Presented by   : Mr. Che SokunthDate           : 17.Sept.2012
Contents I. GSM Basic Channel Type  Logical Channel  Physical Channel      - FDMA & TDMA II. Evolution of Packet Data Sp...
Logical ChannelLogical channels  Logical channels divided in to following two categories:       Traffic Channels       ...
Logical ChannelLogical ChannelRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth                     4
Traffic Channel (TCH)  Traffic channels are Bi-directional logical channel that transfer the user   speech or data.  Ful...
Logical ChannelI- Broadcast Channel – BCH  Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH)  Synchronization Channel (SCH)  Broadcas...
Logical Channel1- Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH)  Downlink Direction  This channel contains frequency correction bu...
Logical Channel2- Synchronization Channel (SCH)  Downlink Direction  This channel is used by the MS to decode the BSIC  ...
Logical Channel3- Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)  Broadcasts Network and Cell specific information required to identify...
Logical Channel4- CELL BROADCAST CONTROL CHANNEL (CBCH)  Downlink Direction  Broadcasting specific information to networ...
Logical ChannelII. Common Control Channels (CCCH)  Paging Channel (PCH) – Downlink  Random Access Channel (RACH) - Uplin...
Logical Channel1. Paging Channel (PCH)  Broadcast in the downlink by all base stations within a Location Area  Every MS ...
Logical Channel2. Random Access Channel (RACH)  Uplink direction only  MS send request to the network for a dedicated re...
Logical Channel3. Access Grant Channel (AGCH)  Downlink direction  Initiate Immediate assignment procedure  Network all...
Logical ChannelIII. Dedicated Control Channels (DCCH)  Standalone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH)  Fast Associated Con...
Logical Channel1. Standalone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH)  Assigned to the mobile station to exchange the requested ...
Logical Channel2. Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH)  transmitted in both Uplink and Downlink directions  Associate...
Logical Channel3. Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH)  Both Uplink and Downlink Direction  While Calls in progress a...
Physical ChannelFDMA : Frequency Division Multiple Access  Different frequency channels are assigned to each BTS  ARFCN ...
Physical ChannelTDMA: Times Division Multiple Access  A method where several subscribers share one frequency  Each Times...
Physical ChannelNormal Burst (NB)  Tail Bits: (3-Bits) Compensate the power to Increase and Decrease  Data Bits: (57 Bit...
Physical ChannelFrequency Correction Burst (FB)  Frequency synchronization  The same guard time as a normal bit (8.25 bi...
Physical ChannelSynchronization Burst  Timing for synchronization of the mobile  Data payload carries the TDMA Frame Num...
Physical ChannelAccess Burst  Use for random access  It has a much longer guard period (delay for Unknown Distance)  It...
Physical ChannelControl Channel Multiframes  Composed of 51 TDMA frames within duration 235.4 ms  The beacon frequency i...
Physical ChannelTraffic Channel Multiframe  Composed of 26 TDMA frames within duration = 120 ms  24 bursts are used for ...
Physical ChannelSuperframe & Hyperframe I. Superframe  Combines the period of a 51 multiframe with 26 multiframes (6.12 s...
Physical ChannelGSM Frame Structure Summary                                        TDMA FrameRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth   ...
II. Evolution of Packet Data Speed Introduction  CSD  HSCSD  GPRS (2.5G)  EDGE (2.75G)  3G/UMTS (WCDMA)  HSPA       ...
CSD- Circuit Switched Data  Developed in 1980, deployment in 1990  Data transmission developed for TDMA-based mobile pho...
HSCSD – High Speed Circuit Switched Data  Enhancement to Circuit Switched Data (CSD)  Full allocated bandwidth of the co...
GPRS- General Packet Radio Service  It use packet-switched instead of circuit-switched (CSD or HSCSD)  In theory, GPRS d...
GPRS Channel Encoding and Devices Support Coding Scheme               Speed (kbit/s)           8 time-slots CS-1          ...
The multi-slot classes are as follows:Multi-slot Class             Downlink TS   Uplink TS   Max. Slot          1         ...
EDGE- Enhance Data for Global Evolution  Provides data transfer rates significantly than GPRS  Throughput per timeslot f...
GSM EDGE evolution specification overview    PARAMETER                                    DETAILS    Multiple Access Techn...
UMTS/3G  First commercial deployments in 2002  UMTS is a component of the International Telecommunications   Union IMT-2...
GSM Development EvolutionRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth   38
HSPA - High Speed Packet Access  Extends and improves the performance of existing 3rd generation     mobile telecommunica...
Acronyms and Terms    FDMA                : Frequency Division Multiple Access    TDMA                : Times Division M...
GSM Frequency Band & Measurement Scale        System         Band       Uplink (MHz)                Downlink (MHz)        ...
Thanks                              Q&ARNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth            42
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Introduction to packet service evolution & new technologies

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Understand about the Logical and Physical Channel FDMA & TDMA. Evolution of Packet Data Speed Introduction.

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Introduction to packet service evolution & new technologies

  1. 1. Presented by : Mr. Che SokunthDate : 17.Sept.2012
  2. 2. Contents I. GSM Basic Channel Type  Logical Channel  Physical Channel - FDMA & TDMA II. Evolution of Packet Data Speed Introduction  CSD  HSCSD  GPRS (2.5G)  EDGE (2.75G)  UMTS (3G/WCDMA)  HSPA 1-HSDPA (3.5G) 2-HSUPA (3.75G)RNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 2
  3. 3. Logical ChannelLogical channels  Logical channels divided in to following two categories:  Traffic Channels  Signaling Channels  Two types of traffic channels used: 1. Full Rate Speech TCH (TCHF) - 13 kbps 2. Half Rate Speech TCH (TCHH) - 5.6 kbps  Three type of Signaling Channels 1. Broadcast Channel – BCH 2. Common Control Channel – CCCH 3. Dedicate Control Channel - DCCHRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 3
  4. 4. Logical ChannelLogical ChannelRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 4
  5. 5. Traffic Channel (TCH)  Traffic channels are Bi-directional logical channel that transfer the user speech or data.  Full Rate TCH ( TCH/F) :  This channel carries information at a gross rate at 13Kbit/s  Now it is 22.8 Kbit/s with latest R9.1  Half Rate TCH (TCH/H) :  This Channel carried information at a gross rate at 6.5Kbit/s  Now it is 11.4 Kbit/s with latest R9.1  Enhance Full Rate :  The speech coding in EFR is still done at 13Kbit/s, but the coding mechanism is different that is used for normal FR. EFR gives better speech quality at the same bit rate than normal FR.RNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 5
  6. 6. Logical ChannelI- Broadcast Channel – BCH  Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH)  Synchronization Channel (SCH)  Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)  Cell Broadcast Channel (CBCH)RNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 6
  7. 7. Logical Channel1- Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH)  Downlink Direction  This channel contains frequency correction bursts, used by the mobiles for frequency correction  Help the mobile station find a frequency for downlink reception  Adjust its frequency oscillator for the uplink transmissionRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 7
  8. 8. Logical Channel2- Synchronization Channel (SCH)  Downlink Direction  This channel is used by the MS to decode the BSIC  NCC: To identify the BTS for which measurement is made  BCC: Used for a better transmission in case of interference  TDMA Frame and Frame Number  Lets the MS know what TDMA frame they are on within the hyperframe.  SCH bursts are located at slot 0 of some specific carriers  The 64 bit frame synchronization is put in the synchronization field in synchronization burstRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 8
  9. 9. Logical Channel3- Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)  Broadcasts Network and Cell specific information required to identify:  Mobile Network Code (MNC)  Mobile Country Code (MCC)  Location Area Code (LAC)  Cell identity  Frequencies of neighboring cells  Minimum received signal strength  Max output power allowed in the cellRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 9
  10. 10. Logical Channel4- CELL BROADCAST CONTROL CHANNEL (CBCH)  Downlink Direction  Broadcasting specific information to network subscribers, such as:  Weather  Traffic  Sports  stocks, etc.  It is used to carry Short Message Service Cell Broadcast (SMSCB) and uses the same physical channel as the SDCCHRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 10
  11. 11. Logical ChannelII. Common Control Channels (CCCH)  Paging Channel (PCH) – Downlink  Random Access Channel (RACH) - Uplink  Access Grant Channel (AGCH) - DownlinkRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 11
  12. 12. Logical Channel1. Paging Channel (PCH)  Broadcast in the downlink by all base stations within a Location Area  Every MS in a cell periodically listen to this channel.  Used for alerting to Mobile Subscribers for:  Incoming calls  SMS and other mobility services.RNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 12
  13. 13. Logical Channel2. Random Access Channel (RACH)  Uplink direction only  MS send request to the network for a dedicated resource  MS sends an Access Burst on this channel (FN and TA)  Random number and an establishment cause  68.25-bit time is used as guard time. This guard time corresponds to a propagation distance of 75 km, or a maximum cell radius of 37.5kmRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 13
  14. 14. Logical Channel3. Access Grant Channel (AGCH)  Downlink direction  Initiate Immediate assignment procedure  Network allocates a specific dedicated signaling channelRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 14
  15. 15. Logical ChannelIII. Dedicated Control Channels (DCCH)  Standalone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH)  Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH)  Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH)RNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 15
  16. 16. Logical Channel1. Standalone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH)  Assigned to the mobile station to exchange the requested signaling with the network:  Authentication  Ciphering  Call set-up  Location Update  Assignment of Traffic Channel  SMS  Established by using RACH and before the allocation of a TCH (traffic channel).  Uses 4 slots within the 51-frame control multiframeRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 16
  17. 17. Logical Channel2. Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH)  transmitted in both Uplink and Downlink directions  Associated with a TCH or an SDCCH for control and supervision of signals associated with the traffic channels.  Uplink : MS Sends the averaged measurement on its own BTS and neighboring BTS’s • Downlink: MS receives information regarding information concerning • Transmit power to use • Instructions on Timing AdvanceRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 17
  18. 18. Logical Channel3. Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH)  Both Uplink and Downlink Direction  While Calls in progress and HO is required FACCH is used  It ‘‘steals- 2 bits flag” to convert the TCH or SDCCH burst and inserts its own information.  It used to send urgent signaling control messages such as:  User authentication  Handover  Call releaseRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 18
  19. 19. Physical ChannelFDMA : Frequency Division Multiple Access  Different frequency channels are assigned to each BTS  ARFCN Carrier separation: 200kHz  Carrier Frequency  GSM 900 : 124  GSM 1800 : 374  GSM 1900 : 299RNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 19
  20. 20. Physical ChannelTDMA: Times Division Multiple Access  A method where several subscribers share one frequency  Each Timeslots are used to transmit voice data, or information on signaling and synchronization  There are four main types of bursts and 4 multiframes Structure in TDMA: I. TDMA Burst 1. Normal Burst (NB) 2. Frequency Correction Burst (FB) 3. Synchronization Burst (SB) 4. Access Burst (AB) II. TDMA Frame 1. Control Channel Multiframes 2.Traffic Channel Multiframes 3. Superframe 4. HyperframeRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 20
  21. 21. Physical ChannelNormal Burst (NB)  Tail Bits: (3-Bits) Compensate the power to Increase and Decrease  Data Bits: (57 Bits) Data Payload  Stealing Flags: 0 for Voice/Data, 1 For signaling (Stolen By FACCH)  Training Sequence: used to overcome multi-path fading and propagation effects through a method called equalization. TDMA BustRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 21
  22. 22. Physical ChannelFrequency Correction Burst (FB)  Frequency synchronization  The same guard time as a normal bit (8.25 bits)  Broadcasting on the logical channel FCCH. TDMA BustRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 22
  23. 23. Physical ChannelSynchronization Burst  Timing for synchronization of the mobile  Data payload carries the TDMA Frame Number (FN) and (BSIC)  Broadcasting with the frequency correction burst  Broadcasting on the Synchronization Channel (SCH). TDMA BustRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 23
  24. 24. Physical ChannelAccess Burst  Use for random access  It has a much longer guard period (delay for Unknown Distance)  It takes 252 µs for expectation distance without interfere  Single bit equal to 3.69 µs TDMA BustRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 24
  25. 25. Physical ChannelControl Channel Multiframes  Composed of 51 TDMA frames within duration 235.4 ms  The beacon frequency in TS0 and it may also occur within TS2, 4 and 6 logical channels as below function: BCCH, FCCH, SCH, CCCH (RACH, PCH, AGCH), SDCCH, SACCH, FACCH TDMA FrameRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 25
  26. 26. Physical ChannelTraffic Channel Multiframe  Composed of 26 TDMA frames within duration = 120 ms  24 bursts are used for traffic channel (TCH)  2 Burst are used for measurement report (SACCH) TDMA FrameRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 26
  27. 27. Physical ChannelSuperframe & Hyperframe I. Superframe  Combines the period of a 51 multiframe with 26 multiframes (6.12 sec)  Allows all mobile devices to scan all the different time frame types II. Hyperframe  Composed of 2048 superframes (3 hours, 28 minutes, 53 seconds)  The unique sequential number comprising the FN and TN  Synchronize frequency hopping  Encryption processes for voice privacy of subscribers conversations TDMA FrameRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 27
  28. 28. Physical ChannelGSM Frame Structure Summary TDMA FrameRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 28
  29. 29. II. Evolution of Packet Data Speed Introduction  CSD  HSCSD  GPRS (2.5G)  EDGE (2.75G)  3G/UMTS (WCDMA)  HSPA 1-HSDPA (3.5G) 2-HSUPA (3.75G)RNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 29
  30. 30. CSD- Circuit Switched Data  Developed in 1980, deployment in 1990  Data transmission developed for TDMA-based mobile phone systems like GSM.  Data Rate 9.6kbps as a single time slot  IS-136 added a number of features to the original IS-54 specification to improved compression protocol.  It takes up to 30 sec for connection to the networkRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 30
  31. 31. HSCSD – High Speed Circuit Switched Data  Enhancement to Circuit Switched Data (CSD)  Full allocated bandwidth of the connection is available  Use multiple time slots to increase data throughput  Quality of the radio link archived data rate 14.4Kbps  Achieved speed up to 57.6Kbps  Charged by period of time, just a short time, now dead !RNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 31
  32. 32. GPRS- General Packet Radio Service  It use packet-switched instead of circuit-switched (CSD or HSCSD)  In theory, GPRS data transfer speeds can reach up to 115.2kbps  Practical high speeds: typically 32 - 48 kbps  Use the same TDMA Frame, modulation, channel coding and time slot structure like GSM (GMSK)  It is considered as ”2.5G”, between the 2nd and 3rd generation  The data rate can achieved up to 171.2 kbps  New network elements in Core network (SGSN and GGSN)RNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 32
  33. 33. GPRS Channel Encoding and Devices Support Coding Scheme Speed (kbit/s) 8 time-slots CS-1 9.05 72.4 kb/s CS-2 13.4 107.2 kb/s CS-3 15.6 124.8 kb/s CS-4 21.4 171.2 kb/sDevices supporting GPRSClass A The MS is attached to both GSM and GPRS simultaneouslyClass B The MS is attached to both but can operate in only one at a timeClass C The MS is attached to GPRS or other GSM servicesRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 33
  34. 34. The multi-slot classes are as follows:Multi-slot Class Downlink TS Uplink TS Max. Slot 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 3 3 2 2 3 4 3 1 4 5 2 2 4 6 3 2 4 7 3 3 5 8 4 1 5 9 3 2 5 10 4 2 5 11 4 3 5 12 4 4 5RNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 34
  35. 35. EDGE- Enhance Data for Global Evolution  Provides data transfer rates significantly than GPRS  Throughput per timeslot from 8.8kbps–59.2 kbps  Data Rate achieved up to 474kbps  EDGE… almost 3G as part of Release 7  It meets the requirements for a 3G network but is usually classified as 2.75G.  EDGE supported 384kbps theoretically (The delay of delivery of 3G/UMTS network)RNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 35
  36. 36. GSM EDGE evolution specification overview PARAMETER DETAILS Multiple Access Technology FDMA / TDMA Duplex Technique FDD Channel Spacing 200 kHz Modulation GMSK, 8PSK Slots per channel 8 Frame duration 4.615 ms Overall symbol rate 270 k symbols / s Radio data rate per time slot 69.2 kbps Max user data rate per time slot 59.2 kbps (MCS-9) Max user data rate when using 8 time slots 473.6 kbps **RNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 36
  37. 37. UMTS/3G  First commercial deployments in 2002  UMTS is a component of the International Telecommunications Union IMT-2000 standard set  RF channel bandwidth5 MHz  High data rates expected:  2 Mbps for indoor  384 kbps for pedestrians  144 kbps for vehicles  Used wideband CDMA, time division CDMA  The radio access specifications provide: FDD and TDD  It supports Circuit and Packet ServiceRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 37
  38. 38. GSM Development EvolutionRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 38
  39. 39. HSPA - High Speed Packet Access  Extends and improves the performance of existing 3rd generation mobile telecommunication networks  Release 5 and Release 6 is commercially deployed.  Adaptive modulation: : QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM  WCDMA Technology  The theoretical data rate:  HSDPA : Release 5 “E-DL” - 14.4 Mbps  HSUPA : Release 6 “E-UL”- 5.76Mbps Note: About HSPA will held with next session training or​ self-study through the attached handout !RNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 39
  40. 40. Acronyms and Terms  FDMA : Frequency Division Multiple Access  TDMA : Times Division Multiple Access  CSD : Circuit Switched Data  HSCSD : High Speed Circuit Switched Data  GPRS : General Packet Radio Service  EDGE : Enhance Data for Global Evolution  UMTS : Universal Mobile Telecommunications System  WCDMA : Wideband Code Division Multiple Access  HSPA : High Speed Packet Access  HSDPA : High-Speed Downlink Packet Access  HSUPA : High-Speed Uplink Packet Access  GGSN : Gateway GPRS Service Node  SGSN : Serving GPRS Service NodeRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 40
  41. 41. GSM Frequency Band & Measurement Scale System Band Uplink (MHz) Downlink (MHz) Channel number T-GSM-380 380 380.2–389.8 390.2–399.8 dynamic T-GSM-410 410 410.2–419.8 420.2–429.8 dynamic GSM-450 450 450.6–457.6 460.6–467.6 259–293 GSM-480 480 479.0–486.0 489.0–496.0 306–340 GSM-710 710 698.2–716.2 728.2–746.2 dynamic GSM-750 750 747.2–762.2 777.2–792.2 438–511 T-GSM-810 810 806.2–821.2 851.2–866.2 dynamic GSM-850 850 824.2–849.2 869.2–894.2 128–251 P-GSM-900 900 890.0–915.0 935.0–960.0 1–124 E-GSM-900 900 880.0–915.0 925.0–960.0 975–1023, 0-124 R-GSM-900 900 876.0–915.0 921.0–960.0 955–1023, 0-124 T-GSM-900 900 870.4–876.0 915.4–921.0 dynamic DCS-1800 1800 1,710.2–1,784.8 1,805.2–1,879.8 512–885 PCS-1900 1900 1,850.2–1,909.8 1,930.2–1,989.8 512–810 Tims Scale Capacity Scale Speed Scale 1h = 60min 1 TBite = 1000 GBite 1 Gbps = 1000 Mbps 1min = 60s 1 GBite = 1000 MBite 1 Mbps = 1000 Kbps 1s = 1000 ms 1 MBite = 1000 KBite 1 kbps = 1000 bps 1ms = 1000 us 1 KBite = 1000 Bite 1us = 1000 ns 1 Bite = 8 bit 1ns = 1000 psRNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 41
  42. 42. Thanks Q&ARNP/O - By Mr. Che Sokunth 42

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