Digital addiction REFSQ 14

409 views

Published on

Amen Alrobai, Keith Phalp, Raian Ali. Digital Addiction: a Requirements Engineering Perspective. The 20th International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality (REFSQ 2014). Essen, Germany. April 2014.

Published in: Software, Health & Medicine
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
409
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Digital addiction REFSQ 14

  1. 1. www.bournemouth.ac.uk Amen Alrobai - Keith Phalp - Raian Ali Faculty of Science and Technology Bournemouth University - UK REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014
  2. 2. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 2 Outline  Introduction  Motivations  Initial results  Challenges  Conclusions REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014
  3. 3. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 3 Introduction REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014
  4. 4. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 4 What is Digital Addiction? REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014 Mood modification Relapse Salience Withdrawal symptoms Tolerance ConflictCompulsive Impulsive Behaviours Symptoms Generalised Pathological Internet Use Specific Pathological Internet Use Interaction Themes “ .. the inability of individuals to control their Internet use, resulting in marked distress and/or functional impairment in daily life” (Ha, J.H. et al., 2006) Context- ordinated Content- ordinated
  5. 5. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 5 What is the problem?  Chinese teenage addicts to the Internet applications increased from 13.2% in 2005 to 14.1% in 2009 (China Youth Association for Network Development, 2010)  In 2013, 3.7% of British students were considered to be addicted to gaming and social applications (Kuss et al., 2013)  About 140 Internet addiction treatment recovery centers in South Korea (Younget al., 2011)  DA is still not seen as a problem of the software (e.g., game fatigue system)  Who to blame? REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014
  6. 6. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 6 Motivations REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014
  7. 7. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 7 Motivations  Users requirements and software features almost ignored.  Current solutions: • Education • Restriction • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014
  8. 8. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 8 Initial results REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014
  9. 9. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 9 (1) Problem Exploration REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014
  10. 10. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 10 (2) DA definition for RE Compulsive/impulsive use of software-mediated operations to reach certain requirements. This includes inability to switch to other available alternatives to reach the same requirements without a good reason. DA symptoms software-mediated operations of is realised through certain requirements to reachCompulsive/impul sive use Fig. RE logical model REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014
  11. 11. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 11 Terminologies Analysis • Addiction (used by Influential communities) • Dependence (physical dependence Vs. mental disorders) • Compulsive (completely unable!!) • Pathological (adopted from pathological gambling) • Impulsive (failure to resist) • Problematic (consequences) • Excessive (intensity & frequency) BehaviourObject Analysing terminologies through LR Developing logical models of the definitions Generating a relationship table Triangulation • Internet (generic and includes all internet-enabled activities) • Technological (Internet is subclass) • Online (performed over the Internet) • Digital media (digital devices) REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014
  12. 12. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 12 Logical Models Problematic Internet Use managing one’s offline life multidimensional syndrome symptoms consist of is with difficulties result in Internet addiction daily life inability individual of is marked distress and/or functional impairment resulting in Technological Addiction Human- machine interaction [involves] is Non-chemical (behavioral) addictions cognitive emotional behavioral includes to control internet use in (Generalized) Pathological Internet Use multidimension al overuse The Internet of is negative personal & professional consequences results in Problematic Internet Use: a multidimensional syndrome that consists of cognitive, emotional, and behavioural symptoms that result in difficulties with managing one’s offline life. (Caplan, 2005) Technological Addiction: operationally defined as non-chemical (behavioral) addictions that involve human–machine interaction. (Griffiths, 1996a) Internet Addiction: the inability of individuals to control their Internet use, resulting in marked distress and/or functional impairment in daily life. (Ha, J.H. et al., 2006) (Generalized) Pathological Internet Use: conceptualized as a multidimensional overuse of the Internet itself that results in negative personal and professional consequences. (Davis, 2001) REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014
  13. 13. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 13 Logical Models Summary of the logical model of definitions symptomsinternet use involves realised through certain requirements leads to behaviour REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014
  14. 14. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 14 (3) Initial Ontology  Purpose: Facilitating subject-matter discussions and initiating Ontology development  Method: Conventional & directed content analysis approach  Questions: What are the factors, SW features, dynamics and users characteristics? REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014
  15. 15. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 15 Enhance Ontology Development REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014
  16. 16. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 16 (4) DA Ontology V.1 Digital addiction Cultural context User context Habits Checking habit Mental disorders (ADHD) Obsessive- compulsive disorder Depression Social anxiety Communication Addiction Disorder Behaviours Escapism Disinhibition Timelessness Impersonation Multitasking Escalation of commitment Hyperpersonal aspect Solipsistic introjection Dissociative imagination Traits Low self-esteem Narcissistic Depressed mood Impulsivity Reduced attentiveness Shyness Sensation seeking Lack of willpower Anhedonia Emotions Stress Social solation Social alienation Anxiety Anticipation Requirements Goals Increasing the number of followers Seeking companionship Raising reputation Values Self- Actualization Respect Acceptance Motivations Attention- seeking Sociability Peer-esteem Software context comprisecomprisecomprise comprisecomprisecomprise comprisecomprise includes influncedBy includes REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014
  17. 17. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 17 DA Ontology V.1 Digital addiction Cultural context User context Software context Interaction medium Properties Invisibility Minimisation of authority Timelessness Affordability More manageable environment Power of crowd Loss of boundaries Sense of freedom Interactivity Affordability Availability of variety Habit-forming Availability Out of control Social software Content Real time Less informative Features Personalisation Customisation Rewarding mechanisms Social plugins Excessive notifications Privacy Anonymity Usability attributes Learnability Efficiency Effectiveness Memorability Security Satisfaction Types of communication Asynchronicity Synchronicity comprisecomprisecomprisecomprise comprise REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014
  18. 18. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 18 Ontology Development Protégé REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014
  19. 19. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 19 (5) Requirements-centered Addiction Factors (Meta-model) VALUES ADDICTIVE ASPECTS Mayhave Translated torequests Has Has “Private” Affect Satisfy DrivenbyRepresent USER - Like - Retweet - Follow - Subscribe - Profile completeness - Visibility status I would need virtual space to connect with specific sets of people to build social relations, share updates, photos or documents and message other group members Raising social reputation GOALS -Respect - Acceptance - Conformity REQUIREMENTS FEATURES -Rewarding mechanisms -Excessive notifications REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014
  20. 20. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 20 Challenges REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014
  21. 21. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 21 Challenges  Is DA symptom or an issue?  DA measurement  Diversity of both Software and Users  Developing the social platform  Tacit and fuzzy nature of DA concepts  User’s satisfaction should not be compromised REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014
  22. 22. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 22 Conclusions REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014
  23. 23. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 23 Conclusions REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014  Can DA treated as a business goal (Resist Vs. Inability)?  Is it HCI issue, RE or both?  Is it NFR?  If software adaptively would be one part of the solution, more questions still need to be answered, e.g.:  What to monitor in terms of users interactions, internal or external triggers?  How, or even whether, users would like to be aware of DA when they have it?  What decisions would be taken by software and what other decisions are to be taken by users when the software is running?
  24. 24. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 24 References 1. Ha, J.H. et al., 2006. Psychiatric comorbidity assessed in Korean children and adolescents who screen positive for Internet addiction. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2. China Youth Association for Network Development. (2010). The National Report on Internet Addiction of Chinese Youths (2009). Beijing 3. Kuss, D. J., Griffiths, M. D., & Binder, J. F. (2013). Internet addiction in students: Prevalence and risk factors. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 959-966. 4. Young, K.S. & de Abreu, C.N., 2011. Internet addiction: A handbook and guide to evaluation and treatment. 5. Kietzmann, J.H. et al., 2011. Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media. Business Horizons, 54(3), pp.241–251. 6. Caplan, Scott E. "A social skill account of problematic Internet use." Journal of communication 55.4 (2005): 721-736. 7. Davis, R.A., 2001. A cognitive-behavioral model of pathological Internet use. Computers in Human Behavior, 17(2), pp.187–195. 8. Griffiths, M., 1996. Gambling on the internet: A brief note. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12(4), pp.471–473. REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014
  25. 25. www.bournemouth.ac.uk 25 Thank you! Acknowledgements: • Dr. Huseyin Dogan - Bournemouth University – UK • Assoc. Prof. Jacqui Taylor - Bournemouth University – UK • Bournemouth Uni Graduate School for their PGR Development Grant • FP7 Marie Curie Programme (the SOCIAD project) REFSQ14, Essen, Germany, 7th April 2014

×