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Matada Prashanth


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  • 1. Testing: A Roadmap Mary Jean Harrold College Of Computing Georgia Institute Of Technology Presented By Prashanth L Anmol N M
  • 2. Introduction
    • Definition
    • Purposes for which testing is performed
    • Key Concepts
    • Advantages
    • Disadvantages
  • 3. Introduction
    • Definition
      • Software testing is any activity aimed at evaluating an attribute or capability of a program or system and determining that it meets its required results.
      • Constitutes more than 50% of cost of software development
  • 4. Introduction
    • Purposes
    • To improve quality
    • For Verification & Validation (V&V)
      • Functionality (Exterior Quality)-Correctness ,Reliability Usability Integrity
      • Engineering (interior quality)-Efficiency ,Testability Documentation Structure
      • Adaptability (future quality )-Flexibility Reusability Maintainability
    • For reliability estimation
  • 5. Introduction
    • Key Concepts
    • Taxonomy
      • correctness testing
      • performance testing
      • reliability testing
      • security testing
    • Testing Automation
    • When to Stop Testing?
  • 6. Introduction
    • Correctness Testing-
      • Minimum Requirements of Software.
      • can be either black box or white box
    • Black Box - treats s/w as blackbox.only the inputs/outputs visible basic functionality testing.
    • White Box-structure & flow of software under test visible.
    • Performance Testing-Design problems in software that cause the system performance to degrade
    • Reliability Testing-robustness of a software component is the degree to
    • which it can function correctly in the presence of exceptional inputs or stressful environmental conditions
    • Security Testing-include identifying and removing software flaws that may potentially lead to security violations, and validating the effectiveness of security measures. Simulated security attacks can be performed to find vulnerabilities
  • 7. Introduction
    • Testing Automation
      • Automation is a good way to cut down time and cost.
      • Software testing tools and techniques usually suffer from a lack of generic applicability and scalability.
    • When to Stop Testing?
      • Testing is a trade-off between budget, time and quality.
      • It is driven by profit models.
      • pessimistic  time, budget, or test cases -- are exhausted.
      • optimistic  reliability meets the requirement, or the benefit from
    • continuing testing cannot justify the testing cost .
    • Advantages
      • Easy generation of test cases & Instrumentation of software.
      • Process automation & execution in expected environment.
  • 8. Roadmap
    • Fundamental Research
      • Testing Component Based Systems
      • Testing Based on Precode Artifacts
      • Testing Evolving Software
      • Demonstrating Effectiveness of Testing Techniques
      • Using Testing Artifacts
      • Other Testing Techniques
      • Methods & Tools
      • Empirical Studies
      • Testing Resources
  • 9. Testing Component Based Systems
    • Issues
      • Component Provider (Developer of the Components)
      • Views Components independently of the context.
      • Component User (Application Developer)
    • Views Components relevant to the application.
    • Limiting Factor
      • Availability of Source Code
    • Roadmap Suggested
      • Types of Testing Information needed.
      • Techniques for representing & computing the types of testing info the user needs.
      • Techniques to use the information provided with the component for testing the application.
  • 10. Testing Based On Precode Artifacts
    • Issues
      • Design
      • Requirements
      • Architectural Specifications
    • Issue Under Spotlight
      • Architecture
    • Roadmap Suggested
      • Use of formal notations used for s/w architecture
      • Develop techniques to be used with architectural specification for test-case development.
      • Develop techniques to evaluate s/w architectures for testability.
  • 11. Testing Evolving Software
    • Regression testing:
    • Validate modified software to ensure no new errors introduced.
    • Some useful techniques
    • * select subset of test suite of previous from previous testing.
    • * techniques to help manage growth in size of test suite.
    • * assess regression testability.
    • Testing techniques needed ….
    • * not only for software but also for architecture and requirements.
    • * manage test suites themselves.
    • * identify parts of modified software for which new test cases are required.
    • * identify test cases no longer needed.
    • * prioritize test cases.
    • * asses the test suite themselves.
  • 12. Demonstrating effectiveness of Testing Techniques
    • How ????
    • * Increase developers confidence.
    • * software behavior
    • * identify classes of faults for a given test criteria.
    • * provide visual interface.
    • * determine interaction among test selection criteria and ways to combine.
    • Research been done In ….
    • * evaluation criteria to determine adequacy of test suites and test cases that inspire confidence.
    • * test cases based on either software’s intended behavior or purely on code.
    • * test cases based on data-flow in a program.
    • * use existing testing techniques to test visual programming languages.
    • * test complex Boolean expressions.
    • * mutation analysis and approximation ( ex: can avoid testing pointer variable in data flow analysis.
  • 13. Establishing Effective Process for Testing
    • Need to develop process for planning and implementation of Testing.
    • Some of the currently used or proposed techniques ….
    • * Develop a test plan during requirements gathering phase and implementation of the test plan after s/w implementation phase. Useful ?
    • * what does Microsoft do ?
    • - frequently synchronize what people are doing.
    • - periodically stabilize the product in increments as project proceeds.
    • - build and test a version every night !!! ( only Microsoft can do…!)
    • * perpetual testing - Build foundation for treating analysis and test ongoing activities for improved quality.
    • * selective regression testing where we test one version and gather testing artifacts such as I/o pairs and coverage information.
    • * explicit progress of regression testing that integrates many key testing techniques into development and maintenance of evolving software.
  • 14. Establishing Effective Process for Testing. Cont’d
    • Some Open questions …
      • Does Microsoft nightly rebuild, minimize testing later ?
      • Does testing show all the software qualities ?
      • Can results obtained from testing be generalized ?
    • Some useful suggestions …
      • Integrate various quality techniques and tools
      • Combine static analysis with testing
  • 15. Using Testing Artifacts
    • Artifacts include :
      • Execution traces of software’s execution with test cases.
      • Results of execution like pass/fail of software for given test cases.
    • Useful : Store results and use for retesting modified software.
    • A whole bunch of research is done on this, some of the proposed ….
    • * use dynamic program slices derived from execution traces along with pass/fail results for execution traces to identify potential faulty code.
    • apply heuristics to find out subset of test suite that passed and failed.
    • * identify program invariants and develop test cases generation.
    • * use coverage information to predict the magnitude of regression testing.
    • * use coverage information also to select test cases from test suite for use in regression testing.
  • 16. Using Testing Artifacts. Cont’d…
    • Proposed research cont’d….
    • * Use artifacts to for test suite reduction and prioritization.
    • * Perform concept analysis on coverage info and compute relationships among executed entities. Helps in uncovering properties of test suites.
    • * Path spectra identifies paths where control diverges in program execution which is helpful in debugging, testing and maintenance. Expensive !
    • * Use branch spectra which is less expensive profiling.
    • * Using visual tools to analyze test info.
    • Additional research Needed ….
    • * use of testing artifacts for software engineering tasks.
    • * identify types of info software engineers and managers need (data mining)
  • 17. Other Testing Techniques
    • Some other techniques helpful in reaching end goal (quality software)
    • * Need for a scalable automatic test data generation
    • * Static analysis required but expensive. Need for a scalable analysis technique that can be used to compute required information.
    • * data-flow analysis expensive and hence need for efficient instrumentation and recording techniques.
  • 18. Method and Tools
    • Goal
      • Develop efficient methods and tools that can be used by practitioners to test their software.
    • Complaint
      • Software Engineering technology requires on average 18 years to be transferred in to practice !!!!!!! We need to reduce this time for technology transfer.
    • Reasons
      • techniques developed demonstrated on contrived or toy system. Not Scalable !
    • What we need
      • Development of tools and methods for industrial setting to demonstrate the usefulness of techniques proposed
      • Techniques proposed should be scalable.
      • Develop robust prototypes and identify the context in which they can function and use them to perform the experiments to demonstrate the techniques.
  • 19. Method and Tools. Cont’d ….
    • What we need. Cont’d …
      • Tools to consider computation trade offs like Precision Vs Efficiency .
      • Automatic development of method and tools on the lines of compilers.
      • Develop tools that are attractive to practitioners.
      • Finally the developed tools require minimal involvement of Software Engineers.
  • 20. Empirical Studies
    • What does it mean ?
      • Studies which will help demonstrate the scalability and usefulness of the techniques in practice in other words feedback for future research.
    • Difficulties in doing Empirical Studies
      • Difficulty in acquiring sufficient robust implementation of these techniques
      • Difficulty in obtaining sufficient experimental subjects (software and test suites)
    • Solutions
      • Collect sets of experimental subjects and make them available for researchers.
      • Create sanitized information that would reveal no proprietary information and still useful for experimentation.
  • 21. Testing Resources
    • Workshops, Conferences, Journals and Useful Links
      • Workshop on Strategic Directions in Software Quality 1996 . (ACM)
      • National Science Foundation & Computational Research Association
      • Workshop on Role of Software Architectures in Testing and Analysis. (INRC)
      • International Conference on Software Engineering Workshop on Testing Distributed Component-based Systems.
      • Middle Tennessee State’s STORM Software Testing
      • Reliable Software Technology’s Software Assurance Hotlist
      • Research Institute’s Software Quality Hotlist
      • Newsgroup:
  • 22. Conclusions
      • Relevance To Embedded Systems
      • Emphasizes the basic stages-Sets up the next paper.
      • Talks about evolving systems-ES evolve by the second.
      • Talks about component based testing-COTS.
      • Emphasizes the need for Testing based on Precode Artifacts-
      • Software Architecture.
      • Examining Current Techniques to demonstrate scalability &
      • usefulness of techniques in practice-Empirical.
      • Weakness – Nil