Stress

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Stress

  1. 1. © ……………………..Dept, ASU, 2012Menu Soheir ElGhonemy Assist Prof of Psychiatry Psychology of stress
  2. 2. © ……………………..Dept, ASU, 2012Menu ILOs By the end of this lecture, you should be able to: 1. Define Stress. 2. Recognize Neuroanatomy and neurochemistry of stress. 3. Describe Symptoms and Signs of Stress. 4. Identify Stress management. 5. Recognize types of coping strategies.
  3. 3. Glossary Summary© …………………….Dept, ASU, 2012Menu Quiz definitions Psychology Of Stress •Stress is a person's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition or a stimulus. •The body's way to respond to stress is by sympathetic nervous system activation which results in the fight-or-flight response.
  4. 4. Glossary Summary© …………………….Dept, ASU, 2012Menu Quiz Neuroanatomy & neurochemistry Psychology Of Stress
  5. 5. Glossary Summary© …………………….Dept, ASU, 2012Menu Quiz Neuroanatomy & neurochemistry Psychology Of Stress • Prefrontal cortex: regulate cognitive processes including planning, attention, and problem solving. Becomes impaired during the stress response. • Hypothalamus: during a stress response corticotropin- releasing hormone (CRH), which stimulates the body’s pituitary gland and initiates a heavily regulated stress response pathway. • Amygdala: plays a role in the processing of emotions and modulates stress response mechanisms, especially feelings of fear. • Locus cerulus: is the site of the synthesis of the norepinephrine, which plays an important role in the sympathetic nervous system’s reaction during stress
  6. 6. Glossary Summary© …………………….Dept, ASU, 2012Menu Quiz Neuroanatomy & neurochemistry • Hippocamus: important to process prior memories to enhance, suppress, or even independently generate a stress response. It is also an area in the brain that is susceptible to damage brought upon by chronic stress. • Raphe nuclei: secrets serotonin and modulate changes in circadian rhythm, mood and sensation of pain. • Spinal cord: Certain nerves that belong to the sympathetic branch of the CNS exit the spinal cord and stimulate peripheral nerves, which in turn engage the body’s major organs and muscles in a fight-or-flight manner.
  7. 7. Glossary Summary© …………………….Dept, ASU, 2012Menu Quiz Neuroanatomy & neurochemistry • Pituitary gland: During a stress response, the pituitary gland releases hormones into the blood stream, namely adrenocorticotropic hormone. • Adrenal gland: Cortisol is the major stress hormone released by the adrenal gland • Immune system: Cortisol can weaken the activity of the immune system and prevents proliferation of T- cells by affecting the interleukin which is important in combating disease and cancer.
  8. 8. Glossary Summary© …………………….Dept, ASU, 2012Menu Quiz Neuroanatomy & neurochemistry The Effects of stress on the body
  9. 9. Glossary Summary© …………………….Dept, ASU, 2012Menu Quiz Sources of stress Source of Stress: • The loss of a loved one: spouse, child, close relative, or a very good friend. • Major illness or injury: debilitating, long lasting, life threatening, or chronic disease. • Divorce or separation: people who suffer through a divorce report more stress related than those who stay married. • Serious financial difficulties: lack of money is almost always the root of much stress. • Loss of job: not having enough income to maintain your life style.
  10. 10. Glossary Summary© …………………….Dept, ASU, 2012Menu Quiz Sources of stress • Getting married: it is the most important decision you will make in your life time backing it up with a serious commitment, then you have the family interactions. • Moving to a new place: a) physical stress: pack and unpack, looking for a new place. b)psychological stress: like the new house? my old friends? esp. with children? • A serious disagreement with a close friend: fighting or arguing is painful enough in itself & is highly stressful with a good friend. Feelings of anger, upset & loss can be terribly distressing.
  11. 11. Glossary Summary© …………………….Dept, ASU, 2012Menu Quiz Sources of stress • Birth of a child: It is a joyful happy time yet with more other concerns & worries: a) health of the baby, b) financial responsibilities, c) siblings reaction, d) sleep, e) how to be a parent • Retirement: going from a rather involved, well defined life style to one of endless options, missing friends & co-workers, having some identity issues, and spending too much time with your spouse.
  12. 12. Glossary Summary© …………………….Dept, ASU, 2012Menu Quiz Signs & symptoms Physical signs of stress: • Tiredness, fatigue, lethargy. • Palpitations, racing pulse, rapid shallow breathing. • Muscle tension and aches, shakiness and tremors • Heart burn, indigestion, diarrhea, constipation, nervousness. • Dry mouth & throat. Excessive sweating, clammy hands, cold hands & feet. • Nail biting, hair twirling, or hair puling. • Frequent urination. Overeating or loss of appetite. • Sleeping difficulties. • Increased use of alcohol and/or drugs and medications.
  13. 13. Glossary Summary© …………………….Dept, ASU, 2012Menu Quiz Signs & symptoms Psychological signs of stress: • Irritability, impatience, anger, hostility. • Worry, anxiety, panic. • Moodiness, sadness, feeling upset. • Intrusive thoughts or racing thoughts. • Memory lapses, difficulties in concentrating in decision. • Loss of sense of humor.
  14. 14. Glossary Summary© …………………….Dept, ASU, 2012Menu Quiz Signs & symptoms • Prolonged and/or intense stress can have more serious effects. – heart diseases – Stress ulcers – Stress may play role in exacerbating a variety of immune system disorders such as: HIV, herpes, cancer metastasis, viral infection, and rheumatoid arthritis.
  15. 15. Glossary Summary© …………………….Dept, ASU, 2012Menu Quiz Coping Skills Coping Skills: “Think Smart, Live Well” • Coping: "constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demands that are appraised as exceeding the resources of the person". • Psychological coping mechanisms are commonly termed coping strategies or coping skills, i.e., the strategies reduce stress levels.
  16. 16. Glossary Summary© …………………….Dept, ASU, 2012Menu Quiz Coping Skills Types of coping strategies: • People may alter the way they think about a problem by altering their goals and values, such as by seeing the humor in a situation; humor may play a greater role as a stress moderator among women than men". Appraisal-focused strategies:
  17. 17. Glossary Summary© …………………….Dept, ASU, 2012Menu Quiz Coping Skills • Changing or eliminating the source of the stress. • People try to deal with the cause of their problem. By finding out information on the problem and learning new skills to manage the problem. Problem-focused coping :
  18. 18. Glossary Summary© …………………….Dept, ASU, 2012Menu Quiz Coping Skills Emotion-focused coping : • Oriented toward managing the emotions that accompany the perception of stress. It involves releasing pent-up emotions, distracting oneself, managing hostile feelings, meditating or using systematic relaxation procedures.
  19. 19. Glossary Summary© …………………….Dept, ASU, 2012Menu Quiz Psychology of Stress/Summary 1. Stress is a reaction to change. 2. Brain areas and Neurotransmitter involved in stress reaction. 3. Common sources of stress 4. Stress Management. 5. Coping strategies. Summary:
  20. 20. Glossary Summary© …………………….Dept, ASU, 2012Menu Quiz • Define Stress? • Enumerate Sources of Stress? • Mention 5 signs of stress? Quiz:
  21. 21. Glossary Summary© …………………….Dept, ASU, 2012Menu Quiz Psychology Of Stress:

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