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Benefits of csp with thermal storage
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Benefits of csp with thermal storage



To download, head to - http://solarreference.com/cspalliance-csp-thermal-energy-storage-presentation/ ...

To download, head to - http://solarreference.com/cspalliance-csp-thermal-energy-storage-presentation/

Also available at CSP alliance website. Key information includes - direct comparison of a CSP power plant with a conventional power plant, importance of thermal energy storage and the fact that deployment would lead to much more cost reduction than r&d.

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Benefits of csp with thermal storage Benefits of csp with thermal storage Presentation Transcript

  • Concentrating Solar Power Alliance CSP Overview SEPA Webinar Frank (Tex) Wilkins Executive Director CSP Alliance January 31, 2013 CSP Alliance 1 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Concentrating Solar Power Alliance • CSP Alliance - an advocacy group formed in March 2012 whose goal is to increase the deployment of CSP • Mission – inform utilities, grid operators, and regulators of the benefits of CSP with its ability to store thermal energy and provide dispatchable power • Members - membership includes Abengoa, BrightSource, Torresol Energy, Lointek, Cone Drive, and Wilson Solarpower CSP Alliance 2 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Agenda • • • • • • • Introduction Plant characteristics Storage Solar collection Projects Cost and future developments Question and answer CSP Alliance 3 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • CSP Storage & Power Block CSP Alliance 4 Solana: photos courtesy of Abengoa . 4 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Plant Characteristics • Project start up – if the turbine is warm it takes 10 minutes from start to full power. If the plant is operating as spinning reserve, full capacity can be reached in 4 minutes. The plant can be started and increased to full load in 10 minutes or less. • Off-design operation - CSP plants can operate efficiently at off-design conditions. For example, the efficiency of a steam turbine at 50% load is about 95% of the design efficiency. • Power quality – same as power from fossil plants providing reactive power support, dynamic voltage support, and primary frequency control. • Dispatch of stored energy – power can be put onto the grid at any time, day or night. CSP Alliance 5 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Dispatch Examples July 800 1.4 700 1.2 600 1.0 500 0.8 400 0.6 300 0.4 200 Solar Resource (W/m2) 900 1.6 Summer: dispatch power to meet afternoon & early evening peak demand January 100 0.0 800 0 0.2 1.6 1.4 700 1.2 600 1.0 500 0.8 400 0.6 300 0.4 200 0.2 100 Hour Ending Relative Value of Generation Trough Plant w/6hrs TES Solar Radiation Winter: dispatch power to meet morning and evening periods of peak demand Utility Load, Trough Plant Output 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 0.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Hour Ending Relative Value of Generation Trough Plant w/6hrs TES Solar Radiation *Graphs courtesy of Arizona Public Service CSP Alliance 6 http://www.csp-alliance.org Solar Resource (W/m2) Utility Load, Trough Plant Output 1.8
  • CSP (trough) Water Requirements • Cooling – Wet Cooling – Dry Cooling • Mirror washing • Steam cycle cleaning 700-900 gal / MWh 70-90 gal / MWh ~ 50 gal / MWh ~ 50 gal / MWh Impact of Dry Cooling: ~90% less water with: • 4-7% cost increase in hot climates (e.g. Las Vegas, NV) • 3-5% cost increase in cooler climates (e.g. Alamosa, CO) CSP Alliance 7 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Thermal Energy Storage Typical CSP storage is heating a mixture of nitrate salts from 390°C (troughs) to 560°C (towers). Salt heated in the solar field is placed in the hot tank. Salt coming from the turbine goes to the cold tank. *Photos courtesy Abengoa CSP Alliance 8 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Trough Power Plant w/ 2-Tank Molten Salt Thermal Storage Solar Field Storage Power Block Steam Turbine Hot Tank Heat Exchanger Cold Tank Pump CSP Alliance 9 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Trough Power Plant: Power Generation Solar Field Power Block Storage Steam Turbine Hot Tank Heat Exchanger Cold Tank Pump CSP Alliance 10 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Trough Power Plant Power Generation and Charging Storage Solar Field Power Block Storage Steam Turbine Hot Tank Heat Exchanger Cold Tank Pump CSP Alliance 11 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Trough Power Plant Power from Thermal Storage Solar Field Power Block Storage Steam Turbine Hot Tank Heat Exchanger Cold Tank Pump CSP Alliance 12 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Storage Provides Intraday System Stability 1000 300 900 250 700 200 600 150 500 400 100 Power Output (MWhe) Direct Normal Irradiance DNI (W/m2) 800 300 200 50 100 0 0:00 0 1:40 3:20 5:00 6:40 8:20 10:00 11:40 13:20 15:00 16:40 18:20 20:00 21:40 23:20 April 12, 2012 (Time of Day) *Chart courtesy of Solar Reserve CSP Alliance 13 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Storage Promoting Flexibility • Use of storage can lessen grid ramps (the rate of increase/decrease in grid system power) and reduce operator uncertainty due to solar forecast errors. • High capacity value helps meet resource adequacy requirements • Plant can provide spinning or non spinning reserves • Importance of storage increases as grid penetration increases of wind and solar without storage* – Little value of storage at low grid penetration of renewable energy – The benefits of storage at higher renewable penetration can be in the range of $30-40/MWh relative to renewables w/o storage due to energy, ancillary services, capacity, power quality and avoided system costs of integration in recent studies by LBNL and NREL • CSP with storage enables greater use of PV * Ref: “The Economic and Reliability Benefits of CSP with Thermal Storage: Recent Studies and Research Needs”, CSP Alliance Report, Dec 2012. CSP Alliance 14 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Categories of Value Energy Ancillary services (for secondary frequency control) Power quality and other ancillary services Capacity Integration and curtailment costs compared to solar PV and wind CSP Alliance                Hourly optimization of energy schedules Subhourly energy dispatch Ramping reserves Regulation 10-minute spinning reserves 10-min non-spinning reserves Operating reserves on greater than 10 minute timeframes Voltage control Frequency response Blackstart Generic MW shifted to meet evolving system needs Operational attributes Reduced production forecast error and associated reserve requirements Reduced curtailment due to greater dispatch flexibility without production losses Ramp mitigation 15 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Solar Collection: Trough Technology • Parabolic trough technology uses long parabolic mirrors, with an absorber tube running each mirror’s length at the focal point. Sunlight is reflected by the mirror and concentrated on the absorber tube. • Heat transfer fluid, comprised of oil or molten salts, runs through the tube to absorb the concentrated sunlight. The heat transfer fluid is then used to heat steam for a turbine/generator or heat storage. • Trough systems are sensitive to economies of scale and estimated to be most cost effective at 100 MW or greater. • Solar concentration: 75 suns | Operating temp: 390°C | CSP Alliance 16 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Solar Collection: Power Towers • Power towers use an array of flat, moveable mirrors, called heliostats, to focus the sun's rays onto a receiver at the top of a central tower. The energy in the receiver is transferred to a heat transfer fluid (salt or steam) which is used to heat steam for a turbine/generator or storage media (salt). • Molten salt allows solar energy from daylight hours to be stored to generate steam throughout the evening. The high operating temperature enables less expensive storage. • Due to power block requirements, power towers are sensitive to economies of scale and are typically most economical at 100 MW or more. • Solar concentration: 800 suns | Operating temperature: 560°C CSP Alliance 17 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • CSP Plants Under Construction in the U.S. Solana Mojave Genesis Crescent Dunes Ivanpah Technology Trough w/6 hrs storage Trough Trough SaltTower w/10 hrs storage Steam Towers Capacity (MW) 280 280 250 110 392 Jobsconstruction 1,600 800 600 1,000 Jobspermanent 85 47 45 86 Location Arizona California California Nevada California DOE Loan Guarantee $1.45B $1.2B $0.85B $0.74B $1.6B Completion 2013 2014 2013 2013 2013 Developer Abengoa Abengoa NextEra Solar Reserve BrightSource CSP Alliance 1,000 and 80 18 18 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Solana: trough 280 MW with 6 hrs Storage Photos courtesy Abengoa CSP Alliance 19 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Ivanpah: 3 towers totaling 392 MW *photos courtesy BrightSource CSP Alliance 20 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Ivanpah CSP Alliance 21 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Crescent Dunes: 110 MW with 10 hrs storage *photos courtesy Solar Reserve CSP Alliance 22 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Solar Collection  Direct normal, diffuse, and global solar radiation  CSP can use only the direct because diffuse can not be effectively focused or concentrated SOURCE: Status Report on Solar Thermal Power Plants, Pilkinton Solar International, 1996. CSP Alliance 23 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Solar Resource in U.S. Southwest CSP Alliance 24 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • DOE & BLM: identifying land for CSP deployment Approach: a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) • BLM manages 119 million acres in the 6 Southwestern states where the solar resource is most intense (CA, NV, NM, AZ, CO, and UT) • Identification of land that is appropriate for solar deployment from technical and environmental perspectives • Streamline evaluation and processing of solar projects • Identification of additional transmission corridors crossing BLM-managed land • 17 solar zones proposed totaling about 285,000 acres CSP Alliance 25 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Cost Reduction: R&D and Deployment • Sargent & Lundy’s due-diligence study* evaluated the potential cost reductions of CSP. • Cost reductions for CSP technology will result from R&D and deployment. * CSP Alliance 26 Sargent and Lundy (2003). Assessment of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Impacts. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy04osti/34440.pdf http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Importance of Deployment on Cost Deployment is as more important in reducing cost as R&D advancements CSP Alliance 27 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • DOE’s SunShot Goal* Reduce the installed cost of solar energy systems to about 6¢kWh w/o tax incentives, driving widespread, large-scale adoption of this renewable energy technology *SunShot Vision Study, Feb 2012, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/sunshot/vision_study.html CSP Alliance 28 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Paths to SunShot Goal – DOE R&D • High Temperature Systems – higher operating temperature increases system efficiency. – Existing steam systems operate at 390oC – 565oC with 37-42% efficiency. – Research focused on supercritical CO2 Brayton operating at 600oC800oC with 50-55% efficiency • Storage – two tank salt the standard to beat but explore other options like higher temp storage/heat transfer fluid materials, phase change and solid materials, including direct steam • Solar Field – reduce collector cost while maintaining or improving optical performance • Receivers – develop selective coatings for high temperature receivers CSP Alliance 29 http://www.csp-alliance.org
  • Thank You Frank “Tex” Wilkins Executive Director Concentrating Solar Power Alliance Phone: (410) 960-4126 tex.wilkins@gmail.com CSP Alliance 30 http://www.csp-alliance.org