Forest type Tropical rainforest Tropical monsoon Mangrove forest Coniferous Forest (TRF) forest (TMF) (MGR) (CNF)Climate Tropical equatorial Tropical monsoon Tropical climate. Cool temperate(Precipitation, climate. climate. climate.temperature) High RF. High RF, High RF, Low PPT, RF > 1500mm. RF > 1500 mm. High temp. 300 < RF < 635mm High temp, High temp, Small ATR, Low temp, temp > 27°C. temp about 26°C. MAT is high. subzero is normal. Small ATR, Larger ATR than Largest ATR, MAT is high. TRF, MAT is high. MAT is very low. Distinct wet and dry 4 seasons in a year: seasons. Affected Spr, Sum, Fall, Winter by monsoonal winds. Winter is coldest.Distribution LTT: 10° N&S LTT: 10°-25° N&S LTT: 25° N&S LTT: 60° to 70° N(Latitudes, majorareas, conditions) Major areas: Major areas: Major areas: Major areas: 1. Amazon Basin 1. S China 1. Cent America 1. Canada 2. Congo Basin 2. S India 2. Africa 2. USA 3. SE Asia 3. SE Asia 3. SE Asia (esp 3. Norway 4. N Australia MAS and INA) 4. Finland 5. Sweden Found in areas with Found in sheltered 6. Russia monsoonal changes. coastal areas with brackish waters only.Density Very dense and Less dense than Very dense and Not dense at all.(Overall, luxuriant. Sparse TRF. Still very luxuriant. Sparseundergrowth) undergrowth. dense esp during undergrowth. EXP: Low PPT & low wet season. Dense temp cannot support EXP: High RF & high undergrowth. EXP: High RF & dense veg growth. temp through- out the high temp through- year enc growth. EXP: No interlock- out the year enc Interlock- ing canopy ing canopy to block growth. Interlock- ing blocks sunlight from sunlight. During wet canopy blocks passing to lower layers. season, high RF & sunlight from passing high temp enc growth. to lower layers. During dry season, leaves are lost and forest appears sparse.Structure 5 distinct layers. 3 distinct layers. 3 distinct zones. No distinct layers or(Layers/Zones) zones. Emergent (30-50) Canopy (15-30) Coastal -Thick, tall, str trunks. - More spread out. - Nearest the sea. Creepers, vines, parasitic Avicennia, Sonneratia Canopy (15-30) plants, epiphytes found trees found here. - Umbrella-shaped, wide, here. Breathing roots are shallow crowns. found here.
Understorey (6-15) Understorey (6-15) - Oval-shaped crowns, Middle trees grow in gaps, young Undergrowth (0-6) - Rhizophora trees “emergents” and -Bamboo thickets and found here. Prop roots “canopies” found here. grasses grow densely are found here. during the wet season Shrub (0-6) here. Less dense during Inland ---------- - Tree saplings, woody dry season. - Bruguiera trees found plants found here. here. Knee-like roots are found here. Undergrowth (0-5) - Grasses, fungi, mosses found here. Sparse plant growth.Diversity Largest diversity of Less diverse than Halophytes (salt- Very few species. all biomes. Trees for TRF. Hardwoods tolerant plants), Sea Trees for softwood furniture (eg. meranti, (eg. sandalwood, sal, hibiscus and nipah (eg. pine, spruce and fir) kapur) found here. teak) found here. palm found here. found here. Grow in - Inconsistent RF (wet vs pure stands. - High year-round temp - Some plants cannot and RF supports a large dry season) makes it withstand salinity of - Many plants cannot with- plant diversity. hard for plants to brackish waters. stand the low temp and low flourish. ppt.Leaves - Evergreen - Deciduous - Evergreen - Evergreen - No need to shed leaves - Reduces loss of water - No seasonal changes - Maximises every bit of all at one time as there is a thru transpiration during hence no need to shed time when temp is above constant high RF all year dry season, leaves grow leaves all at one time. 6°C to photosynthesise round. rapidly during wet season. - Salt-removing - Needle-like - Broad abilities - Small surface area to - Maximises area for - Narrow leaves - Secrete excess salt or reduce loss of water thru photosynthesis. - Reduces loss of water store salt in dropped off transpiration. thru transpiration esp leaf to reduce the - Waxy w/drip tips during dry season. amount of salt in them. - Stores water - Allow rainwater to drain - Uses stored water during off, preventing growth of - Waxy w/drip tips - Broad winter when there is little harmful bacteria. - Allow rainwater to - Maximises area for water in the frozen ground. drain off, preventing photosynthesis. - Leathery growth of harmful - Allows leaves to bacteria. - Waxy w/drip tips withstand high temp. - Allow rainwater to - Leathery drain off, preventing - Allows leaves to growth of harmful withstand high temp. bacteria. - Leathery - Allows leaves to withstand high temp.Bark, branches - Smooth and thin - Coarse and thick - Thick bark - No need for protection - Protects tree from heat - Protects plants from long, against cold or dry and dryness during dry cold winters. conditions season, helps protects during common forest ---------- - Branches high up fires. - Flexible branches - Reach for sunlight as the - Slopes downwards to slide lower, the darker it is due - Branches in centre off snow, prevents collect- to interlocking canopy. - More sunlight ion of snow that may break penetrates down as branches. forest is less dense.
- Conical shape ---------- ---------- ---------- - Helps withstand strong winds, trees sway and not collapse.Fruits and flowers - Colourful and - Flower and fruit - Fr of Avicennia: - Cones sweet-smelling during dry season buoyant - Female cones produces - Attract pollinators while they are - When dropped into seeds, males produce pollen (insects and small leafless. water, currents carry - Dispersed by wind or animals) as air is still them away to a coast animals below canopy. where they take root. - Flowers & fruits - Fr of Rhizophora: thru-out the year elongated, sharp - High temp and RF all tips, germinate year round allow growth. while on tree - Sharp tips anchor fruit into muddy soil. - Grow rapidly as they would have already germinated. - Fl of Bruguiera: colourful - Bright red lantern- shaped flowers attract pollinators.Roots - Shallow, spreading - Deep tap roots - R of Sonneratia: - Shallow, spreading - Leaf litter decomposes - Irregular rainfall causes Breathing roots - Absorb water from - Help in aeration as it to form humus. Nutrients roots to be deep so that melting snow on surface. grows in oxygen- are most plentiful near they can get water from deprived soil. surface. underground. - Do not need to dig deep - R of Rhizophora: for water as plenty of Prop roots water near surface. - Anchor plant firmly to the muddy soil. - Buttress roots - Thick and spread out to - R of Bruguiera: support great weight of Knee-like roots trees. - Provide firm support on the soft soil.How to remember Remember: EVERY Remember: Remember: BRAS CHILD USES SOFT CHOOSING UGLY NEED PROPER UNDERWEARS UMBRELLAS BOOBS (Emergent, Canopy, (Canopy, (Bruguiera, Understorey, Shrub, Understorey, Rhizophora, Undergrowth) Undergrowth) Avicennia, Sonneratia, Knee-like roots, Prop roots, Breathing roots)