Tourist Destination DevelopmentCorinna Chin
Think!• What elements do you think are needed in  order to develop a tourist destination?
Typology of destinations • Cities – including historic, cultural and tourist   cities • Regions • Resorts • Villages and s...
What we’ll cover…• Factors needed in a tourist destination  – The 6 As• Butler’s TALC• Visitor and Destination Management
AMENITIES              ACCESSANCILLARY SERVICES      ATTRACTIONSACCOMMODATION                     ACTIVITIES
•   Visitor demand and marketing activity •   Converting resources into attractions •   Accommodation and transport •   Re...
Access• Various types• All types important to a destination• Generally need most of them at a destination  to make it easi...
• Major form of access especially to a foreign  destination• Airports needs to be close to destination• Facilitate domesti...
• For domestic and international• Domestic – travel via car, motorbike, coach• International – transfers via taxi, coach, ...
• Access to destination via water• Ferries – passengers and cars• Cruise ships – passengers
• Domestic and international• Can be used for day-trips, travel between  major cities• Holiday in itself – long distances ...
• Access affects those less-able bodied• Adaptation of transport for disabled people• Adaptation of destination for disabl...
• Important as gives direction to  destination and attractions and facilities• Road signs – for attractions and facilities...
Think!• Name a major access example for each within  the UK:  – Air (not Heathrow!)  – Road  – Port  – Rail
Attractions• “generally single units, individual sites or very    small, easily delimited geographical areas         based...
Natural Attractions                  Scenery, nature, viewsType of naturalattractionBeaches                   •‘Sunlust’ t...
Lakes       •Beautiful scenery            •Water-based activities: sailing,            canoeing, fishingMountains   •Uniqu...
Topography   •‘The shape of composition of             the landscape’ (Dale, 2005)             •Natural scenery can be the...
Built/Man-made Attractions• Built and adapted for visitor purposes• Built and designed for visitor purposes
Built attractions adapted for visitor                purposes• Not originally designed for visitors• But major tourist att...
Purpose-built/attractions designed for          visitor purposes• Supplement main attraction• Built to attract more touris...
Temporary Attractions• Festivals or events at a particular time of the year• Can be natural or man-made• Natural   – North...
Accommodation•   Hotels•   Apartments, villas, cottages•   Guesthouses•   B&B•   Farmhouses•   Campus accommodation•   You...
Star Rating          Hotel                     •Courteous staff provide informal but                     competent service...
Star rating              Hotel                         Professional, uniformed staff                         responds to n...
Activities• Many available at a destination• Tourists will participate in different activities  according to their needs• ...
Active• Some accommodation provides these  activities  – Water sports, golf, walking etc• Private companies run active org...
Passive• Can be provided by accommodation – on-site  activities  – Bingo, quizzes, shows, reading books• Suitable for tour...
Amenities• Extra services• Meets needs of tourist• Government needs to provide these to  permanent and temporary populatio...
Amenities• Examples:  – Public toilets  – Signage  – Retail shopping  – Restaurant and cafes  – Visitor centres  – Telecom...
Ancillary Services• Additional, supplementary services• Provides support needed by tourism industry• Helps with the ‘multi...
Ancillary Services• Examples:  – Car hire  – Catering companies  – Entertainment: bars, nightclubs, casinos  – Foreign exc...
Butler’s Tourism Area Life Cycle                (TALC)• Illustrates the different stages a destination  moves through as i...
Stage Name         Description1    Exploration   •Very few tourists                   •Destination unknown                ...
Stage Name           Description3    Development     •Original visitors move on                     •Organised tours      ...
Stage   Name          Description5       Stagnation    •Mass tourism                      •Carrying capacity reached or   ...
Rejuvenation    •Redevelop destination                •Lots of money                •Cleaning up                •Re-buildi...
Visitor and Destination     Management
Development of Attractions                                  Development              RESOURCES                            ...
Visitor Management Model                          VisitorExternal influences                         External influences  ...
Management challenges• Enhancing the environment for both locals and  tourists• Attracting visitors• Accommodation and att...
Factors Involved in Destination Development                     • Multiple stakeholders                  • Direct/indirect...
Factors Influencing the Tourist Experience at              Visitor AttractionsDesign issues               Customer care  –...
Hard and Soft Visitor Management‘Hard interventions physically impede visitors   behaving as they want … Soft intervention...
Managing Demand    • Redirect visitors to other sites    • Offer alternative attractions       – Visitor centres    • Prom...
Managing Supply• Alternative service location (attractions only)• Efficient employment   – Cross train workers so they can...
Managing waiting ‘Queues do not have to be a bleak introduction    to a tourist attraction. Instead they can be       inte...
Visitor Management Approaches &           Techniques• Town planning   – Regulating access by transport   – Zoning by space...
Process of destination planning• Understand the destination and its tourist offerings• Stakeholder analysis – who, what, h...
PLESTPolitical, legal                  EconomicPolitical environment             Exchange ratesVisa requirements          ...
SWOT            Destination: Iceland               INTERNAL FACTORSStrengths                 WeaknessesDistinctive enviro...
SWOT              Destination: Iceland                  EXTERNAL FACTORSOpportunities               ThreatsExcellent deve...
Key Tourism Destination Ingredients• Shared vision and goals for the present  and future• Sharing information• Continuous ...
Key Issues• Who is in charge of the management plan?  Who is it for? What are the desired outcomes?• Sustainability = cruc...
Think!• In small groups, create a SWOT analysis for a  destination of your choice• Can be: the UK, your home country, anot...
Summary• The 6 As• Visitor and destination management  – Supply, demand, SWOT, PLEST, process, key issues
Group Presentation• FRIDAY 19 MARCH• 3 minutes in length• All group members must participate• Task: design a tourism attra...
Presentation covers…•   Name, location of attraction – why?•   Why have you chosen that attraction?•   What tourism market...
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  1. 1. Tourist Destination DevelopmentCorinna Chin
  2. 2. Think!• What elements do you think are needed in order to develop a tourist destination?
  3. 3. Typology of destinations • Cities – including historic, cultural and tourist cities • Regions • Resorts • Villages and small towns • Protected areas, including rural areas with nature-based attractions Howie, 2003:78CountriesBooth, 2008
  4. 4. What we’ll cover…• Factors needed in a tourist destination – The 6 As• Butler’s TALC• Visitor and Destination Management
  5. 5. AMENITIES ACCESSANCILLARY SERVICES ATTRACTIONSACCOMMODATION ACTIVITIES
  6. 6. • Visitor demand and marketing activity • Converting resources into attractions • Accommodation and transport • Relationship to sustainable development • Tourism trends and the destination lifecycleBooth, 2008
  7. 7. Access• Various types• All types important to a destination• Generally need most of them at a destination to make it easier to reach• Can therefore make it a more popular destination
  8. 8. • Major form of access especially to a foreign destination• Airports needs to be close to destination• Facilitate domestic and international tourists• ‘Hub’ = major airport (Heathrow)• ‘Spoke’ = regional airport, has regular flights to and from ‘hub’ e.g. Manchester
  9. 9. • For domestic and international• Domestic – travel via car, motorbike, coach• International – transfers via taxi, coach, car rental, public transport
  10. 10. • Access to destination via water• Ferries – passengers and cars• Cruise ships – passengers
  11. 11. • Domestic and international• Can be used for day-trips, travel between major cities• Holiday in itself – long distances within one country or across several countries
  12. 12. • Access affects those less-able bodied• Adaptation of transport for disabled people• Adaptation of destination for disabled people – Beach, hotels, parking etc
  13. 13. • Important as gives direction to destination and attractions and facilities• Road signs – for attractions and facilities• Pedestrian signs – for attractions or walking routes
  14. 14. Think!• Name a major access example for each within the UK: – Air (not Heathrow!) – Road – Port – Rail
  15. 15. Attractions• “generally single units, individual sites or very small, easily delimited geographical areas based on a single key feature” (Swarbrooke, 2002)• ‘Pull’ factor for a destination• Can be the deciding factor in a holiday choice
  16. 16. Natural Attractions Scenery, nature, viewsType of naturalattractionBeaches •‘Sunlust’ tourist; 3S •Beautiful view, location •Soft sand, clear water •Safe environment for familiesFlora and fauna •Appreciation of F&F at(Plants and animals) destination •Birds or species-watching •See F&F in natural environment
  17. 17. Lakes •Beautiful scenery •Water-based activities: sailing, canoeing, fishingMountains •Unique environment •Extreme sports activities: climbing, skiing, walkingRivers •Water-based holidays: cruises, boating •Water-based activities: water- skiing, fishing
  18. 18. Topography •‘The shape of composition of the landscape’ (Dale, 2005) •Natural scenery can be the attraction •Aesthetic beauty •Escapism •Generally protected areas e.g. National Parks, Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB)
  19. 19. Built/Man-made Attractions• Built and adapted for visitor purposes• Built and designed for visitor purposes
  20. 20. Built attractions adapted for visitor purposes• Not originally designed for visitors• But major tourist attractions – Historical or cultural significance• Examples – Castles (Windsor Castle) – Cathedrals (Canterbury Cathedral) – Historic houses (Anne Frank) – Steam railways – Workplaces (old factories etc)
  21. 21. Purpose-built/attractions designed for visitor purposes• Supplement main attraction• Built to attract more tourists to an area = ↑ in pull factor• Some destinations have no natural attractions so are built to entice tourists• Examples – Galleries, Museums, Theatres – Theme Parks, Water Parks, Wildlife Parks, Zoos – Leisure Centres – Shopping Malls – Visitor Centres
  22. 22. Temporary Attractions• Festivals or events at a particular time of the year• Can be natural or man-made• Natural – Northern Lights, Norway• Man-made – Sports events: Olympics, World Cup, Grand Prix – Music Festivals: Glastonbury, Mardi Gras – Cultural Festivals: Oktoberfest, Seafood & Wine etc Why have temporary attractions?
  23. 23. Accommodation• Hotels• Apartments, villas, cottages• Guesthouses• B&B• Farmhouses• Campus accommodation• Youth hostel• Camp sites• Timeshare
  24. 24. Star Rating Hotel •Courteous staff provide informal but competent service •Most rooms en-suite •Designated eating area (B&D) •All rooms en-suite (private facilities) •Restaurant or dining room serves B&D daily •Staff = smart and professional •All rooms en-suite •Restaurant open to guests and non- guests AA (Automobile Association) Accommodation Grading Standards
  25. 25. Star rating Hotel Professional, uniformed staff responds to needs Decent sized public area Restaurant open to guests and non- guests Lunch available in designated area Luxurious accommodation Luxurious public area Extra facilities Multilingual services Guests greeted at hotel entrance High quality menu and wine list AA (Automobile Association) Accommodation Grading Standards
  26. 26. Activities• Many available at a destination• Tourists will participate in different activities according to their needs• Destinations must provide ones that suit the type of tourist visiting• Two types: – Active – Passive
  27. 27. Active• Some accommodation provides these activities – Water sports, golf, walking etc• Private companies run active organised activities• Appealing to active tourists• Generally younger tourist and those more able-bodied
  28. 28. Passive• Can be provided by accommodation – on-site activities – Bingo, quizzes, shows, reading books• Suitable for tourist who want to relax (R&R)• Generally older tourists, less mobile
  29. 29. Amenities• Extra services• Meets needs of tourist• Government needs to provide these to permanent and temporary populations• Number will depend on size of destination• Some only found in peak season
  30. 30. Amenities• Examples: – Public toilets – Signage – Retail shopping – Restaurant and cafes – Visitor centres – Telecommunications – Emergency services
  31. 31. Ancillary Services• Additional, supplementary services• Provides support needed by tourism industry• Helps with the ‘multiplier effect’ – More money generated and distributed• Public and private organisations• Bigger the destination, more ancillary services
  32. 32. Ancillary Services• Examples: – Car hire – Catering companies – Entertainment: bars, nightclubs, casinos – Foreign exchange services – Insurance – Laundry services – Tourism marketing services
  33. 33. Butler’s Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC)• Illustrates the different stages a destination moves through as it develops• Like your own life cycle
  34. 34. Stage Name Description1 Exploration •Very few tourists •Destination unknown •New experience travellers •Independent travel •Few facilities; basic infrastructure •Local culture strong •Nature undisturbed2 Involvement •Increase in tourist numbers •Transport links developed •Local people create businesses •Public sector examines tourism development •Small investments into infrastructure and facilities
  35. 35. Stage Name Description3 Development •Original visitors move on •Organised tours •Large increase in tourist numbers •Private businesses get involved •Infrastructure developed •New construction for tourism •Tourist season develops •Lots of advertising4 Consolidation •Tourist numbers still increase but slower rate •Locals resent tourists •Mass tourism destination •Lots of advertising to encourage more tourists
  36. 36. Stage Name Description5 Stagnation •Mass tourism •Carrying capacity reached or exceeded •Natural environment damaged •Man-made constructions taken over •Over-crowded •Over-commercialised 3 possible routes after Stage 5…
  37. 37. Rejuvenation •Redevelop destination •Lots of money •Cleaning up •Re-buildingStabilisation •Continues in same manner •Same infrastructure •Not sustainable •Tourists will eventually stopDecline •Unattractive destination •Facilities close •No investment •Tourist numbers have large decrease •Tourism may disappear completely
  38. 38. Visitor and Destination Management
  39. 39. Development of Attractions Development RESOURCES ATTRACTIONS Environment sensitive Nature based + culturally wildlife/scenery Natural sensitive Culture-based Cultural + sustainable heritage and ways ‘Intangible’ of life Howie, 2003: 77 Spirit of placeBooth, 2008 (ambience)
  40. 40. Visitor Management Model VisitorExternal influences External influences Place Host community External influences Booth, 2008
  41. 41. Management challenges• Enhancing the environment for both locals and tourists• Attracting visitors• Accommodation and attraction capacity• Creating mixed-use environments – Developing cultural activities for both residents and visitors• Transport links within destination and beyond• Maintain historical links – spirit of place• Protection of – the landscape – The natural environment Booth, 2008
  42. 42. Factors Involved in Destination Development • Multiple stakeholders • Direct/indirect involvement • Ethical concerns • Sustainability • Host-guest relationships • Spirit of place • Multiplier effects • Far-reaching impacts • GlobalisationBooth, 2008 Booth, 2008
  43. 43. Factors Influencing the Tourist Experience at Visitor AttractionsDesign issues Customer care – Signposting • Relationship between – Seating provision staff, service and needs of the visitor – Car parking provision • Cleanliness of facilities – Overcrowding • CateringPersonal issues Mood Word of mouth/interaction with other people Expectation of the visitor/prior socialisation/cultural factors Booth, 2008
  44. 44. Hard and Soft Visitor Management‘Hard interventions physically impede visitors behaving as they want … Soft interventions aim at changing the visitor’s behaviour, mostly through information campaigns and marketing.’ Tyler et al, 1998: 132 Booth, 2008
  45. 45. Managing Demand • Redirect visitors to other sites • Offer alternative attractions – Visitor centres • Promote off-peak demand – Create price incentives – Develop complementary services to attract visitors • Reservation systems Booth, 2008Leask and Yeoman, 1999
  46. 46. Managing Supply• Alternative service location (attractions only)• Efficient employment – Cross train workers so they can fulfil multiple job roles according to demand• Prepare for peak demandLeask and Yeoman, 1999 Booth, 2008
  47. 47. Managing waiting ‘Queues do not have to be a bleak introduction to a tourist attraction. Instead they can be integrated into the design of a facility, provide an opportunity to orientate people towards that facility with questions and display panels; they can be less onerous physically with resting opportunities, water fountains and indications of time …’Pearce, 1991 Booth, 2008
  48. 48. Visitor Management Approaches & Techniques• Town planning – Regulating access by transport – Zoning by space, time or activity – Signage and interpretation• Regulating visits by number and group size• Pricing policy – numbers versus access• Modifying the site• Partnerships with tour operators• Information and marketing Booth, 2008
  49. 49. Process of destination planning• Understand the destination and its tourist offerings• Stakeholder analysis – who, what, how, where, why?• Visitor analysis - who, what, how, where, why?• External audit – PLEST = political, legal, economic, socio-cultural, technological – SWOT = strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats• Create a plan – Develop vision, mission, objectives – Implement, monitor and evaluate• Sustainability, ethical, visitor experience Booth, 2008
  50. 50. PLESTPolitical, legal EconomicPolitical environment Exchange ratesVisa requirements Cost of labourPlanning regulation InflationCurrency control Credit chargesStability/security Availability of capital investment fundsSocio-cultural TechnologicalAttitudes of host community PromotionAttitudes of tourists in target Distributionmarket TicketingImpact of new fashions,behaviours Booth, 2008
  51. 51. SWOT Destination: Iceland INTERNAL FACTORSStrengths WeaknessesDistinctive environment An expensiveEstablished cultural destinationheritage Extreme seasonalityGood access via airport Perceived as remoteand good Poor family destinationaccommodation – lack of things forWell established profile children to dowith tour operators Poor travel infrastructureBooth, 2008
  52. 52. SWOT Destination: Iceland EXTERNAL FACTORSOpportunities ThreatsExcellent development Other Scandinavianpossibilities for special destinationsinterest tourism Cost factors put theOpportunity for city break destination at ahols disadvantageDevelop Reykjavik as a Continuing problemsconference centre finding development funding for tourism
  53. 53. Key Tourism Destination Ingredients• Shared vision and goals for the present and future• Sharing information• Continuous education and self- development• Collaboration• Networking• Cultural exchange• Participative planning and decision making• Adaptive management(Schianetz, 2008) Booth, 2008
  54. 54. Key Issues• Who is in charge of the management plan? Who is it for? What are the desired outcomes?• Sustainability = crucial – Need short and long term plans for success• Stakeholder involvement very important• Development is destination-appropriate• Proper regulation Booth, 2008
  55. 55. Think!• In small groups, create a SWOT analysis for a destination of your choice• Can be: the UK, your home country, another tourist destination S W O T
  56. 56. Summary• The 6 As• Visitor and destination management – Supply, demand, SWOT, PLEST, process, key issues
  57. 57. Group Presentation• FRIDAY 19 MARCH• 3 minutes in length• All group members must participate• Task: design a tourism attraction of your choice• Non-existent in real life• Use PowerPoint
  58. 58. Presentation covers…• Name, location of attraction – why?• Why have you chosen that attraction?• What tourism market is it part of?• Who are your potential customers? Why?• The 6 As?
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