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  • 1. Software Engineering Research paper presentation Ali Ahmad
    • Formal Approaches to Software Testing
    • Hierarchal GUI Test Case Generation
    • Using Automated Planning
  • 2. Formal Approaches to Software Testing P. Dasiewicz IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering 2002
  • 3. Introduction
    • Software Testing: checking and validating the correctness of software
      • Time consuming
      • Difficult
      • Error prune
    • Formal methods
      • Specifying and verifying software systems using mathematical and logical approaches
      • Target: proof of correctness
    • Some verification techniques
      • Model Checking
      • State space exploration
  • 4. Introduction (cont’d)
    • Current methods are not feasible
      • Too much manual effort
      • Models that are very complex for analysis
    • It is needed to overcome the following
      • The state explosion problem
      • Cost of creating models
    • Applicability: Design level
      • Less complexity
      • May reduce maintenance costs
  • 5. Introduction (cont’d)
    • UML
      • Simple, general purpose, visual modeling
      • Specify, visualize, construct and document
      • UML-statechart  basis for dynamic behavioral description
    • Objectives:
      • Overview model checking to the validation and test case generation (using UML statecharts and interaction diagrams)
      • Applicability of formal methods to component integration and interaction testing
  • 6. Integration/Component Level Testing
    • Offutt
      • Changes in component states due to change events
      • UMLTEST, integrated with Rational Rose  Highly effective test cases can be generated for system level specification
      • Test prefix: ensure that the system is @ a certain pre state before performing the test
      • Issues:
        • Interaction is not considered
        • Some states may never been entered
      • Incorporated UML collaboration diagrams
  • 7. Integration/Component Level Testing (cont’d)
    • Yoon
      • Test case generation based on UML sequence and collaboration diagrams
      • A node that represents both integration target and message flow
      • Testing technique
        • Extract sequence diagram
        • If concurrency, extract collaboration diagram
        • Divide into ASF (Atomic System Function)
        • Extract nodes and message flows
        • Obtain test cases by applying test criteria (e.g. all-edge)
      • Limitations
        • May require a large number of sequence diagrams
        • Test case coverage (only normal or abnormal flow)
  • 8. Integration/Component Level Testing (cont’d)
    • Kim
      • Divide statecharts into extended finite state machines
      • Control flows are represented as paths
      • Coverage criteria
        • Path coverage
        • State coverage
        • Transition coverage
      • Test cases
        • breadth or depth first searches
        • can be generated using the data flow on the UML statechart
        • Determine whether class implements correct control and data flow
  • 9. System/Integration Testing
    • Hartmann
      • Testing the interfaces among several components
      • UML statecharts  Mealy Finite State Machines with restricted point to point synchronous communication model
      • Incremental composition and reduction algorithm
      • Test cases: category partition method
      • Limitations
        • Interaction are modeled as synchronous communications
        • Event exchanges contain no parameters
        • No support for nested machines
  • 10. Source Code Based Testing
    • Major problem: State space explosion problem
    • Reducing the state space entails eliminating irrelevant code segments
    • Hatcliff
      • Program slicing techniques
      • Used by Bandera for translating Java code to Jimple, e.g. SPIN, SMV  Generates a finite state model for the reduced code
    • Java Path Finder
      • Integrates model checking, program analysis and Testing
      • Goal: Apply formal methods at source level
      • Initially, check for safety properties like deadlocks (LockTree)
  • 11. Translation of Statecharts
    • Promela: input modeling language for SPIN
      • C-like, extended with non-deterministic, and loop guarded constructs
      • Latella presents a translation from UML statecharts into Promela, where statecharts are first converted to hierarchal automata. A proof of correctness is also given
  • 12. Component Interaction Testing
    • Major issue: Are the components developed separately work properly together
    • Formal methods of component interaction
      • Define testing requirements
      • Automatically generate the test cases using model checking
    • Focus of author’s research:
      • Component interaction of software systems
      • Detect subtle interaction errors without duplicating the work @ unit level
      • Underlying model: Labeled transition system
      • ObjectState: modeling language to show the feasibility of creating formal models, it relies on hierarchal FSM.
  • 13. Hierarchal GUI Test Case Generation Using Automated Planning Memon A., Pollack M., Lou Soffa M. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 2000
  • 14. Introduction
    • GUI testing is difficult
      • The interaction space is enormous
      • Determining the coverage of test cases
      • Regression testing is a major challenge
    • Automation is necessary for generating GUI test cases
    • PATHS: Planning Assisted Tester for grapHical user interface Systems
      • Input: Possible goals for GUI user
      • Generates sequences of events to satisfy the user goals, these become test cases
  • 15. Introduction (cont’d)
    • PATHS performs automated analysis of the hierarchal structure of the GUI to create hierarchal operators that will be used during plan generation
    • Contribution to Research
      • Make use of an AI technique (Automated Planning)
      • Exploits GUI structural features
      • Makes Regression testing easier
      • The test suite is portable
      • Allow the reuse of operator definitions that commonly appear across GUIs
  • 16. Overview
    • GUI consists of components like labels, buttons, menus, and pop-up lists
    • Example: Microsoft WordPad
    • GUI has 2 types of windows
      • GUI windows
      • Object windows,
        • doesn’t contain any
        • window components
  • 17. Overview (cont’d)
    • PATHS- Plan Generation
      • Inputs
        • Initial state
        • Goal state
        • A set of operators applied to a set of objects
          • Preconditions and effects
      • Solution to a Planning Problem: sequence of instantiated operators which result in the goal state when executed in the initial state
      • 2 Phases
        • Setup
          • Create a hierarchal model of the GUI
        • Plan Generation
          • Specify scenarios (initial and goal states)
          • PATHS generate a test suit for the scenarios
  • 18. Overview (cont’d)
    • Role of Test Designer and PATHS during test generation
    • GUI Events and Planning Operators
  • 19. Overview (cont’d)
    • Operator Event Mapping
    • Example operator: Edit_Cut
    Abstract: Invokes a window that monopolizes the user interaction
  • 20. Overview (cont’d)
    • High level plan
    • Expanded plan
  • 21. Plan Generation
    • GUI test case generation can be modeled by
    • hierarchal plans that doesn’t require conflict resolution
  • 22. Planning GUI Test Cases
    • Developing a representation for the GUI and its operators
      • Operator Derivation Process
        • Traverse the GUI and press on its components, the label is read off the component label
      • GUI events
        • Menu open (File, Edit)
        • Unrestricted focus (Basic shapes in PowerPoint)
        • Restricted focus (Edit-Preferences in PowerPoint)
        • System-interaction (Cut and paste)
      • Planning Operators
        • System-Interaction
        • Abstract
    • Modeling Initial and Goal States and Generating Test Cases using algorithm
    • Generating multiple plans in PATHS
      • Creating multiple linearizations of the partial plans
      • Repeating the planning process, thus generating a different test case
  • 23. Planning GUI Test Cases (Cont’d)
  • 24. Planning GUI Test Cases (Cont’d)
  • 25. Planning GUI Test Cases (Cont’d)
  • 26. Planning GUI Test Cases (Cont’d)
  • 27. Some Experimental Results
    • Multiple Tasks
    • Hierarchal vs. Single Layer
  • 28. Questions