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  • 1. Tourist Destination DevelopmentCorinna Chin
  • 2. Think!• What elements do you think are needed in order to develop a tourist destination?
  • 3. Typology of destinations • Cities – including historic, cultural and tourist cities • Regions • Resorts • Villages and small towns • Protected areas, including rural areas with nature-based attractions Howie, 2003:78CountriesBooth, 2008
  • 4. What we’ll cover…• Factors needed in a tourist destination – The 6 As• Butler’s TALC• Visitor and Destination Management
  • 6. • Visitor demand and marketing activity • Converting resources into attractions • Accommodation and transport • Relationship to sustainable development • Tourism trends and the destination lifecycleBooth, 2008
  • 7. Access• Various types• All types important to a destination• Generally need most of them at a destination to make it easier to reach• Can therefore make it a more popular destination
  • 8. • Major form of access especially to a foreign destination• Airports needs to be close to destination• Facilitate domestic and international tourists• ‘Hub’ = major airport (Heathrow)• ‘Spoke’ = regional airport, has regular flights to and from ‘hub’ e.g. Manchester
  • 9. • For domestic and international• Domestic – travel via car, motorbike, coach• International – transfers via taxi, coach, car rental, public transport
  • 10. • Access to destination via water• Ferries – passengers and cars• Cruise ships – passengers
  • 11. • Domestic and international• Can be used for day-trips, travel between major cities• Holiday in itself – long distances within one country or across several countries
  • 12. • Access affects those less-able bodied• Adaptation of transport for disabled people• Adaptation of destination for disabled people – Beach, hotels, parking etc
  • 13. • Important as gives direction to destination and attractions and facilities• Road signs – for attractions and facilities• Pedestrian signs – for attractions or walking routes
  • 14. Think!• Name a major access example for each within the UK: – Air (not Heathrow!) – Road – Port – Rail
  • 15. Attractions• “generally single units, individual sites or very small, easily delimited geographical areas based on a single key feature” (Swarbrooke, 2002)• ‘Pull’ factor for a destination• Can be the deciding factor in a holiday choice
  • 16. Natural Attractions Scenery, nature, viewsType of naturalattractionBeaches •‘Sunlust’ tourist; 3S •Beautiful view, location •Soft sand, clear water •Safe environment for familiesFlora and fauna •Appreciation of F&F at(Plants and animals) destination •Birds or species-watching •See F&F in natural environment
  • 17. Lakes •Beautiful scenery •Water-based activities: sailing, canoeing, fishingMountains •Unique environment •Extreme sports activities: climbing, skiing, walkingRivers •Water-based holidays: cruises, boating •Water-based activities: water- skiing, fishing
  • 18. Topography •‘The shape of composition of the landscape’ (Dale, 2005) •Natural scenery can be the attraction •Aesthetic beauty •Escapism •Generally protected areas e.g. National Parks, Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB)
  • 19. Built/Man-made Attractions• Built and adapted for visitor purposes• Built and designed for visitor purposes
  • 20. Built attractions adapted for visitor purposes• Not originally designed for visitors• But major tourist attractions – Historical or cultural significance• Examples – Castles (Windsor Castle) – Cathedrals (Canterbury Cathedral) – Historic houses (Anne Frank) – Steam railways – Workplaces (old factories etc)
  • 21. Purpose-built/attractions designed for visitor purposes• Supplement main attraction• Built to attract more tourists to an area = ↑ in pull factor• Some destinations have no natural attractions so are built to entice tourists• Examples – Galleries, Museums, Theatres – Theme Parks, Water Parks, Wildlife Parks, Zoos – Leisure Centres – Shopping Malls – Visitor Centres
  • 22. Temporary Attractions• Festivals or events at a particular time of the year• Can be natural or man-made• Natural – Northern Lights, Norway• Man-made – Sports events: Olympics, World Cup, Grand Prix – Music Festivals: Glastonbury, Mardi Gras – Cultural Festivals: Oktoberfest, Seafood & Wine etc Why have temporary attractions?
  • 23. Accommodation• Hotels• Apartments, villas, cottages• Guesthouses• B&B• Farmhouses• Campus accommodation• Youth hostel• Camp sites• Timeshare
  • 24. Star Rating Hotel •Courteous staff provide informal but competent service •Most rooms en-suite •Designated eating area (B&D) •All rooms en-suite (private facilities) •Restaurant or dining room serves B&D daily •Staff = smart and professional •All rooms en-suite •Restaurant open to guests and non- guests AA (Automobile Association) Accommodation Grading Standards
  • 25. Star rating Hotel Professional, uniformed staff responds to needs Decent sized public area Restaurant open to guests and non- guests Lunch available in designated area Luxurious accommodation Luxurious public area Extra facilities Multilingual services Guests greeted at hotel entrance High quality menu and wine list AA (Automobile Association) Accommodation Grading Standards
  • 26. Activities• Many available at a destination• Tourists will participate in different activities according to their needs• Destinations must provide ones that suit the type of tourist visiting• Two types: – Active – Passive
  • 27. Active• Some accommodation provides these activities – Water sports, golf, walking etc• Private companies run active organised activities• Appealing to active tourists• Generally younger tourist and those more able-bodied
  • 28. Passive• Can be provided by accommodation – on-site activities – Bingo, quizzes, shows, reading books• Suitable for tourist who want to relax (R&R)• Generally older tourists, less mobile
  • 29. Amenities• Extra services• Meets needs of tourist• Government needs to provide these to permanent and temporary populations• Number will depend on size of destination• Some only found in peak season
  • 30. Amenities• Examples: – Public toilets – Signage – Retail shopping – Restaurant and cafes – Visitor centres – Telecommunications – Emergency services
  • 31. Ancillary Services• Additional, supplementary services• Provides support needed by tourism industry• Helps with the ‘multiplier effect’ – More money generated and distributed• Public and private organisations• Bigger the destination, more ancillary services
  • 32. Ancillary Services• Examples: – Car hire – Catering companies – Entertainment: bars, nightclubs, casinos – Foreign exchange services – Insurance – Laundry services – Tourism marketing services
  • 33. Butler’s Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC)• Illustrates the different stages a destination moves through as it develops• Like your own life cycle
  • 34. Stage Name Description1 Exploration •Very few tourists •Destination unknown •New experience travellers •Independent travel •Few facilities; basic infrastructure •Local culture strong •Nature undisturbed2 Involvement •Increase in tourist numbers •Transport links developed •Local people create businesses •Public sector examines tourism development •Small investments into infrastructure and facilities
  • 35. Stage Name Description3 Development •Original visitors move on •Organised tours •Large increase in tourist numbers •Private businesses get involved •Infrastructure developed •New construction for tourism •Tourist season develops •Lots of advertising4 Consolidation •Tourist numbers still increase but slower rate •Locals resent tourists •Mass tourism destination •Lots of advertising to encourage more tourists
  • 36. Stage Name Description5 Stagnation •Mass tourism •Carrying capacity reached or exceeded •Natural environment damaged •Man-made constructions taken over •Over-crowded •Over-commercialised 3 possible routes after Stage 5…
  • 37. Rejuvenation •Redevelop destination •Lots of money •Cleaning up •Re-buildingStabilisation •Continues in same manner •Same infrastructure •Not sustainable •Tourists will eventually stopDecline •Unattractive destination •Facilities close •No investment •Tourist numbers have large decrease •Tourism may disappear completely
  • 38. Visitor and Destination Management
  • 39. Development of Attractions Development RESOURCES ATTRACTIONS Environment sensitive Nature based + culturally wildlife/scenery Natural sensitive Culture-based Cultural + sustainable heritage and ways ‘Intangible’ of life Howie, 2003: 77 Spirit of placeBooth, 2008 (ambience)
  • 40. Visitor Management Model VisitorExternal influences External influences Place Host community External influences Booth, 2008
  • 41. Management challenges• Enhancing the environment for both locals and tourists• Attracting visitors• Accommodation and attraction capacity• Creating mixed-use environments – Developing cultural activities for both residents and visitors• Transport links within destination and beyond• Maintain historical links – spirit of place• Protection of – the landscape – The natural environment Booth, 2008
  • 42. Factors Involved in Destination Development • Multiple stakeholders • Direct/indirect involvement • Ethical concerns • Sustainability • Host-guest relationships • Spirit of place • Multiplier effects • Far-reaching impacts • GlobalisationBooth, 2008 Booth, 2008
  • 43. Factors Influencing the Tourist Experience at Visitor AttractionsDesign issues Customer care – Signposting • Relationship between – Seating provision staff, service and needs of the visitor – Car parking provision • Cleanliness of facilities – Overcrowding • CateringPersonal issues Mood Word of mouth/interaction with other people Expectation of the visitor/prior socialisation/cultural factors Booth, 2008
  • 44. Hard and Soft Visitor Management‘Hard interventions physically impede visitors behaving as they want … Soft interventions aim at changing the visitor’s behaviour, mostly through information campaigns and marketing.’ Tyler et al, 1998: 132 Booth, 2008
  • 45. Managing Demand • Redirect visitors to other sites • Offer alternative attractions – Visitor centres • Promote off-peak demand – Create price incentives – Develop complementary services to attract visitors • Reservation systems Booth, 2008Leask and Yeoman, 1999
  • 46. Managing Supply• Alternative service location (attractions only)• Efficient employment – Cross train workers so they can fulfil multiple job roles according to demand• Prepare for peak demandLeask and Yeoman, 1999 Booth, 2008
  • 47. Managing waiting ‘Queues do not have to be a bleak introduction to a tourist attraction. Instead they can be integrated into the design of a facility, provide an opportunity to orientate people towards that facility with questions and display panels; they can be less onerous physically with resting opportunities, water fountains and indications of time …’Pearce, 1991 Booth, 2008
  • 48. Visitor Management Approaches & Techniques• Town planning – Regulating access by transport – Zoning by space, time or activity – Signage and interpretation• Regulating visits by number and group size• Pricing policy – numbers versus access• Modifying the site• Partnerships with tour operators• Information and marketing Booth, 2008
  • 49. Process of destination planning• Understand the destination and its tourist offerings• Stakeholder analysis – who, what, how, where, why?• Visitor analysis - who, what, how, where, why?• External audit – PLEST = political, legal, economic, socio-cultural, technological – SWOT = strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats• Create a plan – Develop vision, mission, objectives – Implement, monitor and evaluate• Sustainability, ethical, visitor experience Booth, 2008
  • 50. PLESTPolitical, legal EconomicPolitical environment Exchange ratesVisa requirements Cost of labourPlanning regulation InflationCurrency control Credit chargesStability/security Availability of capital investment fundsSocio-cultural TechnologicalAttitudes of host community PromotionAttitudes of tourists in target Distributionmarket TicketingImpact of new fashions,behaviours Booth, 2008
  • 51. SWOT Destination: Iceland INTERNAL FACTORSStrengths WeaknessesDistinctive environment An expensiveEstablished cultural destinationheritage Extreme seasonalityGood access via airport Perceived as remoteand good Poor family destinationaccommodation – lack of things forWell established profile children to dowith tour operators Poor travel infrastructureBooth, 2008
  • 52. SWOT Destination: Iceland EXTERNAL FACTORSOpportunities ThreatsExcellent development Other Scandinavianpossibilities for special destinationsinterest tourism Cost factors put theOpportunity for city break destination at ahols disadvantageDevelop Reykjavik as a Continuing problemsconference centre finding development funding for tourism
  • 53. Key Tourism Destination Ingredients• Shared vision and goals for the present and future• Sharing information• Continuous education and self- development• Collaboration• Networking• Cultural exchange• Participative planning and decision making• Adaptive management(Schianetz, 2008) Booth, 2008
  • 54. Key Issues• Who is in charge of the management plan? Who is it for? What are the desired outcomes?• Sustainability = crucial – Need short and long term plans for success• Stakeholder involvement very important• Development is destination-appropriate• Proper regulation Booth, 2008
  • 55. Think!• In small groups, create a SWOT analysis for a destination of your choice• Can be: the UK, your home country, another tourist destination S W O T
  • 56. Summary• The 6 As• Visitor and destination management – Supply, demand, SWOT, PLEST, process, key issues
  • 57. Group Presentation• FRIDAY 19 MARCH• 3 minutes in length• All group members must participate• Task: design a tourism attraction of your choice• Non-existent in real life• Use PowerPoint
  • 58. Presentation covers…• Name, location of attraction – why?• Why have you chosen that attraction?• What tourism market is it part of?• Who are your potential customers? Why?• The 6 As?