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    • Understanding the Potential for Open Government : Open Source Processes for E-Government Walt Scacchi Institute for Software Research University of California, Irvine [email_address] http://www.ics.uci.edu/~wscacchi http://www.ics.uci.edu/~wscacchi/Presentations/OpenGovt
    • Open Government?
      • Free/open source software development encourages sharing, examination, reuse, modification, and redistribution
      • E-Government encourages adoption of E-Commerce/E-Business in government agency operations, functions, business lines
      • Open government embraces open source and E-government processes, practices, and communities
    • Why Open Government?
      • Help make government faster, better, cheaper
      • Empower interested government employees, contractors, and interested citizens to offer help and capture their contributions
      • Enable creation of public test-beds where existing/new government processes can be demonstrated, manipulated, and refined.
    • Why Open Government?
      • Make processes of government and democracy Web-enabled and computationally enactable
        • Codify processes into high-level, user-friendly process models as their “source code”
        • Avoid coding processes in conventional programming or scripting languages
          • This makes them opaque to users, and difficult to improve, adapt, or learn
    • Overview
      • Open processes for system development, use, and evolutionary support
      • Motivations for open source processes
      • Government operations and business processes
      • International Development applications
      • Military and security applications
      • Opportunities and conclusions
    • Open source processes
      • System development
        • build and release, testing, review/inspection, configuration management, security certification, localization, porting, contribution, development Web site maintenance, etc.
      • Deployment
        • business process redesign, organizational transformation, system upgrade, user training, community development and support, etc.
    • Open source processes
      • Free/open source software does not embody the processes for how best to develop, deploy, use or sustain them
      • Deploying free/open source software is often inefficient and sub-optimal
      • Closed source software development, deployment, use and support is generally no different!
      • Explicit open source processes could also help closed source systems.
    • Open source process example
      • Example of an open source process model of a proposal submission process, specified in a Process Markup Language, PML
      • J. Noll and W. Scacchi, Specifying Process-Oriented Hypertext for Organizational Computing , Journal of Network and Computer Applications , 4(1):39-61, 2001.
    • Complex motivations for open source processes
      • Closed source processes : opaque or tacit, difficult to improve, subject to patent
      • Most enterprise processes are operational, not strategic.
      • Continuous process improvement and organizational learning requires open access to the “source code” of operational processes
    • Closed source process as strategic business assets
      • Processes offering competitive advantage can be patented , denoting their value as strategic business assets
      • But very few enterprise processes are source of competitive advantage
      • Closed/tacit vs. administrative vs. open source enterprise processes
    • A closed source business process example
    • Closed vs. administrative vs. open source processes
      • Closed: Amazon “one-click” e-purchase
        • Patented processes inhibits their sharing, reuse, study, modification, and redistribution
      • Administrative: Java community process
        • asserts property rights, responsibilities, and administrative authority
        • legalistic or bureaucratic “policy and procedures” are narrative, not operational => ambiguous interpretation and legal wrangling
    • Java Community Process
    • Administrative process example
    • Continuous process improvement and organizational learning
      • CPI is easier when processes are open and computationally explicit
      • OL can be supported just-in-time via process-directed intranets/extranets
        • PDIs/PDEs enable just-in-time training, process prototyping, performance monitoring and measurement, dynamic repair of process execution breakdowns/failures, and more.
        • see References for citations and details
    • Government operations and business processes
      • Example: Procurement and acquisition
        • Procurement : purchasing MRO supplies
        • Acquisition : contracting for services
        • Not simply a matter using electronic forms or extensible markup notations about them
        • Reengineering enterprise processes is complex and requires processes transformation, integration, commitment, and training
          • W. Scacchi, Redesigning Contracted Service Procurement for Internet-based Electronic Commerce: A Case Study , Journal of Information Technology and Management , 2(3), 313-334, 2001.
    • Government operations and business processes
      • Federal Enterprise Architecture process domains are the prime candidates
        • Financial management
        • Human relations
        • Monitoring benefits and public health
        • Data and statistic development
        • Criminal investigation
        • Regulation and legislation development, deployment, and enforcement
    • Open Govt for International Development applications
      • Promote free/open source enterprise software systems and processes
        • http:// www.gnuenterprise.org for enterprise resource management and E-business framework
        • Many other office productivity, E-business, and E-commerce systems being developed and deployed as free/open source
    • GNUe enterprise system architecture
    • Open Govt for International Development applications
      • Free/open source systems and processes are comparatively easy to transfer and deploy into developing nations, once localized
      • Free/open source systems and processes amenable to co-sourced, cost-shared, multi-lateral development
    • Military and security applications
      • Most of the military enterprise focuses on operational, logistical, and training processes
      • Administrative processes are ponderous, procrustean, rather than agile, flexible
      • Current legacy processes are compliance oriented , rather than improvement oriented
    • DD(X) Overview
    • DD(X) Acquisition Guidelines
    • Acquisition Process-Directed Intranet demonstration More information available in: J. Noll and W. Scacchi, Specifying Process-Oriented Hypertext for Organizational Computing , Journal of Network and Computer Applications , 4(1):39-61, 2001. W. Scacchi, Open Acquisition: Combining Open Source Software Development with System Acquisition , technical report, July 2002.
    • Military and security applications
      • Homeland security will increasingly become focus of process improvement, streamlining and cost reduction.
    • Open Govt Opportunities
      • Establish OG Web portals and clearinghouse
        • Create/share process toolkits, libraries, repositories
      • Co-sourced development of OG processes
        • amortize and share OG development costs
      • Capture and codification of government process domain expertise
      • Operational OG system and process demo’s
        • OG prototypes
        • Exportable processes for democratic government operations
    • Conclusions
      • Free/open source software systems for government represent a significant opportunity
      • Seek high-level, user-friendly processes for government operations expressed as open source, computationally enactable processes
      • Open government embraces and extends open source, while also moving towards flexible, agile democratic government operations
    • References
      • J. Noll and W. Scacchi, Supporting Software Development in Virtual Enterprises , Journal of Digital Information , 1(4), February 1999.
      • J. Noll and W. Scacchi, Specifying Process-Oriented Hypertext for Organizational Computing , Journal of Network and Computer Applications , 4(1):39-61, 2001
      • W. Scacchi, Redesigning Contracted Service Procurement for Internet-based Electronic Commerce: A Case Study , Journal of Information Technology and Management , 2(3), 313-334, 2001.
      • W. Scacchi, Open Acquisition: Combining Open Source Software Development with System Acquisition , technical report, July 2002.
      • W. Scacchi, Open EC/B: A Case Study in Electronic Commerce and Open Source Software Development , technical report, July 2002.
    • References
      • W. Scacchi and P. Mi, Process Life Cycle Engineering: A Knowledge Based Approach and Environment , Intern. Journal Intelligent Systems in Accounting, Finance, and Management , 6(1), 83-107, 1997.
      • W. Scacchi, Understanding the Social, Technological, and Policy Implications of Open Source Software Development position paper presented at the NSF Workshop on Open Source Software, January 2002 (revised August 2002).
      • W. Scacchi, Understanding the Requirements for Developing Open Source Software Systems, IEE Proceedings--Software , 149(1), 24-39, February 2002.
    • Acknowledgements
      • The research described in this report is supported by contracts/grants from:
      • National Science Foundation
        • #IIS-0083075, #ITR-0205679, #ITR-0205724 and Industry/University Research Cooperative for the CRITO Consortium
      • Defense Acquisition University
        • #N487650-27803
      • No endorsement implied .