Physical GEOG: Chapter 10 - Forests as a Resource
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  • 1. Function Type of benefit Description  Evapotranspiration gives off water vapour  Condenses to form clouds and soon rain  Rain falls, replenishing water bodies AND Maintaining quantity of water Ecological  Rain is intercepted by leaves and branches  Do not fall directly to the ground.  Reduces surface runoff  Increases infiltration  Greater volume of groundwater  Continuous water flow to water bodies  Soil layers help filter impurities (trapping them between pore spaces)  Rainwater seeps further to form groundwater Maintaining quality of water Ecological AND  Rain is intercepted by veg cover  Reduces speed and flow of water  Less soil particles picked up into rivers  CO2: taken in by plants during photosynthesis Replenishing O2, Ecological  O2: given out by plants during photosynthesis Removing CO2  Regulates global temperatures  Decomposing fallen trees and leaf litter releases nutrients back into soil increasing nutrient content ANDMaintaining nutrients in the soil Ecological  Roots of trees hold soil particles  Prevent nutrient loss during soil erosion by wind or water, quality of soil maintained  Roots of trees hold soil particles  Reduces soil erosion on river bed Preventing floods Ecological/Social  Deposition of sediment makes river shallow  Reduces ability of river to contain water  MGR forests absorb energy of waves Protecting coasts Ecological/Social  Reduces soil erosion as roots hold soil particles
  • 2.  Roots of MGR trap waste materials  Filter the water before it flows into seaNatural treatment of waste water Ecological  Bacteria in soil of MGR break down biodegradable wastes, convert them to nutrients.  Forests are homes to more than half of all species of flora and fauna in the world. Habitat for flora and fauna Ecological  TRF: tigers and rare species of orchids of MAS  CFR: grizzly bears of N America  Timber: paper and furniture  Rattan: furniture and baskets  Fuelwood, charcoal: heating and cooking  Sago, midin, forest animals: consumption  Quinine in Cinchona: drug against malaria  Bark of Eastern White Pine tree: cough syrup Source of useful materials Economic  Tannin in Rhizophora: treatment of leather  Sap of east African mangroves: black dyes  Resin: wood varnishes and ointments  Forests are a renewable resource (+)  Takes 40 years before maturity (-)  Forests are cleared faster than they regrow  60 mil people live in TRFs of Southeast Asia, Habitat for people Social South America & Africa.  Example: Korubu tribe in Amazon TRF.  Ecotourism can gain revenue for a country while it does not damage or harm the natural environment. Recreation/Ecotourism Economic  Example: Taman Negara as a national park  Activities (eg. rafting and hiking) are carried out.  Development of new medicines and new varieties of crops thru studying of forest plants  New sources of food and medicines may be Research and Education Social found.  Scientists study animal-plant interactions, weather-animal-plant relationships to understand human-ecosystem relationships