Ecotourism
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  • 1. Tourism Market
  • 2. “Official Definition of Ecotourism:“Ecotourism is responsible travel to naturalareas which conserves the environment andimproves the welfare of local people.”- TIES 1990
  • 3. UN, EM and Ecotourism• Several international agencies promoteecotourism– UN Global Environment Facility (GEF)  funds forenvironment-related projects, particularly in EMs• 500 projects in 120 countries  Worth > $2 billion– USAID (US Agency for International Aids)• 100 projects worth > $2 billion
  • 4. • Revenues– Ecotourists are from developed countries– Willing to spend large sum of money to view abundant andunique natural resources• Kenya (Masai Mara)  $100,000 per month  Entry fee $20 forforeigners and $3 for Kenyans• S. Africa (Dukuduku community)  $300,000 annually  Byselling traditional Zulu baskets and sleeping mats• Cuba (La Moka)  ecotourist resort  $200/day room• Pitfalls– Ecotourism can be problematic if not managed properly• Ecotourism uproots native people from their normal habits offarming, hunting, mining, and forestry• Income does not trickle-down to locals• 50% of the income goes to airline, hotels, tour operatorsRevenues and Pitfalls
  • 5. • Economic– Direct revenue from ecotourists!– Direct employment– Ecotourists may patronize for add-ons  culture show• Environmental– Incentive to protect environment  commitment ↑– Ecotourists assist in habitat enhancement• Excessive tipping, donations, policing, maintenance• Socio-cultural– Good public relations  face-to-face contacts– Aesthetic/spiritual benefits– Fosters environment awareness among ecotourists and localpopulation  slash and burn agriculture  FinlandBenefits of Ecotourism
  • 6. Costs of Ecotourism• Economic– Start up expenses• Acquisition of land/infrastructure, establishment of protected areas– Ongoing expenses• Maintenance of infrastructure, promotion, wages– Revenues  Uncertain due to its nature• Environmental– Environmental capacity is limited  Rapid growth– Difficult in indentifying, measuring, monitoring impact ofecotourism• Socio-cultural– Intrusion upon local isolated areas– Displacement of local cultures by parks– Erosion of local control  foreign experts!