ताज महल تاج محل Fact Origin and Inspiration Architecture Cultural Reference
Muhammad Shah Jahan 5 Jan, 1592 – 22 Jan, 1666 Mumtaz Mahal Apr, 1593 – 17 Jun, 1631 It was built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan for his favorite the 3 rd wife, Mumtaz Mahal , died during she gave birth to their 14 th child, Gauhara Begum. It was considered the finest example of Mughal architecture, which combines elements from Persian, Indian and Islamic architectural styles. It became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983, and was cited as “the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world’s heritage.” It began to build around 1632 and was completed around 1653, and employed thousands of artisans and craftsmen. Taj Mahal is a mausoleum located in Agra, India.
In 1632, the construction of Taj Mahal began, one year after Mumtaz Mahal ’s death. In 1648, the principal mausoleum was completed. In 1653, the surrounding buildings and garden were finished. The Taj Mahal incorporates and expands on design traditions of Persian architecture and earlier Mughal architecture. Specific inspiration came from successful Timurid and Mughal buildings include: Gur-e Amir (the tomb of Timur, progenitor of the Mughal dynasty, in Samarkand), Humayun’s Tomb, Itmad-Ud-Daulah’s Tomb (sometimes called the Baby Taj), and Shah Jahan’s own Jama Masjid in Delhi.
Gur-e Amir built at the end of the 14th century Gur-e Amir at night time Humayun’s Tomb in 1562, the 1 st garden-tomb on the Indian subcontinent Itmad-Ud-Daulah’s Tomb built between 1622 and 1628 Jama Masjid, in 1656 5 3 2 1 4
The base structure is a large, multi-chambered cube with chamfered corners, forming an unequal octagon that is approximately 55 meters on each of the four long sides. On each of these sides, a massive pishtaq, or vaulted archway, frames the iwan with two similarly shaped, arched balconies stacked on either side. The marble dome that surmounts the tomb is the most spectacular feature. Its height of around 35 meters is about the same as the length of the base, and is accentuated as it sits on a cylindrical "drum" which is roughly 7 meters high. The top of the dome is decorated with a lotus design, the shape is emphasized by four smaller domed chattris (kiosks) placed at its corners, and their columned bases open through the roof of the tomb and provide light to the interior.
The main finial was originally made of gold but was replaced by a copy made of gilded bronze in the early 19th century. This feature provides a clear example of integration of traditional Persian and Hindu decorative elements. The minarets , which are each more than 40 meters tall, display the designer's penchant for symmetry. They were designed as working minarets — a traditional element of mosques, used by the muezzinto call the Islamic faithful to prayer. Base, dome, and minaret simplified diagram of the Taj Mahal floor plan Finial Top of finial Main iwan and side pishtaqs
Calligraphy on large pishtaq The decorative elements were created by applying paint, stucco, stone inlays, or carvings. In line with the Islamic prohibition against the use of anthropomorphic forms, the decorative elements can be grouped into either calligraphy, abstract forms or vegetative motifs. Much of the calligraphy is composed of florid thuluth script, made of jasper or black marble, inlaid in white marble panels. Higher panels are written in slightly larger script to reduce the skewing effect when viewed from below. The domes and vaults of the sandstone buildings are worked with tracery of incised painting to create elaborate geometric forms.
Herringbone inlays define the space between many of the adjoining elements. White inlays are used in sandstone buildings, and dark or black inlays on the white marbles. Mortared areas of the marble buildings have been stained or painted in a contrasting color, creating geometric patterns of considerable complexity. Floors and walkways use contrasting tiles or blocks in tessellation patterns. On the lower walls of the tomb there are white marble dados that have been sculpted with realistic bas relief depictions of flowers and vines. The marble has been polished to emphasize the exquisite detailing of the carvings and the dado frames and archway spandrels have been decorated with pietra dura inlays of highly stylized, almost geometric vines, flowers and fruits. Reflective tiles under exposed Reflective tiles normal exposure Incised painting Spandrel detail Plant motifs Herringbone
Tombs of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal The inner chamber is an octagon with the design allowing for entry from each face, although only the south garden-facing door is used. The interior walls are about 25 meters high and topped by a "false" interior dome decorated with a sun motif. Eight pishtaq arches define the space at ground level and, as with the exterior, each lower pishtaq is crowned by a second pishtaq about midway up the wall. Each chamber wall has been highly decorated with dado bas relief, intricate lapidary inlay and refined calligraphy panels, reflecting in miniature detail the design elements seen throughout the exterior of the complex.
The octagonal marble screen or jali which borders the cenotaphs is made from eight marble panels which have been carved through with intricate pierce work. The remaining surfaces have been inlaid in extremely delicate detail with semiprecious stones forming twining vines, fruits and flowers. 1. Delicate pierce work 2. Inlay detail 3. Detail of Jali 4. Arch of Jali
The complex is set around a large 300-meter square charbagh or Mughal garden. The garden uses raised pathways that divide each of the four quarters of the garden into 16 sunken parterres or flowerbeds. A raised marble water tank , is called al Hawd al-Kawthar , in reference to the "Tank of Abundance" promised to Muhammad. At the center of the garden, halfway between the tomb and gateway with a reflecting pool on a north-south axis, reflects the image of the mausoleum. The charbagh garden , a design inspired by Persian gardens, was introduced to India by the first Mughal emperor, Babur. It symbolizes the four flowing rivers of Jannah(Paradise) and reflects the Paradise garden derived from the Persian paridaeza , meaning 'walled garden'.
The Taj Mahal complex is bounded on three sides by crenellated red sandstone walls, with the river-facing side left open. Outside the walls are several additional mausoleums, including those of Shah Jahan's other wives, and a larger tomb for Mumtaz's favorite servant. These structures, composed primarily of red sandstone, are typical of the smaller Mughal tombs of the era. The garden-facing inner sides of the wall are fronted by columned arcades, a feature typical of Hindu temples which was later incorporated into Mughal mosques. The main gateway ( darwaza ) is a monumental structure built primarily of marble which is reminiscent of Mughal architecture of earlier emperors. Its archways mirror the shape of tomb's archways, and its pishtaq arches incorporate the calligraphy that decorates the tomb. It utilizes bas-relief and pietra dura inlaid decorations with floral motifs. Arches in the Taj Mahal Mosque interior The Great gate (Darwaza-i rauza) — gateway to the Taj Mahal
At the far end of the complex, there are two grand red sandstone buildings that are open to the sides of the tomb. Their backs parallel the western and eastern walls , and the two buildings are precise mirror images of each other. The western building is a mosque and the other is the jawab (answer), whose primary purpose was architectural balance, although it may have been used as a guesthouse. Taj Mahal mosque or masjid The distinctions between these two buildings include the lack of mihrab (a niche in a mosque's wall facing Mecca) in the jawab and that the floors of jawab have a geometric design, while the mosque floor was laid with outlines of 569 prayer rugs in black marble.
Kabir Bedi role as Emperor Shah Jahan in Taj Mahal: An Eternal Love Story 18 Nov, 2005 Arbaaz Khan An Eternal Love Story 2005, in Taj Mahal Manisha Koirala role as Jahan Ara An Eternal Love Story , Taj Mahal, 2005 Sonya Rizvi An Eternal Love Story 2005, in Taj Mahal
Menara Berkembar Petronas Fact Comparison with other Towers History Tenants of the Petronas Twin Towers Popular Culture
Record height Preceded by: Willis Tower Surpassed by: Taipei 101 General information Location: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Status: Complete Constructed: 1992–1998 Use: Office Height Antenna or spire: 451.9 m (1,482.6 ft) Roof: 378.6 m (1,242.1 ft) Top floor: 375.0 m (1,230.3 ft) Technical details Floor count: 88 Floor area : 395,000 m 2 (4,252,000 sq ft) (1 & 2) Elevators: 78 (1 & 2) Cost: $1,6 billion Companies involved Architects: César Pelli, Mahathir bin Mohamad Structural engineer: Thornton Tomasetti Contractor Tower1: Hazama Corporation Contractor Tower2: Samsung C&T Management: KLCC
Willis Tower, Chicago, US, 1974. 442m, 108 floors Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1998. 452m, 88 floors Taipei 101, Taiwan, 2003. 509 m, 101 floors Buji Khalifa, Dubai, United Arab Emirate, 2010. 828 m, 160 floors
Petronas Towers were designed by Argentine architect Cesar Pelli , and completed in 1998 after a seven year build and became the tallest buildings in the world on the date of completion. Because of the depth of the bedrock, the buildings were built on the world's deepest 120-meter foundations with 12 months by Bachy Soletanche, and required massive amounts of concrete. The 88-floor towers are constructed largely of reinforced concrete, with a steel and glass facade designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art, which is a reflection of Malaysia's Muslim religion. The Tower 1 was built by a Japanese consortium led by the Hazama Corporation while the Tower 2 was built by Samsung C&T and Kukdong Engineering & Construction , both South Korean contractors. The sky bridge contract was completed by Kukdong Engineering & Construction .
Due to a lack of steel and the huge cost of importing steel, the towers were constructed on a cheaper radical design of super high-strength reinforced concrete. High-strength concrete is a material familiar to Asian contractors and twice as effective as steel in sway reduction; however, it makes the building twice as heavy on its foundation than a comparable steel building.
Tower One is fully occupied by Petronas and a number of its subsidiaries and associate companies, while the office spaces in Tower Two are mostly available for lease to other companies. A number of companies have offices in Tower Two , including Accenture, Al Jazeera English, Carigali Hess Bloomberg, Boeing, IBM, Khazanah Nasional Berhad, McKinsey & Co, TCS, HCL Technologies, Krawler Networks, Microsoft, The Agency (a modeling company) and Reuters .
Spanning 17 acres (69,000 m 2 ) below the building is the KLCC park with jogging and walking paths, a fountain with incorporated light show, wading pools, and a children's playground. Suria KLCC is one of the largest shopping malls in Malaysia 1.Towers with Suria KLCC and water fountain 2.Suria KLCC shopping complex at the base of the towers 3. Looking up from concourse level in Suria KLCC's atrium space 4. KLCC park fountain, at night 6. View of the park from Traders Hotel 5. Children’s playing ground
The towers feature a Sky Bridge between the two towers on 41st and 42nd floors, which is the highest 2-story bridge in the world. It is not directly bolted to the main structure, but is instead designed to slide in and out of the towers to prevent it from breaking during high winds. The bridge is 170 m (558 ft) above the ground and 58 m (190 ft) long, weighing 750 tons. It is open to all visitors, but free passes (limited to 1700 people per day). Visitors are only allowed on the 41st floor as the 42nd floor can only be used by the tenants of the building. The Sky Bridge also acts as a safety device, so that in the event of a fire or other emergency in one tower, tenants can evacuate by crossing the Sky Bridge to the other tower An inside view of the sky bridge view from the sky bridge Petronas Towers Sky Bridge
Petronal Towers lift control panel The main bank of Otis Lifts is located in the centre of each tower. All main lifts are double-decker with the lower deck of the lift taking passengers to odd numbered floors and upper deck to even numbered floors. From the ground floor, there are three groups of lifts: The short haul, group of 6 lifts, take passengers to floors between level 2-16 and level 3-17. The mid haul, group of 6 lifts, take passengers to floors between level 18-38 and level 19-37. The shuttle lifts take passengers directly to levels 2-42, 3-41. To get to levels above 41/42, passengers must take the shuttle lifts, then change to lifts to the upper floors. These connecting lifts are directly above the lifts that serve levels 2 to 38. The pattern now repeats with the upper levels, one set serving levels 43-57, levels 44-58 and one set serving levels 59-73 /60-74.
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