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  • Also “Preference” and “Performance” as breakdowns
  • Microsoft Word Photographs
  • We want to give you a simple approach that anyone can use without having a lab or a lot of equipment. Intended to be a stripped down version that people can practice on their own.
  • Fix image so project and evaluator are taken out

    1. 1. Intro to Usability: How to Get Started Lee-Ann Kastman Breuch David Rosen
    2. 2. Intro to Usability: How to Get Started Copyright 2007 by the Regents of the University of Minnesota. Permission is granted for this material to be shared for non-commercial, educational purposes, provided that this copyright statement appears on the reproduced materials and notice is given that the copying is by permission. To disseminate otherwise or to republish requires written permission. David Rosen Usability Consultant Office of Information Technology November 8, 2007 Lee-Ann Kastman Breuch Associate Professor Department of Writing Studies
    3. 3. Usability Services <ul><li>Our objective is: </li></ul><ul><li>To enable project teams to see a user interface design from the user’s perspective </li></ul><ul><li>To involve users in the design process </li></ul><ul><li>To give teams the ability to understand the user’s experience and apply it toward improving the product design </li></ul>
    4. 4. Background About Usability Services <ul><li>Internal Service Team in the Office of Information Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Projects for enterprise-level web applications and web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Projects for web design teams in individual colleges and departments </li></ul><ul><li>External Sales Projects (primarily for the State of Minnesota and industrial affiliates of our lab partners) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Usability in Writing Studies <ul><li>WRIT 4501: Usability and Human Factors in Technical Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles/concepts of human factors/usability testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing objectives, criteria, and measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducting tests in lab, field, and virtual environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using software programs to analyze qualitative/quantitative data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offered Spring semester every year </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Usability Lab <ul><li>Open House in our lab between 3:30 – 5:00 p.m. today </li></ul><ul><li>Great for having an entire team observe the usability process </li></ul>
    7. 7. Session objectives <ul><li>Basics about usability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How is it defined and measured? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is it important? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How to see a design from the user’s perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who are your users? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity: Inspecting a design from the user’s point of view </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How to observe the users’ experience of a design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A simple approach to usability testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity: Demonstration of a usability test </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Basics about Usability <ul><li> </li></ul>
    9. 9. What is Usability? <ul><li>Usability Services’ working definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Ability of users to accomplish their own objectives without outside help </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>How well users can learn and use a product to achieve their goals, and how satisfied they are with the process </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Dumas and Ginny Redish: </li></ul><ul><li>How quickly and easily people who use a product can accomplish their tasks </li></ul>
    10. 10. What Does Usability Measure? <ul><li>It measures the quality of a user’s experience in terms of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness and efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ease in learning and remembering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Error handling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Error-free process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understandable error messages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recoverability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the look and feel compatible with the purpose? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do users regard the design as pleasant/satisfying? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Why Should We Be Interested? <ul><li>Millions of web sites offer similar functions/goods/services, but may be difficult to use </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately these sites won’t attract or keep users </li></ul><ul><li>Usability increases users’ abilities to find information and their satisfaction with web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Saves $ by reducing help desk calls and fewer re-designs </li></ul>
    12. 12. The Importance of a Usable Web Site <ul><li>User Interface Engineering, Inc.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People cannot find the information they seek on web sites 60% of the time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People will take 7 seconds before giving up on a site </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jakob Nielsen: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies of user behavior on the Web find a low tolerance for difficult designs or slow sites. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users don’t want to learn how to use a home page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People have to be able to grasp the functioning of the site immediately after scanning the home page </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. What is User Centered Design?
    14. 14. UCD as a Methodology <ul><li>UCD, also called usability engineering, is a structured approach that involves users throughout the web development life cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing alternative design prototypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing user interface issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development and testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolving accessibility issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. The ROI of Usability <ul><li>Find usability problems early when they are easier and less expensive to fix </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>63% of all software projects overrun their budget or estimate </li></ul><ul><li>80% of maintenance cost is due to unmet or unforeseen user requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of fixing a problem is 10x more in development than in design </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of fixing a problem is 100x more in production than in design </li></ul><ul><li>Usable systems save money by reducing development time and the amount of required maintenance </li></ul>
    16. 16. Ways to Integrate Usability <ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn about users ideas/preferences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual/Contextual Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn details of specific user’s processes and ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and describe a typical user and design for them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use Cases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Describe how users will use each feature </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Ways to Integrate Usability <ul><li>Writing for the Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimize content based on the way users read online </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terminology Reviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn whether planned terminology is understandable/appropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Card Sorts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn how users expect content to be categorized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inspection Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heuristic inspections based on guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persona-based inspections </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Ways to Integrate Usability <ul><li>Usability Testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper prototypes (early on) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design mock-ups (electronic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing a working prototype (possibly multiple rounds) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benchmark testing (implemented product) </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Ways to Integrate Usability <ul><li>Accessibility Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated compliance checking (first step) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands-on heuristic review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing with participants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online Surveys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn what users think about an implemented product </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Seeing a Design from the User’s Perspective
    21. 21. Recognizing Your Users <ul><li>Who are your users and how will they use the web site? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify main user groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the key characteristics of each group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demographics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job title and major responsibilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goals and tasks with respect to your web site </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environment/Context for use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expected attitude toward your web site </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Using Personas <ul><li>A persona is a fictional person who represents a major user group for your site </li></ul><ul><li>Personas give design teams a way to look at a web site from a particular user group’s perspective </li></ul><ul><li>A fictional name and picture may help to make the persona seem more “real” </li></ul>
    23. 23. Using Personas: Activity He is a Minnesota resident moving to North Dakota to take a position as a bank manager in Minot. He needs to get a North Dakota Driver’s License. “ I’m going to be really busy with my new job. I hope I don’t have to take my driver’s tests all over again just because I’m moving.”
    24. 24. Using Personas: Activity <ul><li>Name: </li></ul><ul><li>Age: </li></ul><ul><li>Position: </li></ul><ul><li>Family: </li></ul><ul><li>Education: </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Use: </li></ul><ul><li>Hobbies: </li></ul>
    25. 25. Using Personas: Activity <ul><li>Look at the North Dakota Department of Transportation page on Licensing and Registration </li></ul><ul><li>Where would the bank manager find information about getting a driver’s license in North Dakota? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify potential usability issues with this page </li></ul><ul><li>Share your issues </li></ul>
    26. 26. Using Personas: Activity <ul><li>The information is located under the link, “What Every Driver Needs to Know” </li></ul><ul><li>Then it’s under the link, “Driver’s License Requirements” </li></ul>
    27. 27. Inspection vs. Usability Testing <ul><li>Advantages of Inspections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inexpensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good process to use before usability testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps put you in the user’s state of mind </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Inspection vs. Usability Testing <ul><li>Drawbacks to Inspections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspections are about users “by proxy” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspection results are not based on observations of user behavior; usability testing directly observes users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 20% of usability issues will be missed, and there may be numerous false identifications, up to 50% </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Suggestions for using Inspections <ul><li>Bring together a small group of stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Identify user categories </li></ul><ul><li>Bring pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Create personas </li></ul><ul><li>Walk through the site from the perspective of each persona </li></ul>
    30. 30. Usability Testing: A Simple Task-Based Approach <ul><li>Preparing for a usability test </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting a usability test </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting and analyzing results </li></ul>
    31. 31. Preparing for a Usability Test <ul><li>Identify usability goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What counts as success? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g.: That the intended users are able to easily and quickly find the information they are seeking on a web site </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify who the users are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify major user categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You may choose to develop personas </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Preparing for a Usability Test <ul><li>Develop participant recruiting criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide how many total participants to test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify how to represent the target audience in the recruiting categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify sources for recruiting lists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recruit participants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure that recruiting communications do not give away exactly what will be tested </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Preparing for a Usability Test <ul><li>Identify typical tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These should be things for which users would normally use the web site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For each task, develop a plausible scenario for completing the task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give motivation, but not specific instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid matchup of words between web site and scenario text </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Preparing for a Usability Test <ul><li>Sample Scenario </li></ul><ul><li>“ You are an undergraduate student at the University of Minnesota. You have lost your University Identification Card. Find out how to replace it and if there is any cost to do so. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Preparing for a Usability Test <ul><li>Develop debriefing questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open-ended questions to get information that won’t be obtained through observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These should be about the overall experience of using the site </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Conducting a Usability Test <ul><li>Participant Consent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each participant should read and sign a participant consent form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consent to be observed, recorded, and quoted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“Think Aloud” protocol during task completion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example of our briefing </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Conducting a Usability Test <ul><li>Observers take notes on usability issues encountered by the participant </li></ul><ul><li>In a lab, the team watches from a separate room </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Team members see problems first-hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No disagreement about the existence of issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business experts can identify issues that technical staff would miss and vice versa </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Conducting a Usability Test <ul><li>May want to record audio and/or video </li></ul><ul><li>Could record the screen as an .avi file </li></ul><ul><li>Limit total number of observers in the same room as the participant to 3 or fewer </li></ul>
    39. 39. Activity: Usability Demo <ul><li>A volunteer from the audience, please </li></ul><ul><li>A demonstration of how the completion of a scenario would work in a usability session </li></ul><ul><li>The rest of the audience will act as “observers” and take notes on what they see </li></ul>
    40. 40. Activity: Usability Demo <ul><li>Scenario </li></ul><ul><li>You are moving permanently to Aurora, Illinois (in the Chicago area). You currently hold a valid Minnesota driver’s license. Use the web site to find out where to go and what to bring to obtain an Illinois driver’s license. You want to find out whether you will be required to take a road test. </li></ul><ul><li>Web site: </li></ul><ul><li>http:// /departments/ drivers/ drivers_license/home.html </li></ul>
    41. 41. Activity: Usability Demo <ul><li>Debriefing Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How would you characterize your experience of using the web site? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What seemed to be easy about the site? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What seemed difficult or confusing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was there anything that you expected that you didn’t find? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What did you think of the appearance of the site? </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Activity: Usability Demo <ul><li>What usability issues </li></ul><ul><li>did you see? </li></ul>
    43. 43. Conducting a Usability Test <ul><li>Debriefing the participant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your debriefing questions should be open-ended </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One more technique before they leave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present a Desirability Matrix, and ask the participant to choose the 5 words that most accurately describe the site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can then ask why the participant chose those words </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Desirability Matrix
    45. 45. Collecting and Analyzing Results <ul><li>Debriefing the observers (the team) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Document usability issues that the observers saw in the session </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usability Results Spreadsheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do this immediately after the session, so events are remembered more accurately </li></ul></ul>
    46. 47. Collecting and Analyzing Results <ul><li>Presentation of Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every evaluation should provide something to refer back to later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usability Results Spreadsheet, organized by severity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly a usability evaluation report summarizing goals, methodology, and results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attach any recordings </li></ul></ul></ul>
    47. 48. Wrap Up: Some Basic Principles <ul><li>The usability process is intended to gain information about the user’s experience , not the project team’s </li></ul><ul><li>Project teams benefit by observing the user’s process directly </li></ul><ul><li>Usability testing gives you information about what users actually experience </li></ul><ul><li>You don’t need a lab to conduct usability tests </li></ul>
    48. 49. Usability Lab Open House <ul><li>You’re invited to visit our usability lab in </li></ul><ul><li>B-26 Walter Library </li></ul><ul><li>3:30 – 5:00 p.m. today </li></ul>
    49. 50. Questions? Lee-Ann Kastman Breuch: [email_address] David Rosen: [email_address]
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