1900s-1930s : Individual Goods-Focus Brand Era CRM Augmented Engagement Brands as Identifiers: Brands constituted a way for customers to identify and recognize goods on sight. Brand value was embedded in the physical goods and created when goods are sold (output orientation). Brands, therefore, were operand resources and had value-in-exchange. Individual goods were branded to potential customers who remained passive in the brand value creation process
1930s-1990s : Value-Focus Brand EraBrands as Functional Images: Creating unique brand images became key in an increasingly competitive environment. Customers selected brands to solve externally generated consumption needs. Brands were part of the market offering.Brands as Symbolic Images: Goods were seen as increasingly similar in terms of their utilitarian attributes. Consequently, brands were selected to solve internally generated consumption needs. Brands were independent of the actual market offering
1990s-2000s Relationship-Focused Brand EraBrands as Knowledge : Customers constitute operant resources and thus active co-creators of brand value. Brand value is the perception of a brand’s value-in-use to the customersBrands as Relationship partners : Brands have personality that makes customers form dyadic relationships with them. Brand value co-creation process is relational and thus requires a process orientation.Brands as Promise : Internal customers (employees) are important brand value co-creators and operant resources
2000s - : Stakeholder-Focus Brand EraBrands as Dynamic and Social Processes: This most recent era highlights that not only individual customers but also brand communities and other stakeholders (all stakeholders) constitute operant resources. Thus, it highlighted that the brand value co-creation process is a continuous, social, and highly dynamic and interactive process between the firm, the brand, and all stakeholders.
Customer and Business Value Co-creation Desired Outcomes for Customer and Business
Tangibles to IntangiblesThe Experience EconomyExchange is fundamentally, primarily about the intangible rather than the tangible.This focuses the organization on the solution that the customer is seekingThe tangible content cost of their product becomes smaller and smaller and the brand rises in value and importance
Propaganda to ConversationService-dominant logic argues that communication should be characterized by conversation and dialog. This approach should include not only customers, but also employees and other relevant stakeholders that may be affected by service exchange. All stakeholders need to be part of the market dialog.
Capabilities and Collaboration Feedback & analysis Capabilities Service Customer &Business Business &Vision & Customer BusinessStrategy Intelligence Outcomes Value Portfolio Proposition
Flow is completely focused motivation- Csikszentmihalyi
In flow, the emotions are notjust contained and channeled,but positive, energized, andaligned with the task at handFlow could be described as astate where attention, motiva-tion, and the situation meet,resulting in a kind ofproductive harmony orfeedback Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi