Middle colonies-founding
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Middle colonies-founding

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Middle colonies-founding Middle colonies-founding Presentation Transcript

  • The Founding of the Middle Colonies
  • The “Middle Colonies”: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware
    • Home to several previous non-English settlements: Dutch in New Netherlands, Swedes on Delaware Bay
    • Several large, powerful Indian tribes in the area: Iroquois Nation, Lenni Lenape (the Delawares)
    • Part of the “second wave” of English colonization after 1660
    • Became most ethnically and religiously diverse part of the American colonies
  • Charles II and the “Restoration”
    • Stuart monarchy restored in 1660
    • New English attention to its American colonies
    • Charles created several “proprietary” colonies to reward his supporters
    • Actual form of government in each colony depended on the will of its proprietor
  • Colony of New York
    • Named for James, Duke of York (younger brother of King Charles II)
    • Originally it was founded by the Dutch as New Netherlands (town of New Amsterdam)
    • English defeated Dutch in war in 1650s
    • New Amsterdam became New York City in 1664
    • Many Dutch remained there but no longer governed the colony
  •  
  • William Penn
    • Son of an English admiral, became a Quaker
    • Inherited father’s proprietorship, founded Pennsylvania in 1681
    • 1) Established policy of religious toleration for all; 2) sought good relations with Indians; 3) encouraged German immigration to Pa.
  • Penn’s Treaty with the Indians
  • Edward Hicks, “The Peaceable Kingdom,” 1834 (American folk-art)
  • Typical Early Quaker Meetinghouse
  • Early Quaker settlements
    • Established Philadephia (“City of Brotherly Love”) in 1682
    • Most Quakers lived in and around Philadelphia and the Delaware Valley (including New Jersey)
    • Some Quakers also lived in Rhode Island, New York, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina
  • Germans in early Pennsylvania
    • Mainly settled just west of Quakers, in a rich agricultural area
    • Included a variety of Protestant groups: Lutheran, Reformed, Mennonite, Amish
    • Known as “Pennsylvania Dutch” (Deutsch)
  • The Scots-Irish
    • Immigrated from Ulster (northern Ireland) in the 18 th century
    • Mostly came for economic reasons
    • Moved west and south throughout the “back-
    • country” Appalachian area to get more land
    • Some came into conflict with Indians living there
  • The Quest for Liberty in the Middle Colonies
    • Most people tended to live in areas with others of same ethnic background
    • Sense of community was less than in New England
    • Liberty was a practical necessity for different groups to get along
    • Some whites experienced poverty & hardship as indentured servants
    • Enslavement of Africans was the most glaring denial of liberty in the middle colonies
  • A New England Puritan couple and a Quaker couple – can you tell which one is which? Why?