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  • 1. Understanding the Potential for Open Government : Open Source Processes for E-Government Walt Scacchi Institute for Software Research University of California, Irvine [email_address] http://www.ics.uci.edu/~wscacchi http://www.ics.uci.edu/~wscacchi/Presentations/OpenGovt
  • 2. Open Government?
    • Free/open source software development encourages sharing, examination, reuse, modification, and redistribution
    • E-Government encourages adoption of E-Commerce/E-Business in government agency operations, functions, business lines
    • Open government embraces open source and E-government processes, practices, and communities
  • 3. Why Open Government?
    • Help make government faster, better, cheaper
    • Empower interested government employees, contractors, and interested citizens to offer help and capture their contributions
    • Enable creation of public test-beds where existing/new government processes can be demonstrated, manipulated, and refined.
  • 4. Why Open Government?
    • Make processes of government and democracy Web-enabled and computationally enactable
      • Codify processes into high-level, user-friendly process models as their “source code”
      • Avoid coding processes in conventional programming or scripting languages
        • This makes them opaque to users, and difficult to improve, adapt, or learn
  • 5. Overview
    • Open processes for system development, use, and evolutionary support
    • Motivations for open source processes
    • Government operations and business processes
    • International Development applications
    • Military and security applications
    • Opportunities and conclusions
  • 6. Open source processes
    • System development
      • build and release, testing, review/inspection, configuration management, security certification, localization, porting, contribution, development Web site maintenance, etc.
    • Deployment
      • business process redesign, organizational transformation, system upgrade, user training, community development and support, etc.
  • 7. Open source processes
    • Free/open source software does not embody the processes for how best to develop, deploy, use or sustain them
    • Deploying free/open source software is often inefficient and sub-optimal
    • Closed source software development, deployment, use and support is generally no different!
    • Explicit open source processes could also help closed source systems.
  • 8. Open source process example
    • Example of an open source process model of a proposal submission process, specified in a Process Markup Language, PML
    • J. Noll and W. Scacchi, Specifying Process-Oriented Hypertext for Organizational Computing , Journal of Network and Computer Applications , 4(1):39-61, 2001.
  • 9. Complex motivations for open source processes
    • Closed source processes : opaque or tacit, difficult to improve, subject to patent
    • Most enterprise processes are operational, not strategic.
    • Continuous process improvement and organizational learning requires open access to the “source code” of operational processes
  • 10. Closed source process as strategic business assets
    • Processes offering competitive advantage can be patented , denoting their value as strategic business assets
    • But very few enterprise processes are source of competitive advantage
    • Closed/tacit vs. administrative vs. open source enterprise processes
  • 11. A closed source business process example
  • 12. Closed vs. administrative vs. open source processes
    • Closed: Amazon “one-click” e-purchase
      • Patented processes inhibits their sharing, reuse, study, modification, and redistribution
    • Administrative: Java community process
      • asserts property rights, responsibilities, and administrative authority
      • legalistic or bureaucratic “policy and procedures” are narrative, not operational => ambiguous interpretation and legal wrangling
  • 13. Java Community Process
  • 14. Administrative process example
  • 15. Continuous process improvement and organizational learning
    • CPI is easier when processes are open and computationally explicit
    • OL can be supported just-in-time via process-directed intranets/extranets
      • PDIs/PDEs enable just-in-time training, process prototyping, performance monitoring and measurement, dynamic repair of process execution breakdowns/failures, and more.
      • see References for citations and details
  • 16. Government operations and business processes
    • Example: Procurement and acquisition
      • Procurement : purchasing MRO supplies
      • Acquisition : contracting for services
      • Not simply a matter using electronic forms or extensible markup notations about them
      • Reengineering enterprise processes is complex and requires processes transformation, integration, commitment, and training
        • W. Scacchi, Redesigning Contracted Service Procurement for Internet-based Electronic Commerce: A Case Study , Journal of Information Technology and Management , 2(3), 313-334, 2001.
  • 17. Government operations and business processes
    • Federal Enterprise Architecture process domains are the prime candidates
      • Financial management
      • Human relations
      • Monitoring benefits and public health
      • Data and statistic development
      • Criminal investigation
      • Regulation and legislation development, deployment, and enforcement
  • 18. Open Govt for International Development applications
    • Promote free/open source enterprise software systems and processes
      • http:// www.gnuenterprise.org for enterprise resource management and E-business framework
      • Many other office productivity, E-business, and E-commerce systems being developed and deployed as free/open source
  • 19. GNUe enterprise system architecture
  • 20. Open Govt for International Development applications
    • Free/open source systems and processes are comparatively easy to transfer and deploy into developing nations, once localized
    • Free/open source systems and processes amenable to co-sourced, cost-shared, multi-lateral development
  • 21. Military and security applications
    • Most of the military enterprise focuses on operational, logistical, and training processes
    • Administrative processes are ponderous, procrustean, rather than agile, flexible
    • Current legacy processes are compliance oriented , rather than improvement oriented
  • 22. DD(X) Overview
  • 23. DD(X) Acquisition Guidelines
  • 24. Acquisition Process-Directed Intranet demonstration More information available in: J. Noll and W. Scacchi, Specifying Process-Oriented Hypertext for Organizational Computing , Journal of Network and Computer Applications , 4(1):39-61, 2001. W. Scacchi, Open Acquisition: Combining Open Source Software Development with System Acquisition , technical report, July 2002.
  • 25. Military and security applications
    • Homeland security will increasingly become focus of process improvement, streamlining and cost reduction.
  • 26. Open Govt Opportunities
    • Establish OG Web portals and clearinghouse
      • Create/share process toolkits, libraries, repositories
    • Co-sourced development of OG processes
      • amortize and share OG development costs
    • Capture and codification of government process domain expertise
    • Operational OG system and process demo’s
      • OG prototypes
      • Exportable processes for democratic government operations
  • 27. Conclusions
    • Free/open source software systems for government represent a significant opportunity
    • Seek high-level, user-friendly processes for government operations expressed as open source, computationally enactable processes
    • Open government embraces and extends open source, while also moving towards flexible, agile democratic government operations
  • 28. References
    • J. Noll and W. Scacchi, Supporting Software Development in Virtual Enterprises , Journal of Digital Information , 1(4), February 1999.
    • J. Noll and W. Scacchi, Specifying Process-Oriented Hypertext for Organizational Computing , Journal of Network and Computer Applications , 4(1):39-61, 2001
    • W. Scacchi, Redesigning Contracted Service Procurement for Internet-based Electronic Commerce: A Case Study , Journal of Information Technology and Management , 2(3), 313-334, 2001.
    • W. Scacchi, Open Acquisition: Combining Open Source Software Development with System Acquisition , technical report, July 2002.
    • W. Scacchi, Open EC/B: A Case Study in Electronic Commerce and Open Source Software Development , technical report, July 2002.
  • 29. References
    • W. Scacchi and P. Mi, Process Life Cycle Engineering: A Knowledge Based Approach and Environment , Intern. Journal Intelligent Systems in Accounting, Finance, and Management , 6(1), 83-107, 1997.
    • W. Scacchi, Understanding the Social, Technological, and Policy Implications of Open Source Software Development position paper presented at the NSF Workshop on Open Source Software, January 2002 (revised August 2002).
    • W. Scacchi, Understanding the Requirements for Developing Open Source Software Systems, IEE Proceedings--Software , 149(1), 24-39, February 2002.
  • 30. Acknowledgements
    • The research described in this report is supported by contracts/grants from:
    • National Science Foundation
      • #IIS-0083075, #ITR-0205679, #ITR-0205724 and Industry/University Research Cooperative for the CRITO Consortium
    • Defense Acquisition University
      • #N487650-27803
    • No endorsement implied .

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