Middle colonies-founding

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Middle colonies-founding

  1. 1. The Founding of the Middle Colonies
  2. 2. The “Middle Colonies”: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware <ul><li>Home to several previous non-English settlements: Dutch in New Netherlands, Swedes on Delaware Bay </li></ul><ul><li>Several large, powerful Indian tribes in the area: Iroquois Nation, Lenni Lenape (the Delawares) </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the “second wave” of English colonization after 1660 </li></ul><ul><li>Became most ethnically and religiously diverse part of the American colonies </li></ul>
  3. 3. Charles II and the “Restoration” <ul><li>Stuart monarchy restored in 1660 </li></ul><ul><li>New English attention to its American colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Charles created several “proprietary” colonies to reward his supporters </li></ul><ul><li>Actual form of government in each colony depended on the will of its proprietor </li></ul>
  4. 4. Colony of New York <ul><li>Named for James, Duke of York (younger brother of King Charles II) </li></ul><ul><li>Originally it was founded by the Dutch as New Netherlands (town of New Amsterdam) </li></ul><ul><li>English defeated Dutch in war in 1650s </li></ul><ul><li>New Amsterdam became New York City in 1664 </li></ul><ul><li>Many Dutch remained there but no longer governed the colony </li></ul>
  5. 6. William Penn <ul><li>Son of an English admiral, became a Quaker </li></ul><ul><li>Inherited father’s proprietorship, founded Pennsylvania in 1681 </li></ul><ul><li>1) Established policy of religious toleration for all; 2) sought good relations with Indians; 3) encouraged German immigration to Pa. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Penn’s Treaty with the Indians
  7. 8. Edward Hicks, “The Peaceable Kingdom,” 1834 (American folk-art)
  8. 9. Typical Early Quaker Meetinghouse
  9. 10. Early Quaker settlements <ul><li>Established Philadephia (“City of Brotherly Love”) in 1682 </li></ul><ul><li>Most Quakers lived in and around Philadelphia and the Delaware Valley (including New Jersey) </li></ul><ul><li>Some Quakers also lived in Rhode Island, New York, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina </li></ul>
  10. 11. Germans in early Pennsylvania <ul><li>Mainly settled just west of Quakers, in a rich agricultural area </li></ul><ul><li>Included a variety of Protestant groups: Lutheran, Reformed, Mennonite, Amish </li></ul><ul><li>Known as “Pennsylvania Dutch” (Deutsch) </li></ul>
  11. 12. The Scots-Irish <ul><li>Immigrated from Ulster (northern Ireland) in the 18 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly came for economic reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Moved west and south throughout the “back- </li></ul><ul><li>country” Appalachian area to get more land </li></ul><ul><li>Some came into conflict with Indians living there </li></ul>
  12. 13. The Quest for Liberty in the Middle Colonies <ul><li>Most people tended to live in areas with others of same ethnic background </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of community was less than in New England </li></ul><ul><li>Liberty was a practical necessity for different groups to get along </li></ul><ul><li>Some whites experienced poverty & hardship as indentured servants </li></ul><ul><li>Enslavement of Africans was the most glaring denial of liberty in the middle colonies </li></ul>
  13. 14. A New England Puritan couple and a Quaker couple – can you tell which one is which? Why?

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