Renewable Energy for Food Preservation

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This presentation explores the food-energy-water nexus in light of renewable energy for food preservation. It provides information on projects taken up by TERI for commercialising renewable powered small scale cold storages

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Renewable Energy for Food Preservation

  1. 1. RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR PRESERVATION OF FRESH FOOD Anand Upadhyay, Associate Fellow The Energy and Resources Institute
  2. 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. The Nexus The problems RE as a soln. TERI projects 2
  3. 3. Background 3
  4. 4. The Good • India is the 2nd largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world. • Horticulture provides 6.5% of the countries GDP, 13% of employment and accounts for more than 9% of Indian exports with only 9% crop acreage. 4
  5. 5. The Bad Harvested fruits and vegetables, worth USD 12 billion are lost due to lack of post harvest handling and storage 5
  6. 6. and The Ugly… 6
  7. 7. • Short fall of 10 million tones storage capacity • Energy costs account for about 30% of operating costs. 7
  8. 8. Energy and Food production balance • Solar-energy-powered traditional agriculture can produce 1100 kg of food grain/hectare • This balance has been violated by two groups – Affluent group: used fossil fuel to increase yield – Other group: Needs beyond 1100 kg/hectare !!! • Key to balance – Stopping population growth – Renewable powered agriculture Source: Balancing energy and food production, 1975—2000; Gross, Chancellor; Science (1976) 8
  9. 9. Energy for Food • ‘Focused’ data hardly available • India – 14%; USA – 7% (Agriculture energy consumption in resp. country) Source: http://www.postcarbon.org/articles/where-energy-goes.png 9
  10. 10. Water for Food • Irrigation water ≥ 70% of freshwater (higher in some countries e.g. India, Vietnam) • Upto 80% of water bills = energy costs 1987 1994 2001 2007 10
  11. 11. BUT WHAT WENT WRONG ?!! 11
  12. 12. Some of the issues • Centralization of resource supply – losing the collective knowledge • Incoherent policies • Compartmentalized efficiencies • Not paying the right price AND… 12
  13. 13. The big issue Not a surprise !!! It’s a RESOURCE CRUNCH We don’t have enough fossil resource 13
  14. 14. Most of the Indian landscape is blessed with perennial solar energy + biomass in villages 14
  15. 15. In 2006, TERI started working on a concept whereby indigenously available biomass and solar resources could be used to operate small, decentralized cold storage right at the village level 15
  16. 16. Interactions… Consultations with • National Horticulture Board • District Horticulture Offices • Central Food Technological Research Institute 16
  17. 17. … Elaborate exercise to understand the field requirements. 17
  18. 18. The System • A 15 kW Vapor Absorption Machine (VAM) coupled with a 50 kWe Biomass Gasifier system and a field of solar collectors. • Locally available biomass is used in the Biomass Gasifier to produce synthesis gas, which will then be used to run an engine to produce electricity. • Additionally the heat energy from the sun and gasifier is being utilized by the VAM to produce cooling effect in the cold storage. 18
  19. 19. The System Solar Dishes Cold Storage Ammonia VAM Biomass Gasifier Gas Engine Electrical Power 19
  20. 20. The System Cold storage Solar dishes Gasifier system VAM 20
  21. 21. To provide • 50 kW clean grid quality power • Cold storage facility for about 20 tonnes of fruits or vegetables. 21
  22. 22. TRNSYS simulation results Initial cooling load profile after product has been loaded in cold chamber TRNSYS model Cooling load over next 30 days after product has been brought to storage temperature 22
  23. 23. Project Site N Located in SEC campus, Gurgaon, near solar parabolic trough collector field The Beginning… 23
  24. 24. Setting up of system 24
  25. 25. Complete system 25
  26. 26. Technological USPs • First of a kind in World State of the ART • Ammonia based VAM – GAX cycle – built for sub zero temperature Renewable Energy • Biomass – TERI’s Advanced Gasification System • Solar –Fixed focus concentrating dish Grid Independent • Electricity generated from gasifier & gas engine System Integration • Integration of Biomass gasifier, Solar dishes and Ammonia VAM with Cold storage 26
  27. 27. Specifications Cold Storage capacity : 20 MT Cooling Capacity : 15 kW Cold storage Temperature : 0 to 5°C Gas Engine capacity : 50 kWe Biomass consumption : 60 kg/hr 27
  28. 28. Deliverables = Needs Power Generation Size Fruits Grid quality power for domestic, community, and productive loads Cold Storage Cooling Duty Vegetables Energy Requirement (15 to 50 kW) Self Sufficient Dairy & Milk Flowers* Fish & Meat* Capacity (20 to 100 MT)
  29. 29. Derivative schemes Energy side variations Biomass Technology Application Absorption technology for positive temperatures Horticultural Absorption technology for sub zero temperatures Solar Vapor compression technology for all temperatures Non horticultural Food processing Deep Freezing 29
  30. 30. Mix ‘n’ match Scheme A • Biomass coupled with absorption Technology Scheme B • Solar & Biomass Hybrid Coupled with Absorption Technology Scheme C • Biomass coupled with vapor compression Technology Scheme D • Solar PV powered 30
  31. 31. First Field System :) 31
  32. 32. Salient features of the field system 50kWe advanced biomass gasifier power generation system Cold Storage of 15 MT storage capacity Advanced prepaid metering system and safety features Operated by village community Designed and commissioned by TERI
  33. 33. Overview • Project partners – TERI, CSIRO (Australia) • Project funded by - AusAID • Location - District Sitapur, State – Uttar Pradesh • Villages covered - 2
  34. 34. Coverage • Cold Storage – 15 MT • 140 households (to start with)each with 100 W load • Productive loads - Irrigation pumps, Flour mills, Battery charging • Community - Street lights, School, Local Office
  35. 35. Project highlights  140 households spread over two villages are being provided 100 W each  Technical specifications and safety features conforming to REC standards  Power monitoring at generation and load centres to prevent pilferage  Smart metering o Differential prepaid electricity billing for all consumers o Display of balance money for individual houses/load centres o Over consumption isolates the household/load centre automatically, requiring manual intervention to restart  LED streetlights with efficient features, dimming, and movement actuated  Productive loads to be covered – irrigation pumps, flour mills and battery charging.
  36. 36. Site Layout
  37. 37. Electricity distribution system, along with Cold store in inset (right)
  38. 38. 41
  39. 39. Thank you for your patience !!! Thank You!!! anand.upadhyay@teri.res.in 42

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