Physical GEOG: Chapter 11 - Deforestation in Kalimantan, Indonesia
Cause Explanation - Population increase was due to resettlement programme to move people from Java and Sumatra to Kalimantan. - New settlers with small holdings clear land to grow crops for sale. Motivated by profit, these settlers clear more forestsIncrease in demand for agricultural landuse to extend their farmland. - Plantation companies demand land esp for oil palm plantations. Being relatively cheap and highly profitable, these companies burn much land to grow their plantations. - Urbanisation (growth and expansion of towns/cities) brings about an increase in population and demand for land for housing because opportunities for employment are pull Growth of settlements factors. - Example: The growth of Balikpapan, a city in E Kalimantan, caused the size of the adjacent Sungei Wain TRF to decrease from 98.7km2 in 1997 to 35km2 in 1998. - Transport networks (eg. roads and railway tracks) link settlements in Kalimantan. They require forest land to be cleared so that the roads or tracks can be built. Improved transport networks - Example: Trans-Kalimantan Highway built to link Balikpapan and Banjarmasin but they had to clear the forested area to build it. - TRFs are cleared to support industrial activities. Being rich in natural resources such as wood and minerals, demand for such has increased, leading to more clearing of forests. - Heavy logging is a result of the rapid rate of which wood is Growth of industries processed and exported. Timber companies speed up the pace of logging and it is worsened by illegal logging. - Minerals (eg. gold, silver) extracted to mining where forests are cleared of their vegetation before dug to extract the ores. - Forest fires are deliberately set by plantation companies to Forest fires clear the land for their plantations. Being cheap and relatively quick, there is no need to hire labourers to clear the forest.
Problem Explanation - The biomass (combined weight of all organisms in kcal) is the highest in TRF. - Deforestation in Kalimantan causes the Earth’s biomass to decrease. - Reduction of biomass reduces the ability of the TRFs to support biodiversity. When plants are Loss in biomass removed, animals higher up the food chain may die. - Reduction of biomass also reduces the amount of nutrients in the ecosystem that supports the plants. O (biomass) o (leaf litter) O (soil) *Amount of nutrients in leaf litter is less as rapid decomposition of leaf litter releases nutrients into soil. - Due to deforestation, the biodiversity in Loss in biodiversity Kalimantan TRF is reduced, which leads to extinction of species as habitats are destroyed. - Removal of vegetation reduces amount of leaf litter and reduces the amount of nutrients in the soil (affects nutrient cycle) Changes in nutrient cycle - Soil leaching occurs as there are no roots, soil becomes infertile and soon cannot support vegetation growth. - REFER TO CHAPTER 10. - Example: Floods occurred in 2001 in EChanges in quantity of water Kalimantan cities of Samarinda and Balikpapan located near logged Taman Nasional Kutai.Changes in quality of water - REFER TO CHAPTER 10. - When trees are burnt, dust and smoke released into the air are suspended in the air causing haze. - Strong winds blow smoke and dust to neighbour- ing countries, Singapore and Malaysia. Air pollution - Causes eye, nose and throat irritations, coughs, headaches and lung infections. Example: Flights cancelled due to poor visibility in 1997-98, tourism affected.
Policy Description + - Example In afforestation, trees Teak trees can Not possible to Replanting has are planted in areas restore forests restore large covered only that were not quickly as they areas of Kali- 90,000km2 while originally covered take 5 years to mantan because the area reduced with forests. Usually mature as rate of clearing is by deforestation carried out in compared to 20 higher than rate is 250,000km2 in abandoned farmland. years for a TRF of replanting. 2000-01. tree. This slow rate is In reforestation, trees Afforestion and due to the are planted in areas Teak is also a reforestation inattractiveness that were formerly commercially of these projects. forested. valued tree that can grow in TRFs. Original biodiversity is lost as only teak is planted and it can only support certain flora and fauna. Ministry of Forestry Enables forest to Difficult to (MOF) introduced regenerate, new monitor logging laws to ensure trees able to rep- and detect illegal careful logging. lace old trees as logging due to Severe penalties are overcrowding at lack of man- enforced on irresp- canopy is reduced. power and onsible companies. remoteness of Education and rese- Minimises soil forest areas, erosion as arch programmes leading to more compared to clearControlled logging carried out to ensure forests cut down. -------- cutting as there that they are are more trees and Selective cutting informed of the more roots to hold is as damaging damage. the soil together. as clear cutting. Selective cutting Neighbouring ensures that only trees are pulled commercially valued down when trees trees are cut down are connected via leaving other trees lianas. behind. Betung Kerihun Nature reserves Many species of Illegal logging Nature Reserve is where activities that flora and fauna still goes undet- largest NR. Home do not damage the are protected as ected due to lack to a diverse range TRF (eg ecotourism) their habitats are of manpower and of animals (eg. Conservation are allowed and not destroyed. size of area acc orang utans). It encouraged. to ‘Treasure increases the prot- Island at Risk’ ected areas and report in 2005. manages the reserve sustain- ably.
Government bans Slight decrease in Haze continues use of fires to clear amount of hot- to occur annual- forests. Introduced spots and forest ly in Southeast measures to monitor fires over the Asia because forest fires thru Inte- years. plantation grated Forest Fires companies still Protection System choose to burn (1994) and National forests.Controlling forest Fire Management -------- fires Plan (1999). Annual Many locals are forest fires aware- reluctant to stop ness campaigns are burning as a way conducted to of land clearing discourage the locals as they are used from using fire to to traditional clear forests. farming methods passed down the generations.