GEOG II - Chap 8 - Managing the Impacts of Tourism
Development of tourism and its related activities can exert pressure on the local communities andphysical environment beyond its carrying capacity as well as create negative influences to the societyand the environment.This is especially harmful to fragile physical environments like coasts, forests and mountains which aremost vulnerable to mass tourism.Sustainable tourism:Tourism that meets the needs of tourists and the host country while protecting and enhancingopportunities for future generations. Who is responsible? Why? Example 1. Planning authorities/ Planning authorities (local/national To guard against the negative government government agencies) play a crucial experience of tourism, the role in controlling the rate and scale of government of Bhutan development in tourist areas. accepted only 18 000 tourists in 2006 and charged tourists They may also choose to develop a about US$240/day for their certain aspect of tourism as part of entire trip. their national development strategy (eg. medical tourism) In Singapore’s drive to become a regional medical However, some countries face hub, the government has difficulties in enforcing laws and been proactively promoting regulations on proper tourist behaviour medical tourism. as they lack sufficient funds to employ park rangers to patrol protected In Kalimantan, the lack of reserves or to train more park funds to hire park rangers to personnel. take care of Betung Kerihun Nature Reserve hence illegal cutting is still prevalent. 2. Businesses Businesses should put aside economic The International Tourism gains sometimes to think of long-term Partnership, a worldwide solutions against the impacts of membership organisation for tourism. commercial businesses in the tourism sector has provided These may include implementing practical guidelines for hotel measures to conserve energy and businesses to adopt (like the water, education to guests and staff, one on the left) encouraging purchase of local products and employing local people and providing means for guests to be involved in local community development projects.
3. Tourists Tourists also must learn about the For example, tourists must culture, traditions and background of a understand the need of destination to better appreciate the removing footwear at certain locals’ way of life, as well as the places of worship such as problems they face. mosques and Hindu temples so that they will not annoy They also must pay attention to the the locals. local customs at their travel destinations to avoid irritating them. 4. Non-governmental Independent pressure groups or The World Wide Fund for organisations/NGOs campaigning organisations that are Nature (WWF) and Inter- usually non profit-oriented are formed national Ecotourism Society to defend or promote a specific cause (TIES) are two NGOs that such as conserving a natural attraction. conserve natural places like coasts and forests. They conduct campaigns, solicit signatures for petitions or organise In Singapore, the Nature protests to exert pressure against the Society, Singapore (NSS) development of places which may conducted campaigns and negatively affect them. had a petition against the development of Chek Jawa and successfully protected it.Type of sustainable + - Example tourism1. Ecotourism Local guides lead tourists Tour guides of such Perhentian, Redang, along jungle or cave trips and nature-based tours do Tioman has been Def*: Responsible this creates employment for not guarantee that famous ecotourism travel to natural the local people in the tourism care has been taken spots among tourists. areas that industry. by tourists and tour conserves the operators to minimise Jungle trekking in environment and This also minimises leakage negative impacts. Perhentian, snorkelling improves the well- as tour guides do not come in Perhentian, the being of the local from the tourist generating Visitor numbers are airstrip at the edge of people areas but comes from the not controlled as tour the mangroves in locals. agencies see more Redang, demand of tourists as more water for pools, build- income. ing of chalets on rocks and slopes in Redang, water pollution of coliform in Tioman are the negative impacts of ecotourism on these islands.
Type of sustainable + - Example tourism2. Community-based By consulting local The lack of knowledge Umphang, Thailand is tourism communities on guidelines to to manage the a small district located manage the impacts of development of tourism in north western Def*: Process of tourism and getting their in a sustainable manner Thailand which is rich tourism develop- support, misunderstandings in the villagers may in forests and wildlife ment and manage- between by locals and tour cause them to, for resources. ment that operators can be minimised. example, catch includes, consults endangered animals for Through programs like and benefits the Locals get to enjoy shows for tourists. Public Campaign Plan local community economical benefits as they (where locals are made especially in the earn and share the revenue Only a small portion aware of the tourism context of rural they receive from tourists of a tourist’s total plans of that place) and villages and from activities like leading expenditure goes to Handicraft Promotion indigenous people jungle excursions or teaching the local community (training for locals to in LDCs them traditional handicraft. which is insufficient to help them to make and fund more projects as sell souvenirs), locals most of their are included in tourism expenditure goes to air plans in that area. travel and foreign tour operators. Local tourism operators are also Unrealistic educated on import- expectations of tourists ance of environmental might lead them to protection and guest become dissatisfied safety and security. with the rural settings Travel agencies are resulting in conflict locally owned and between tourists and operated and this locals. creates jobs for the local people.