram to show the way energy and information can cycle through living systems. Organisms can take advantage of a complete spectrum of coupled cycles, storing and mobilizing energy and information using many different kinds of efficient transfers.  
  • 29. Energy and information input into any of the body’s systems can be readily delocalized over all systems; conversely energy and information from all systems can become concentrated into any single system. Energy coupling in living systems is symmetrical, which is why we can have energy at will, whenever and wherever required. Ho, M.-W., 1996. The biology of free will. Journal of Consciousness Studies 3:231-244.
  • 30. myofascia cartilage tendon ligament superficial fascia The many-fold cycles of life coupled to energy and information flows in the connective tissue-musculoskeletal domains. bone muscles collagen array in connective tissue actin and myosin array in muscle
  • 31. nuclear matrix neurotubules centriol cilia: sensation cytoskeleton The many-fold cycles of life coupled to energy and information flows in the cellular and neural domains. DNA cell membranes
  • 32. muscles organs skin nervous system connective tissues The many-fold cycles of life coupled to energy and information flows in the aqueous domains. DNA cells
  • 33. The mechanisms involved in such efficient coupling have now been documented by the Fleming group at the University of California, Berkeley:
  • 34. This wavelike characteristic of the energy transfer within the photosynthetic complex can explain its extreme efficiency, in that it allows the complexes to sample vast areas of phase space to find the most efficient path. Engel, G.S., Calhoun, R.R., Read, E.L., Ahn, T-K, et al, 2007. Evidence for wavelike energy transfer through quantum coherence in photosynthetic systems. Nature 446:782-786.
  • 35. The next step will be to describe how these concepts can be used to explain wave-like electron transport taking place in the mitochondrion of the animal cell. mitochondrion electron transport chain
  • 36. Biological Coherence James L. Oschman, Ph.D. Nature’s Own Research Association Dover, New Hampshire USA