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    • Key Technologies and Architectures in the Next Generation Network Krishan Sabnani SVP, Networking Research Bell Labs
    • Some Random Observations about Testing
      • Software development is treated as a hobby, not as a responsible discipline. That is why testing is done in an ad hoc manner.
      • Open source software is becoming a major force. How would you test large systems based on open source software?
      • Testing is ~1/3 rd of software development expenses
        • Testing research can make tremendous impact. Why are we not making more impact?
      • Testing is a poor cousin of verification/validation in the computer science research community.
    • Hippocratic Oath—Modern Version I swear to fulfill, to the best of my ability and judgment, this covenant: I will respect the hard-won scientific gains of those physicians in whose steps I walk, and gladly share such knowledge as is mine with those who are to follow. I will apply, for the benefit of the sick, all measures [that] are required, avoiding those twin traps of overtreatment and therapeutic nihilism. I will remember that there is art to medicine as well as science, and that warmth, sympathy, and understanding may outweigh the surgeon's knife or the chemist's drug. ….
    • Today’s Data Networks Best effort, insecure, difficult to manage, and unreliable Access Router 3G Cellular Networks Radio Controller Access Router Enterprise Networks Home Networks Metro Networks Packet-Based Network Edge Router Edge Router Edge Router Access Router Ad hoc Networks
    • Tomorrow’s Converged Network Edge Router Access Router Access Router Radio Controller Access Router Next-Gen Metro Networks 4G/Mesh User Mobility Traffic Type (Multimedia) Quality of Service (e.g. for voice) Network Intelligence QoS-Enabled Packet Core Network Edge Router Edge Router Services Enablement Layer Always-On Global Roaming Personalization 3G Cellular Networks Enterprise Networks Home Networks
    • The Network Evolution
      • Networks were designed to carry voice traffic
      • Data traffic mostly overlaid on voice networks (using modems)
      • Networks are designed to carry primarily data traffic
      • Voice traffic overlaid on data networks (e.g. VoIP)
      • Future networks should be designed primarily for efficient content distribution and content search/location
        • Content distribution should not only be overlaid, but built in from ground up
      • Future networks should also be able to effectively carry best-effort data traffic and QoS-sensitive multimedia traffic
      Yesterday… … Today... … Tomorrow ... Volume of data traffic exceeds voice traffic Content traffic becomes dominant
    • Enabling Technologies
      • Future Telecom Networks will need secure, quality-enabled, high-speed, and well-managed converged packet cores
      • Bell Labs has several breakthrough programs to enable this change. Here are four examples:
        • SoftRouter: A new architecture to deal with increased complexity of data networking
        • Optical Data Router: Program to deal with increased traffic over the Internet
        • Base Station Router: An access router which terminates all radio network processing
        • Always-on & Global Roaming:
          • Instant access to applications anywhere. An example is Push-to-Game.
          • Lucent’s SuperDHLR is an industry leading product for enabling global roaming.
    • Enabling Technologies
      • Future Telecom Networks will need secure, quality-enabled, high-speed, and well-managed converged packet cores
      • Bell Labs has several breakthrough programs to enable this change. Here are four examples:
        • SoftRouter: A new architecture to deal with increased complexity of data networking
        • Optical Data Router: Program to deal with increased traffic over the Internet
        • Base Station Router: An access router which terminates all radio network processing
        • Always-on & Global Roaming:
          • Instant access to applications anywhere. An example is Push-to-Game.
          • Lucent’s SuperDHLR is an industry leading product for enabling global roaming.
    • SoftRouter Summary
      • Router networks are becoming increasingly complex
        • Emerging applications and performance requirements are driving more functions to IP
        • Incorporating all IP functions in routers results in duplication of complex functions in multiple routers of a network
      • Disaggregation of router hardware from software addresses this problem and has the potential for major additional advantages
      • Bell Labs has a research program that disaggregates router control and transport planes (called SoftRouter-based approach)
        • Transport plane: packet forwarding element
        • Control plane: control element server and feature server
        • Control plane servers and transport plane communicate using standard protocols
        • Approach similar to SoftSwitch-based disaggregation of class 5 switches
    • Routers are becoming increasingly complex
      • Complexity is an IP “Middle-Age” problem!
        • IP provides end-to-end datagram delivery service to protocols/applications
        • IP can use any link-layer technology that delivers packets
      • Emerging applications are driving more functions into IP, expanding the “waist” of the IP hour glass
      • Router vendors incorporate all new IP functions into routers
      • Complexity is spread throughout the network
        • Achieving network-wide objectives such as traffic engineering requires complex translation of global objectives to configuration information in numerous individual routers
        • Misconfiguration or uncoordinated configuration can result in poor performance or even network instability
      email WWW phone... SMTP HTTP RTP... TCP UDP… IP ethernet PPP… CSMA async sonet... copper fiber radio... QoS, multicast, mobility, VPN, … Applications Transport
    • New Router Architecture: SoftRouter
      • 3 key components of SoftRouter approach
        • Decoupling: Separate complex control plane processing from the transport plane
        • Servers: Implement control plane processing functions on dedicated external control plane servers
        • Standard Interface: Define standard protocol for control plane servers to interface to the forwarding elements
      Control plane processing Forwarding plane processing Proprietary API Standard protocol Current Router Model SoftRouter Model Control Plane Transport Plane Feature Server Packet Forwarding Element Control Element Server
    • SoftRouter Network Architecture Router Packet Forwarding Element Control Element Server Traditional Router-based Network SoftRouter-based Network The SoftRouter approach separates and centralizes the software-intensive control element and feature servers from hardware-centric transport and packet forwarding Feature Server
    • Benefits
      • Lower Costs
        • Commoditized, standards-based hardware (lower capex)
        • Dedicated control element servers imply fewer management points (lower opex)
      • New Features
        • Network-based features to support new services more easily added using open APIs
        • Incremental deployment made simpler through centralized management
      • Better Scalability
        • Centralized control element servers easier to scale using well-established server scaling techniques
      • Enhanced Stability, Controllability, and Reliability
        • Network instability problems due to BGP Route Reflectors are eliminated
        • SoftRouter-based network can be designed to be more reliable than a traditional network
      • 5. Increased Security
        • Fewer control element servers easier to secure using perimeter defense systems, e.g., firewalls
    • Enabling Technologies
      • Future Telecom Networks will need secure, quality-enabled, high-speed, and well-managed converged packet cores
      • Bell Labs has several breakthrough programs to enable this change. Here are four examples:
        • SoftRouter: A new architecture to deal with increased complexity of data networking
        • Optical Data Router: Program to deal with increased traffic over the Internet
        • Base Station Router: An access router which terminates all radio network processing
        • Always-on & Global Roaming:
          • Instant access to applications anywhere. An example is Push-to-Game.
          • Lucent’s SuperDHLR is an industry leading product for enabling global roaming.
    • Growth in Router Capacity
      • Internet traffic doubles every 12 months
      • Router Capacity doubles every 18 months
      • Routers will reach 100Tb/s in 2010
      Single Rack <1Tb/s Multi-rack solutions >1Tb/s e.g. Juniper TX640 or Cisco XR12416 e.g. Juniper TX Matrix or Cisco CRS-1 Source: Nick McKeown, Stanford Currently Third Generation of Packet Routers : 1Tb/s capacity in a Single Rack Router Capacity over Time Routers 2x every 18 months Internet 2x every 12 months
    • Why do current packet routers not scale ?
      • Power and heat dissipation limit density.
        • Require multiple shelves and racks of Line Cards
        • Increases distance between Line Cards and Switch Fabric
      • Centralized Switch Fabric
        • Switch Fabric alone pushes power density and heat dissipation limits
        • Massive wiring density between Line Cards and Switch Fabric
      • Centralized Control and Scheduling complexity grows nonlinearly
      Centralized functions scale poorly Massive Wiring Switch Fabric Central Scheduler To Network Line Cards Packet Processing Buffer Optics I/O Packet Processing Buffer Optics I/O Packet Processing Buffer Optics I/O Packet Processing Buffer Optics I/O
    • BL Solution: Distributed Optical Switch Fabric
      • Optical fibers eliminate massive wiring density and allow higher bandwidths
      Switch Fabric Central Scheduler To Network Line Cards Fiber
      • Central Switch fabric replaced by passive optical device that directs signals according to their wavelength
        • Called Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG)
      • Switching using Fast Wavelength Tunable Transmitters (T-TX) distributed on each line card
        • Deployed hardware scales with deployed capacity
        • Passive Optical Backplane
      Fixes Hardware Scaling Packet Processing Buffer Optics I/O Packet Processing Buffer Optics I/O Packet Processing Buffer Optics I/O Packet Processing Buffer Optics I/O Central Scheduler To Network Line Cards Packet Processing Buffer Optics Optics Packet Processing Buffer Optics Optics Packet Processing Buffer Optics Optics Packet Processing Buffer Optics T-TX Optics AWG Passive Optical Backplane
    • BL Solution: Distributed Scheduler
      • Eliminate central scheduler without sacrificing throughput
        • Distribute traffic uniformly to Line Cards
        • Technique called “load balancing”
      • Each line card works like a small router with its own scheduler
        • Scales gracefully since complexity of scheduling is constant
        • Deployed hardware scales with deployed capacity
      • Combined with Distributed Optical Switch Fabric allows scaling to very large routers
      Router Scales to >100Tb/s Lucent Technologies – Proprietary Use pursuant to company instruction To Network Line Cards AWG Packet Processing Buffer Optics Optics Local Scheduler Packet Processing Buffer Optics Optics Local Scheduler Packet Processing Buffer Optics Optics Local Scheduler Packet Processing Buffer Optics Optics Local Scheduler
    • Optical Data Router
      • DARPA-funded program
      • Linecards
        • Highly integrated optical components
          • Denser integration of optical interfaces on line card
          • Data never converted to electronics for lower power
        • Shallow Buffers
          • Demonstration of high throughput with buffers 20 packet deep
      • Scalable switch fabrics
        • Highly scalable nonblocking switch fabrics
          • 5Tb/s using AWG plus tunable lasers and 100Gb/s Transmitter
        • Use of load balancing to allow blocking switch fabrics to be used and simplifies scheduling
          • Scalability to 256 Tb/s throughput
          • Transparent optical packet router demonstrated
      100Gb/s Packet switching Optical Packet Router Highly integrated photonic chips Effects of shallow buffers
    • The Optical Data (IRIS) Router in a Carrier Network
    • Enabling Technologies
      • Future Telecom Networks will need secure, quality-enabled, high-speed, and well-managed converged packet cores
      • Bell Labs has several breakthrough programs to enable this change. Here are four examples:
        • SoftRouter: A new architecture to deal with increased complexity of data networking
        • Optical Data Router: Program to deal with increased traffic over the Internet
        • Base Station Router: An access router which terminates all radio network processing
        • Always-on & Global Roaming:
          • Instant access to applications anywhere. An example is Push-to-Game.
          • Lucent’s SuperDHLR is an industry leading product for enabling global roaming.
    • New Cellular Network Architecture Base Station Router: push intelligence to the edge
      • Current wireless networks are complex, involving many network elements, and result in high cost and high latency
      • Base Station Router terminates all air interface-specific functionality in the base station
      • Collapsing Radio Access Network elements into the base station simplifies network and reduces latency
      • Pushing IP intelligence to the base station results in better Quality of Service support
      Base Station Base Station Mobile Router O Radio Controller Packet Backhaul Packet backhaul packet data circuit voice Base Station Router Mobile Router O Mobile Switching Center O Telephone Network Internet O
    • BSR Motivation
      • BSR provides advantages in the following areas
      • reduces system OpEx by 75%
      • increases VoIP Capacity by 25%
      • reduces delay by 40%
      BSR Collapse access, control, and gateway elements to a single IP Access Point Access Control Gateway
    • Revolutionary Product Takes Top Honors for Most Innovative In-Building Solution LAS VEGAS – Lucent Technologies (NYSE:LU) today announced that its Base Station Router (BSR) product was selected as the first place winner of a CTIA WIRELESS 2006 Wireless Emerging Technologies (E-tech) Award in the category of “Most Innovative In-Building Solution.” Award recipients were announced yesterday in a ceremony at the Las Vegas Convention Center during the CTIA WIRELESS trade show. The Wireless E-tech Awards program is designed to give industry recognition and exposure to the best wireless products and services in the areas of Consumer, Enterprise and Network technology. Nearly 200 applications were submitted and reviewed by a panel of recognized members of the media, industry analysts and executives, as well as select show attendees. Products were judged on innovation, functionality, technological importance, implementation and overall “wow” factor. Lucent Technologies' Base Station Router Receives CTIA Emerging Technology Award
    • Enabling Technologies
      • Future Telecom Networks will need secure, quality-enabled, high-speed, and well-managed converged packet cores
      • Bell Labs has several breakthrough programs to enable this change. Here are four examples:
        • SoftRouter: A new architecture to deal with increased complexity of data networking
        • Optical Data Router: Program to deal with increased traffic over the Internet
        • Base Station Router: An access router which terminates all radio network processing
        • Always-on & Global Roaming:
          • Instant access to applications anywhere. An example is Push-to-Game.
          • Lucent’s SuperDHLR is an industry leading product for enabling global roaming.
    • Always-On Services
      • Definition : A push-to-connect data service is “always-on” if it:
        • Connects the user to the service instantly
        • Delivers service content to the user instantly
        • Is easy for a user to use (requires few button presses on a handset)
      • To achieve this effectively, the network must:
        • Provide a persistent session between mobile users and services
        • Minimize delay in connecting to and controlling a service
        • Minimize delay in delivering service content
        • Handle complex interactions on behalf of the user
        • Scale to a large number of services and subscribers
        • Support easy deployment of new services
      Our objective : Build the networking infrastructure that achieves the above goals
    • Push-to- Game Demo on UMTS at CTIA 2006
      • Live Demo Setup for Mobile Multiplayer Gaming”
        • Single-box AoG, available locally at CTIA booth – J2EE
        • Lucent’s UMTS trailer providing UMTS Airlink
        • Three Nokia 6680 handsets showing three users
        • Four online multiplayer games – J2ME:
          • 2 Commercially Available : Brick Challenge, Black Jack: From ExitGames using remote server
          • 2 Games w. Voice IM : Reversi, Tic-Tac-Toe: Developed by BL, available at local server in booth
      • Demo features:
        • One-touch gaming screen personalized based on user
        • One-touch game play – Dramatic improvement of end user experience!
          • One-touch buddy invitation and play
            • AoG’ 1 click experience vs. 15+ clicks without AoG
            • AoG’s fast connectivity 10+ secs vs. 35+ secs without AoG
          • One-touch anonymous game play with real-time matchmaking by AoG
          • Chatting (trash-talking) using voice-IM while playing games (vs. IM texting w.out AoG)
          • Buddy selection based on presence
        • Management of buddy presence, with avatars, in real-time
    • Global Roaming
      • Global roaming allows a subscriber to roam across different access networks while retaining full service features
      • Enabler for global roaming: SuperDHLR
        • A common profile database and authentication server for telecom (wireline and wireless) and Internet users
          • enables migrating to and roaming between these networks
          • supports global roaming in cellular networks around the world
          • integrates cellular networks and 802.11 networks
      CDMA Networks 802.11 Networks SuperDHLR GSM/UMTS High-speed Networks (e.g. EvDO) Common Profile Database Protocol Gateways Core Operations Core Servers
    • What is MiViewTV TM ?
      • TV subscription today is tied to the “home” location
        • No access to subscribed content if not on “roaming” TV lineup
      • MiViewTV is a paradigm shift for the TV industry
      Subscription  Location Subscription  User
      • Seamless TV “roaming” across:
        • Any network: Wireline, Wi-Fi
        • Any location: Home, Hotel, Bus, Train, Friend’s Home
        • Any device: TV (HD, SD), Laptop, Handheld
      Making TV service “follow” you wherever you go! MiViewTV
    • MiViewTV TM Roaming Demo Demo Scenario:  Charlie is watching NFL football  Visitor Swarup interested in viewing soccer (UEFA Cup)  Charlie does not subscribe to soccer channel (but Swarup does)  Using MiViewTV, Swarup enables his roaming subscription  The look and feel of the program guide now reflects Swarup’s preferences  Channels from both users are available in this setup (Football-Ch 2, Soccer-Ch 3)  Swarup disables roaming on the way out and the TV returns to Charlie’s lineup MiViewTV System Video
    • Live TV On Computer/Hand-held © Xinhua
    • Publicity and More.. BBC: MiViewTV TM among six “coolest” gadgets of CeBIT 2006 FT (London) article on MiViewTV TM
    • Conclusions
      • All networks will converge to a few IP/MPLS networks
      • These networks will be QoS-enabled, reliable, secure, and manageable.
      • Bell Labs has several router programs to enable the converged networks of the future: SoftRouter, Optical Data Router, and Base Station Router.
      • Bell Labs has also taken leadership in creating enablers for global roaming and always-on.
    • Backups
    • A Related Roaming Program: MiViewTV TM
      • TV subscription today is tied to the “home” location
        • No access to subscribed content if not on “roaming” TV lineup
      • MiViewTV is a paradigm shift for the TV industry
      Subscription  Location Subscription  User
      • Seamless TV “roaming” across:
        • Any network: Wireline, Wi-Fi, 3G
        • Any location: Home, Hotel, Bus, Train, Friend’s Home
        • Any device: TV (HD, SD), Laptop, Handheld
      • MiViewTV is a network-based service provider solution
        • Service provider managed network provides control over roaming and avoids theft / illegal broadcast . Key for content providers!
        • Intelligence in network. Seamlessly integrates with middleware, billing, OSS systems
      Making TV service “follow” you wherever you go! MiViewTV