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Visual Dictionary - Soffit


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  • 1. Visual Dictionary
  • 2. Air Barrier Paper Definition – Air barriers control air leakage into and out of the building envelope. This allows for more durable buildings as moisture is kept out and also results in significant energy savings.
  • 3. Attic Ventilation Ridge Vent Gable Vent These are needed to allow air to circulate in and out of a gable roof at the ridge Needed to release heat and humidity from the attic
  • 4. Attic Ventilation Cont’d Roof Turbine These are needed to pull air from the attic space
  • 5. Attic Ventilation Cont’d Soffit Vent Needed to allow air to flow into the attic or the space below the roof sheathing
  • 6. Backhoe Definition – A hydraulic excavating machine consisting of a tractor having an attached hinged boom, with a bucket with movable jaws on the end of the boom. They are used for excavation and other earth work projects. The bucket on this backhoe is 3’ or 1 yard.
  • 7. Batter Boards Definition – A temporary frame built just outside the corner of an excavation to carry marks that lie on the surface planes of the basement that will be built in the excavation. These are used to pull a string on the center of the boards in order to quickly put in dowels.
  • 8. Brick Arches Arch Type Segmental Semicircular Arch with a Keystone
  • 9. Brick Bonds Running – Every course is a row of offset stretchers Flemish – Every course is a row of offset alternating stretchers and headers
  • 10. Brick Bonds (cont’d.) Rowlocks Sailors Soldier Headers
  • 11. Brick Sizes Modular brick (3 5/8 “ x 2 ¼” x 7 5/8”) Standard Brick (3 ½” x 2 ¼” x 8”)
  • 12. Bulldozer Definition – a caterpillar tracked tractor, equipped with a substantial metal plate (dozer blade), used to push large quantities of soil, sand, rubble, etc., during construction work.
  • 13. Cladding Wood Shingles are sawn while Wood Shakes are split. This building has a veneer of Wood Shakes.
  • 14. Cladding Cont’d EFIS Clad Structure Stone Clad Structure (random rubble) Brick Clad Structure
  • 15. Cladding Cont’d Wood Board Clad Structure
  • 16. Code Requirements Measurements of open area when open : Width (31”), Height (27”), Area (5.85 sf), Sill Height AFF (26 ½”) IBC Requirements are W (min of 20”), H (min of 24”), A (min of 5.7 sf), for a SH AFF less than 44” This window meets all of the requirements for an egress window
  • 17. Code Requirements Cont’d This stairway has a 11” Tread and A 8” Rise. The IBC code requirements for this type of stairs is a minimum of 10” Tread and a maximum of 7 ¾” Rise. This stairway does not meet IBC code because the Rise of the stairs is greater than 7 ¾”.
  • 18. Concrete Joints Crack Control Joint Control Joint – An intentional, linear discontinuity in a structure or component, designed to form a plane of weakness where cracking can occur in response to various forces so as to minimize or eliminate cracking elsewhere in the structure.
  • 19. Concrete Joints Cont’d Isolation Joint – used to relieve flexural stresses due to vertical movement of slab-on-grade applications that adjoin fixed foundation elements such as columns, building or machinery foundations, etc. Being Isolated: Column from Slab Slab from Slab
  • 20. Concrete Masonry Unit 4” CMU 10” CMU Definition and Important aspects of Concrete Masonry Units (CMU) - A block of hardened concrete, with or without hollow cores, designed to be laid in the same manner as a brick or stone. CMU’s are made of Portland cement and aggregates (sand and gravel). The typical dimensions for a CMU are 8” high by 16” long and the width can range anywhere from 4” to 12”, but the common width is 8”. 3 Courses Brick = 1 course CMU
  • 21. Decorative Concrete Masonry Unit Split Block
  • 22. Decorative CMU Cont’d Ribbed Block
  • 23. Doors Exterior Flush Door Exterior 6 Panel Door Top Rail Stile Panel Lock Rail Bottom Rail
  • 24. Doors Cont’d Transom – A small window directly above a door. Sidelight – A tall, narrow window alongside a door.
  • 25. Electrical Components Meter Service Head Duplex Receptacle Service Panel Where the 3 wires enter the building Holds the meter to measure power usage. The control center for electrical circuits in the building. Used to transfer the electricity to appliances, or equipment
  • 26. Electrical Cont’d Power Pole with a Transformer Transforms the power coming from the power plant, to a lower voltage to be transferred to a designated location, i.e. house, jobsite, etc.
  • 27. Framing Elements #1) Anchor Bolt #2) Sill Plate
  • 28. Framing Cont’d #3) Floor Joists #4) Subflooring
  • 29. Framing Cont’d #5) Sole Plate #6) Stud #7) Top Plate
  • 30. Framing Cont’d #8) Ceiling Joist #9) Rafter
  • 31. Framing Cont’d #11) Sheating #10) Roof Decking #12) Stringer
  • 32. Front End Loader Definition - A type of tractor that has a front mounted square wide bucket connected to the end of two booms to scoop up loose material from the ground and move it from one place to another without pushing the material across the ground. The Front End Loader differs from a backhoe in that the bucket is not designed to deep into the ground. It differs from a bulldozer in that it is meant to pick up materials in its bucket rather than push it across the ground.
  • 33. Gypsum Board Definition – An interior facing panel consisting of a gypsum core sandwiched between paper faces.
  • 34. Heat Pump Air Handling Unit Compressor / Condenser – used to condense a substance from its gaseous to liquid state, typically by cooling it A device used to condition and circulate air as part of an HVAC system. Air handling units usually connect to ductwork that distributes the conditioned air through the building and returns it to the air handling unit. ٭ Advantage of heat pumps – Ability to filter air and control humidity ٭ Disadvantage of heat pumps – Difficult to zone and are bulky
  • 35. Insulation Loose Fill Insulation *Purpose* Insulation is added to buildings for comfort and energy efficiency and used to reduce the rate of heat transfer. Rigid Board Insulation
  • 36. Insulation Cont’d Foamed Insulation
  • 37. Lintel Definition – A beam that carries the load of a wall across a window or door opening
  • 38. Mortar Tooled (Raked) ½” joint Use: Average commercial building – type N Tooled (Concave) 3/8” joint Use: Dudley – type S
  • 39. Oriented Strand Board Definition – A non-veneered building panel product composed of long shreds of wood fiber oriented in specific directions that is manufactured by being bonded together under pressure
  • 40. Plumbing Water Closet A 3” pipe is usually used to drain a water closet Lavatory A 1-½” pipe is usually used for a lavatory
  • 41. Plumbing Cont’d Shower / Tub installed in framing before sheetrock Under mount Kitchen Sink installed in a countertop
  • 42. Plumbing Cont’d Plumbing Roof Vent The VTR (vent through the roof) allows air to flow into the pipes, allowing gravity to push the water through the building, and also make the water less stagnant.
  • 43. Plywood Veneer – A thin layer, sheet, or facing Definition - A wood panel composed of an odd number of layers of wood veneer or veneers in plywood Plywood is manufactured by slicing sheets of material from a log and then laminating three or more veneers into a rectangular sheet.
  • 44. Radiant Barrier Definition – A reflective foil placed adjacent to an airspace in roof or wall assemblies as a deterrent to the passage of infrared energy.
  • 45. Rebar # 8 (1”) Rebar The purpose of the deformations in the rebar is so that the roughness on the rebar can bond better to the concrete
  • 46. Steep Roof Drainage Gutter - A channel that collects rainwater at the eave of a roof. Downspout - A vertical pipe for conducting water from a roof to a lower level Splashblock - A small precast block of concrete or plastic used to divert water at the bottom of a downspout.
  • 47. Steep Roof Materials Clay Tile Roof Underlayment A layer of waterproof material such as building felt between roof sheathing and roofing. Used as a backup when water seeps underneath the tile on a roof. Metal Panel Roof Aluminized steel is typically used
  • 48. Steep Roof Materials Cont’d Shingled Metal Roof Shingle - A small unit of water–resistant material nailed in overlapping fashion with many other such units to render a wall or sloping roof watertight
  • 49. Steep Roof Shapes Mansard Roof Hip Roof
  • 50. Steep Roof Shapes Cont’d Gable Roof Gambrel Roof
  • 51. Steep Roof Terms Rake - The sloping edge of a steep roof Eave - The horizontal edge at the low side of a sloping roof
  • 52. Steep Roof Terms Cont’d Ridge - The level intersection of two roof planes in a gable roof Valley - A trough formed by the intersection of two roof slopes Fascia - The exposed vertical face of an eave Soffit – The undersurface of a roof overhang
  • 53. Steep Roof Terms Cont’d Building Without A Fascia – flat roofs and/or roofs that are not wood, do not need a fascia because they do not have a roof overhang and have other methods of draining water off of the roof
  • 54. Stone Random Ashlar Random Rubble Coursed Ashlar
  • 55. Vapor Retarder
  • 56. Waterproofing Waterproofing is applied to the outside of the foundation to prevent water from leaking into the building. The waterproofing in the picture is fully adhered.
  • 57. Weep Hole Definition - A small opening whose purpose is to permit drainage of water that accumulates inside a building component or assembly
  • 58. Welded Wire Fabric 5” x 5” Welded Wire Fabric waiting for concrete to be poured on top of it to fill in the hole. The hole also needs to be cleaned of trash prior to pouring concrete.
  • 59. Windows Hopper (Hinges are on the bottom and opens inward) Casement (hinged on a vertical jamb) Single Hung (Bottom Section slides upward, Top is stationary)