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  1. 1. 540-310 Human Factors in Information Seeking and Use Wooseob Jeong
  2. 2. Usability Test Assignment (1) <ul><li>Part I: Select Target Product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide your target device. Anything can be your subject: paper manuals, electronic devices, tools, web sites, software, hardware, but the list should not be limited. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pick one device, and describe what's the thing for: what's the expected function, utility, and advantage? who use it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200 words – No more than 1 page! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plus, “informed consent form” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due on 3/17 (5%) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Usability Test Assignment (2) <ul><li>Part II: Usability Test & Report </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify any usability problems by testing at least three subjects, who should be available easily like your room mates or family members. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before testing, you should carefully develop appropriate tasks. The problems should be addressed in terms of usability perspective, especially time, effort, and error. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on your findings, you should suggest any modification for the improvement of usability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>500-1000 words – tables & figures - 15%  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due on 4/7 </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Logical User-Centered Interactive Design Methodology <ul><li>Develop product concept </li></ul><ul><li>Performance research and needs analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Design concepts and key-screen prototype </li></ul><ul><li>Do iterative design and refinement </li></ul><ul><li>Implement software </li></ul><ul><li>Provide rollout support </li></ul>
  5. 5. Three principles of a user-centered design <ul><li>An early focus on users and tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical measurement of product usage. </li></ul><ul><li>Iterative design whereby a product is designed, modified, and tested repeatedly. </li></ul>
  6. 6. User-centered design techniques <ul><li>Participatory design </li></ul><ul><li>Focus group research </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Design (structured) walk-through </li></ul><ul><li>Paper-and-pencil evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>Expert evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>Usability audit </li></ul><ul><li>Usability testing </li></ul><ul><li>Field studies </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up studies </li></ul>
  7. 7. Participatory Design <ul><li>One or more representative users on the design team itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically used for the development of in-house systems. </li></ul><ul><li>The representative users can become too close to the design team. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Focus Group Research <ul><li>The very early stages of a project in order to evaluate preliminary concepts using representative users. </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous involvement of more than one participant. </li></ul><ul><li>To explore a few people’s judgments and feelings in great depth, and in so doing learn how end users think and feel. </li></ul><ul><li>Structured monitoring </li></ul>
  9. 9. Surveys <ul><li>To understand the preferences of a broad base of users about an existing or potential product. </li></ul><ul><li>It can use larger samples to generalize to an entire population. </li></ul><ul><li>Any time in the life cycle, but early stages are better. </li></ul><ul><li>Languages must be crystal clear and understood in the same way by all readers. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Design (structured) walk-throughs <ul><li>First developed by IBM </li></ul><ul><li>To explore how a user might fare with a product by envisioning the user’s route through an early concept or prototype of the product. </li></ul><ul><li>Guide & monitoring </li></ul>
  11. 11. Paper-and-pencil Evaluation <ul><li>Users are shown an aspect of a product on paper and asked questions about it. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical information can be collected quickly and inexpensively. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex) Menu system, table of contents in HELP. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated conducts without big expense </li></ul>
  12. 12. Expert Evaluation <ul><li>A review of a product or system, usually by a usability specialist who has no involvement in the project. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Double” specialist (usability and the area) is more effective than a usability expert. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Usability Audit/Testing <ul><li>Usability Audit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparing the design of a product against checklists of standards. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usability Testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employs an iterative cycle of tests intended to expose usability deficiencies and gradually shape or mold the product in question. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Field Study <ul><li>Review of a product that has been placed in its natural setting, such as an office or home, just prior to release. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage: the exposure of the product to actual working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: the loss of control over the data collection – minimize the effectiveness by “let us know what you think” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Follow-up Studies <ul><li>Conducted after formal release of a product </li></ul><ul><li>Collect data for the next release, using surveys, interviews, and observations. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, rare! </li></ul>
  16. 16. Goals of Usability Testing (1) <ul><li>Of course, to ensure the creation of products that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are easy to learn and to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are satisfying to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide utility and functionality that are highly valued by the target population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specifically, … </li></ul>
  17. 17. Goals of Usability Testing (2) <ul><li>Creating a historical record of usability benchmarks for future releases. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimizing the cost of service and hotline calls. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing sales and the probability of repeat sales. </li></ul><ul><li>Acquiring a competitive edge since usability has become a market separator for products. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimizing risk. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Five Usability Attributes (1) <ul><li>Learnability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The system should be easy to learn so that the user can rapidly start getting some work done with the system. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The system should be efficient to use, so that once the user has learned the system, a high level of productivity is possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Memorability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The system should be easy to remember, so that the casual user is able to return to the system after some period of not having used it, without having to learn everything all over again. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Five Usability Attributes (2) <ul><li>Errors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The system should have a low error rate, so that users make few errors during the use of the system, and so that if they do make errors they can easily recover from them. Further, catastrophic errors must not occur. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The system should be pleasant to use, so that users are subjectively satisfied when using it; they like it. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Limitations of Usability Testing <ul><li>Testing is always an artificial situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Test results do not prove that a product works. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants are rarely full representative of the target population. </li></ul><ul><li>Testing is not always the best technique to use. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Usability Lab Tours <ul><li>http://www.sois.uwm.edu/Jeong/540310/usability_tour.htm </li></ul><ul><li>In-class demo! </li></ul><ul><li>Career Development </li></ul><ul><li>Rubin, Jeffrey (1994) Handbook of Usability Testing, Wiley. 0-471-59403-2 </li></ul>
  22. 22. Four Types of Usability Tests <ul><li>Exploratory Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminary stage; skeleton </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessment Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle stage; most typical; body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Validation Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Late stage; verification, just before release </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comparison Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different interfaces in the same product; with competitors’ products </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Informed Consent Form <ul><li>Participants should always be treated with respect and should be informed that it is not they who are being tested; rather, it is the software and user interface that are under study. </li></ul><ul><li>They should be told about what they will be doing and how long they will be expected to stay. </li></ul><ul><li>Participation should always be voluntary, and informed consent should be obtained. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Example of Informed Consent Form <ul><li>http://www.sois.uwm.edu/jeong/540310/consent.htm </li></ul><ul><li>“ I have freely volunteered to participate in this experiment.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I have been informed in advance what my task(s) will be and what procedures will be followed.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I have been given the opportunity to ask questions and have had my questions answered to my satisfaction.” </li></ul><ul><li>IRB approval waived in classroom. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Typical Test Routine <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make participants comfortable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pre-questionnaire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background info like age, sex, experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk Aloud </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-questionnaire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmation of test results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Debriefing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrap-up conversation </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Task Component and Description <ul><li>Task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Load paper into the copier. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Machine State </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copier with four labels attached and an empty cassette tray. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Successful Completion Criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test subject loads paper into cassette after first fanning the stack of paper. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benchmark </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Load correctly within one minute. </li></ul></ul>