Urban Regeneration
with a focus on Greater
Manchester
Professor Steve Curwell
Urban regeneration
Defined as a:
“comprehensive vision and action which
leads to the resolution of urban problems
and whic...
Main challenges
• Loss of purpose
• Physical decay
• Complexity of
problems
• Multiplicity of
stakeholders
• Uncertainty o...
Who is it for?
Regeneration Stakeholders
Source: Places Matter
(CABE/ RENEW)
Stakeholder is
anybody who
affects, or can be...
Towards Sustainable Urban
Regeneration
Issues:
• Donut of decay and depopulation in most of
the northern UK post-industria...
Issues:
• Donut of decay and depopulation in most of
the northern UK post-industrial cities
• Example: New East Manchester...
• New East Manchester Ltd is a partnership initiative between
Manchester City Council, English Partnerships, North West De...
• 1,900 hectares east of
Manchester City Centre
• Boundaries extended in
2004 to include
Gorton in the South and
Newton He...
• Traditional manufacturing base – 60% employment loss 1975-85
• 13% population loss in 1990s
• Collapse in housing market...
DRIVERS FOR REGENERATION IN
EAST MANCHESTER
• Renaissance of Manchester
• Heritage assets
• Commonwealth Games 2002
• Gove...
NEW EAST MANCHESTER LTD ROLE
• Develop and implement the Regeneration Framework
• Lead the physical regeneration of east M...
Sportcity
A derelict contaminated site
Sportcity
Major visitor destination
New East
Manchester in
2000
New East
Manchester...
New East
Manchester in
2000
Central Park
Poor business environment
New East
Manchester in
2008
Central Park
Economic Devel...
New East
Manchester in
2000
Beswick
Housing market collapse
Beswick
Housing Renewal
New East
Manchester in
2008
New East
Manchester in
2000
Pedestrian Link to Sportcity
Underused and unsafe
New East
Manchester in
2008
Sportcity link r...
New East
Manchester in
2000
Bradford Park
Poor quality open space
Bradford Park
Quality green spaces
New East
Manchester i...
New East
Manchester in
2000
Gorton Monastery
Cultural sites at risk
Gorton Monastery
Restored cultural icon
New East
Manch...
New East
Manchester in
2000
Ancoats Mills
Neglected heritage
New East
Manchester in
2008
Ancoats Mills
Restored heritage
Issues:
• Networked Knowledge Society
• Research Examples:
– Intelligent cities project
– SURegen Project
Towards Sustaina...
“The worldwide computer network - the electronic
agora - subverts, displaces, and radically
redefines our notions of gathe...
IntelCities IST-507860
FP5 INTELCITY THEMATIC
NETWORK, 01- 02, Euro
300K
1. 10 partners in 6 EU Countries
2. 9 Interactive...
IntelCities IST-507860
Where cities are today
• Importance of e-readiness to competitive advantage
• Most cities have larg...
IntelCities IST-507860
e-City Vision for
enhanced governance
e-City Platform
enables
INTEGRATED
INFORMATION
PROCESSING
pro...
24
Issues:
• Regeneration Skills gap
• Examples:
– Egan report
– SURegen Project
Towards Sustainable Urban
Regeneration
Key Objective – “filling”
the regeneration skills gap
1. Construct a digital workspace, the RSW;
and populate it with good...
The Concept 1
The Regeneration Workbench
Integrated Decision Support System for
Sustainable Urban Regeneration – a digital...
The concept 2
The motoring analogy
for the functionality
of the workbench:
•The windscreen
displays the
regeneration area;...
Dashboard Example 1
1. Make
your
choices, to
experiment
with the
future
2. Watch the
sustainability
summary change
3. Clic...
VEPs:
Linking 3D
models and
GIS
Dashboard Example 2
Simulate the
Regeneration Process?
Vivacity urban design life cycle
model
Link Evaluation to Process
(Source LUDA project)
Implementation
Visioning
Monitoring
Programming
Diagnosis
Data Futures IA...
Integrate Date
(Super Output Area Data)
SOA’s enable:
 Comparison of areas of similar size nationally
 Identification of...
The consortium 2: Industrial
and public sector partners
Housing market renewal, products and structures, social enterprise...
The consortium 1:
Academic Partners
Data Modelling and Handling, Ontology Modelling, LUDA Assessment Decision
Support, Uni...
Issues:
• Sustainable development & sustainable
communities
– Quadruple bottom line - EESI criteria
• Example: NEM
Towards...
Metrolink: 8 Stops, 8 Places
Excellence of Educational Offer
Creating Working Communities
2700 New Jobs
30% Tree Canopy Target50,000 New Trees
District Energy
- Significant improvement in
public perceptions
- Reduction in petty crime
- 7 Parks improved and 17
Community Gardens cre...
LUDA Framework
A. Evaluation Step B. Stakeholders C. Sustainability Issues D. Spatial E. Time scale
1. Diagnosis
2. Vision...
Hard to reach spaces and
communities:
E.G.; Chapel Street, Salford
Towards Sustainable Urban
Regeneration
“There is nothing in a
caterpillar that tells you it’s
going to be a butterfly.”
R. Buckminster Fuller
Towards Sustainable...
Introduction
CSURC Development Framework Area
North Chapel Street
Conservation Area
South Chapel Street
GLENN HOWELLS ARCHITECTS
Chapel Street Elevation Study
Existing Street View
GLENN HOWELLS ARCHITECTS
“MORE SALFORD”
“Less Anywhere”
• “Transform Chapel Street
into a vibrant tree lined
street, which...
GLENN HOWELLS ARCHITECTS
Preferred Proposed Masterplan
GLENN HOWELLS ARCHITECTS
Chapel Street South
Locally Listed Buildings Study
Location Plan
Location Aerial
1234
1 - Ye Olde...
GLENN HOWELLS ARCHITECTS
Ye Olde Nelson
Front elevation visible
along full length of
Chapel Street
High quality
buildings ...
GLENN HOWELLS ARCHITECTS
Chapel Street Elevation Study
Cathedral Square
CABE model
for
sustainable
communities
Source: Places Matter
(CABE/ RENEW)
Building for Life
Criteria
20 criteria under four heads:
Environment and community
Character
Streets, parking and pedestri...
Thanks:
Sean McGonigle, NEM
Dave Carter, MDDA
Peter Baker, Central Salford URC
The teams from the Intelligent Cities and S...
Urban Regeneration in Greater Manchester - Professor Steve Curwell
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Urban Regeneration in Greater Manchester - Professor Steve Curwell

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  • create a sustainable community (through making East Manchester an attractive place to live
    re-establish/strengthen/diversify the New East Manchester’s economic base (while ensuring that economic benefit is secured for local people); and
    maximise the area’s contribution to the city’s, region’s and national economy by realising its potential a dynamic internationally competitive investor destination.
  • Mechanism for delivering regeneration of East Manchester is New East Manchester Ltd (hence the name!):
    urban regeneration company incorporated in February 2000
    joint venture between Manchester City Council, North West Development Agency, English Partnerships in partnership with the communities of East Manchester
    custodian of the vision for the area – the Regeneration Framework
    co-ordinating and integrating 10 social/community/economic programmes/initiatives, including:
    Beacons for a Brighter Future Partnership, bringing together New Deal for Communities and SRB funded programmes (a total of £77m of Government funding over 10 years. Expected to lever in £92.8m other investment)
    Education Action Zone (£2.6m over 5 years)
    Health Action Zone
    SureStart (£3.9m over 11 years)
    Sports Action Zone (£1.25m over 4 years)
    Ancoats Urban Village (£30m over 7 years. Expected to lever in £200m of private sector investment)
    ERDF Objective 2 (£54m over seven years)
    New Islington (£22m over 7 years. Expected to lever in £200m private sector investment)
    two other SRBs (£10.7 public funding over 8 years expected to lever in £82m of other investment)
    focussing mainstream public services and funding – estimated at £150m per year – more effectively
    securing further public and private resources to deliver comprehensive programme
  • Community portal
    For the community and authored by the community
    Sections on almost any subject
    Jobs
    Anonymous crime reporting
    Forums
    Local issues and national programs
    Linked into Gov/NHS/Local service delivery sites
  • THE LUDA FRAMEWORK IS ADAPTED FROM THE BEQUEST FRAMEWORK SO EVALUATION STEPS REPLACE DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY, A STAKEHOLDER COLUMN HAS BEEN ADDED, SUSTAINABILITY ARE SLIGHTLY CHANGED SO THAT THEY ARE MORE IN LINE WITH THE SUSTAINABLE REGENERATION AGENDA; SPATIAL AND TIMESCALE REMAIN THE SAME.
  • Urban Regeneration in Greater Manchester - Professor Steve Curwell

    1. 1. Urban Regeneration with a focus on Greater Manchester Professor Steve Curwell
    2. 2. Urban regeneration Defined as a: “comprehensive vision and action which leads to the resolution of urban problems and which seeks to bring about a lasting improvement in the economic, physical, social and environmental conditions of an area that has been subject to change” (Roberts and Sykes 2000).
    3. 3. Main challenges • Loss of purpose • Physical decay • Complexity of problems • Multiplicity of stakeholders • Uncertainty of future
    4. 4. Who is it for? Regeneration Stakeholders Source: Places Matter (CABE/ RENEW) Stakeholder is anybody who affects, or can be affected by regeneration activities.
    5. 5. Towards Sustainable Urban Regeneration Issues: • Donut of decay and depopulation in most of the northern UK post-industrial cities • Knowledge Society, Skills gap & Inter- competitiveness • Sustainable development & sustainable communities • Hard to reach places and communities.
    6. 6. Issues: • Donut of decay and depopulation in most of the northern UK post-industrial cities • Example: New East Manchester Other examples e.g.: Cottbus and a number of East German cities Towards Sustainable Urban Regeneration
    7. 7. • New East Manchester Ltd is a partnership initiative between Manchester City Council, English Partnerships, North West Development Agency and the communities of East Manchester • Encompassing more than 1,900ha extending from the edge of Manchester City Centre to the eastern boundary of the city, East Manchester presents an opportunity for investment and regeneration on a scale unprecedented in an English city NEW EAST MANCHESTER LTD
    8. 8. • 1,900 hectares east of Manchester City Centre • Boundaries extended in 2004 to include Gorton in the South and Newton Heath in the North Manchester City Centre East Manchester REGIONAL CONTEXT
    9. 9. • Traditional manufacturing base – 60% employment loss 1975-85 • 13% population loss in 1990s • Collapse in housing market • 20% vacant properties, negative equity • Low skills base, high crime/ poor health/ poor community and retail facilities • Fragile economic base: • 52% households receive benefit • 14.2% unemployment EAST MANCHESTER CHARACTERISTICS
    10. 10. DRIVERS FOR REGENERATION IN EAST MANCHESTER • Renaissance of Manchester • Heritage assets • Commonwealth Games 2002 • Government Initiatives
    11. 11. NEW EAST MANCHESTER LTD ROLE • Develop and implement the Regeneration Framework • Lead the physical regeneration of east Manchester • Market and promote the area • Co-ordinate and integrate social/community and economic programmes and initiatives • New Deal for Communities Single Regeneration Budget • Education Action Zone Health Action Zone • Surestart Sports Action Zone • Ancoats Urban Village • Housing Market Renewal Fund • Focus mainstream public funding effectively - £150m per year • Secure public and private sector resources to deliver the comprehensive programme
    12. 12. Sportcity A derelict contaminated site Sportcity Major visitor destination New East Manchester in 2000 New East Manchester in 2008
    13. 13. New East Manchester in 2000 Central Park Poor business environment New East Manchester in 2008 Central Park Economic Development
    14. 14. New East Manchester in 2000 Beswick Housing market collapse Beswick Housing Renewal New East Manchester in 2008
    15. 15. New East Manchester in 2000 Pedestrian Link to Sportcity Underused and unsafe New East Manchester in 2008 Sportcity link route Good pedestrian access
    16. 16. New East Manchester in 2000 Bradford Park Poor quality open space Bradford Park Quality green spaces New East Manchester in 2008
    17. 17. New East Manchester in 2000 Gorton Monastery Cultural sites at risk Gorton Monastery Restored cultural icon New East Manchester in 2008
    18. 18. New East Manchester in 2000 Ancoats Mills Neglected heritage New East Manchester in 2008 Ancoats Mills Restored heritage
    19. 19. Issues: • Networked Knowledge Society • Research Examples: – Intelligent cities project – SURegen Project Towards Sustainable Urban Regeneration
    20. 20. “The worldwide computer network - the electronic agora - subverts, displaces, and radically redefines our notions of gathering place, community, and urban life. The Net has a fundamentally different physical structure, and it operates under quite different rules from those that organize the action in the public places of traditional cities.” William Mitchell, “City of Bits” (1994) Networked Knowledge Society
    21. 21. IntelCities IST-507860 FP5 INTELCITY THEMATIC NETWORK, 01- 02, Euro 300K 1. 10 partners in 6 EU Countries 2. 9 Interactive Workshops + a major international conference – Siena, March 02 3. Consultation with stakeholders – inc 27 cities, 26 ICT companies 80+ research groups balancing SUD and ICT interests. 4. A roadmap – identifying a range of Scenarios for the Sustainable Information City + main steps for implementation Sustainable City Visions Knowledge Society Visions Integrated Information City VisionVision Roadmap: www.scpm.salford.ac.uk/intelcity Strategic Vision
    22. 22. IntelCities IST-507860 Where cities are today • Importance of e-readiness to competitive advantage • Most cities have large investments in technology to manage and deliver planning and regeneration services (legacy). • Lack of confidence in existing commercial applications - examples of market failure in delivery of e-gov. systems • E-planning is as much about using technology to manage back office processes as it is about public facing services. • Some ‘city planning services’ are between one part of the city administration to another or to another public body (e.g. central or regional government) - so happen without touching the public interface. • The common thread is data – most of which is ‘owned’ by the city, or other public bodies that is contributing in some way to the planning service(s) being delivered.
    23. 23. IntelCities IST-507860 e-City Vision for enhanced governance e-City Platform enables INTEGRATED INFORMATION PROCESSING providing BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE Citizens family, old people, disabled people etc. Businesses companies, professionals, transport service, etc. Government politicians, public services officers Non-Governmental Organisations Friends of the Earth, Human rights etc. ` Intelcities has created and integrated a set of innovative, e-government services to improve the management and planning of cities through business intelligence, leading to higher quality, more sustainable urban environments, delivered via an e-city platform City Planning Services Set City Management Services Set Customers Service data Real-time data Stats & trends Spatial data
    24. 24. 24
    25. 25. Issues: • Regeneration Skills gap • Examples: – Egan report – SURegen Project Towards Sustainable Urban Regeneration
    26. 26. Key Objective – “filling” the regeneration skills gap 1. Construct a digital workspace, the RSW; and populate it with good SUR practice. 2. Evaluate and adapt a number of tools and techniques and demonstrate how they can be integrated within the RSW. 3. Investigate how the RSW can: • identify the key decisions and issues in the regeneration process in advance of implementation; • support stakeholders to share “what-if” scenarios in co-creation of regeneration plans; • support communities of practice to develop capacity in integrated SUR. RENEW NW Development of the EGAN Wheel: Components of Sustainable Communities
    27. 27. The Concept 1 The Regeneration Workbench Integrated Decision Support System for Sustainable Urban Regeneration – a digital workbench for regeneration agents and their stakeholders.
    28. 28. The concept 2 The motoring analogy for the functionality of the workbench: •The windscreen displays the regeneration area; •The dashboard shows the current status; •The headlights light up key issues and •The mirror shows where you have come from.
    29. 29. Dashboard Example 1 1. Make your choices, to experiment with the future 2. Watch the sustainability summary change 3. Click on indicators for more detail, with maps & graphs 5. Zoom in, call up visuals, run animations of the future 6. Look here for an online tutorial and to learn more 4. Call up charts & analysis of the impacts of your choices 1. Make your choices, to experiment with the future 2. Watch the sustainability summary change 3. Click on indicators for more detail, with maps & graphs 5. Zoom in, call up visuals, run animations of the future 6. Look here for an online tutorial and to learn more 4. Call up charts & analysis of the impacts of your choices N.W. Quest (Manchester University)
    30. 30. VEPs: Linking 3D models and GIS Dashboard Example 2
    31. 31. Simulate the Regeneration Process? Vivacity urban design life cycle model
    32. 32. Link Evaluation to Process (Source LUDA project) Implementation Visioning Monitoring Programming Diagnosis Data Futures IA MCA Data CBA and MCA IA Baseline Prospective Formative Retrospective Process steps Types of evaluation Methods
    33. 33. Integrate Date (Super Output Area Data) SOA’s enable:  Comparison of areas of similar size nationally  Identification of pockets of deprivation below ward level  Comparisons over time as boundaries are durable  Handling some of the disclosure and privacy issues of smaller output areas  http://www.statistics.gov.uk/geography/soa.asp
    34. 34. The consortium 2: Industrial and public sector partners Housing market renewal, products and structures, social enterprise, participation routes, regeneration action plans and delivery, Box4 tool for community housing finance Project management, multidisciplinary design, refurbishment and restoration, planning and engineering consultancy Digital government services, Knowledge Society and regeneration, community IT development; broadband role-out and connectivity, social enterprise for IT business development, training and online services (Eastserve) Large-scale regeneration programme management, neighbourhood renewal, public-private partnerships, regeneration project implementation. East Manchester case study. Regeneration skills and training, CPD in Regeneration, Plan It (learning and training simulation tool), regeneration master classes, information sharing, partnership working, Egan Wheel, sustainable communities. Architecture & Urban Design, green space, mixed-use regeneration, multi-agency partnerships, project delivery, consultancy Social Return on Investment Tool (SROI), sustainable policy briefings, sustainability indicators, partnership working, corporate social responsibility, renewable energy, transport, climate change, waste minimisation and recycling Health and social dimensions of regeneration, provision of health and social care facilities, programme innovation, change management, community development, public-private partnerships A57 Liverpool Road case study, extensive experience of regeneration problems, early/base-line stages of regeneration process, public-private partnerships, property management, design (highway, landscape, architectural), development control House Building, housing refurbishment, sustainable construction, energy efficiency of buildings, corporate responsibility Envisage software development tool to build interoperability of software modules & data and presentation of information Housing market renewal, products and structures, social enterprise, participation routes, regeneration action plans and delivery, Box4 tool for community housing finance Project management, multidisciplinary design, refurbishment and restoration, planning and engineering consultancy Digital government services, Knowledge Society and regeneration, community IT development; broadband role-out and connectivity, social enterprise for IT business development, training and online services (Eastserve) Large-scale regeneration programme management, neighbourhood renewal, public-private partnerships, regeneration project implementation. East Manchester case study. Regeneration skills and training, CPD in Regeneration, Plan It (learning and training simulation tool), regeneration master classes, information sharing, partnership working, Egan Wheel, sustainable communities. Architecture & Urban Design, green space, mixed-use regeneration, multi-agency partnerships, project delivery, consultancy Social Return on Investment Tool (SROI), sustainable policy briefings, sustainability indicators, partnership working, corporate social responsibility, renewable energy, transport, climate change, waste minimisation and recycling Health and social dimensions of regeneration, provision of health and social care facilities, programme innovation, change management, community development, public-private partnerships A57 Liverpool Road case study, extensive experience of regeneration problems, early/base-line stages of regeneration process, public-private partnerships, property management, design (highway, landscape, architectural), development control House Building, housing refurbishment, sustainable construction, energy efficiency of buildings, corporate responsibility Envisage software development tool to build interoperability of software modules & data and presentation of information
    35. 35. The consortium 1: Academic Partners Data Modelling and Handling, Ontology Modelling, LUDA Assessment Decision Support, Unified Modelling Language (UML) and PostGIS – Vivacity, Energy Exchange model, ADMS (air pollution models), inclusive design, healthcare infrastructures, change management, Internet and VR based stakeholder engagement (VEPS) GIS-based Statistic (demographic) data repository (Vivacity) Digitally-inclusive Urban Regeneration, Sustainable Community Development, the IntelCities e-Learning platform, LUDA eCompendium, Life Long Learning, Learning Cities. NWQuest simulation tool, Public Participation GIS, Micro-MAPPAS, ISCAM, REAP, urban modelling, evaluation and participation, spatial policy analysis. Integrated Sustainability Assessment Tool (ISAT) and other sustainability appraisal tools, visual map of urban sustainability issues, evaluation results of 700+ assessment tools, whole life costing, maintenance strategies Housing Energy Simulation, thermal modelling of buildings, computer aided design and visualisation, environmental assessment, tools: IES, ECOTECT, DREAM Heritage “soft” measures, Historical Building Conservation University of Wales Institute, Cardiff
    36. 36. Issues: • Sustainable development & sustainable communities – Quadruple bottom line - EESI criteria • Example: NEM Towards Sustainable Urban Regeneration
    37. 37. Metrolink: 8 Stops, 8 Places
    38. 38. Excellence of Educational Offer
    39. 39. Creating Working Communities 2700 New Jobs
    40. 40. 30% Tree Canopy Target50,000 New Trees
    41. 41. District Energy
    42. 42. - Significant improvement in public perceptions - Reduction in petty crime - 7 Parks improved and 17 Community Gardens created - Completion of Sportcity - Transfer and improvement of 3,000 properties to Eastlands Homes - 3,500 new homes built and many more underway - 4,500 properties improved - 2 new health centres and 7 new Children’s Centres - Over £80m invested in 3 secondary schools and a new Academy - More than doubling the number of secondary schools pupils achieving 5 GCSE A* - C to over 50% - Educational attainment gap between east Manchester schools and City average has closed - 3,000 jobs created or safeguarded - 180,000 sq m of new commercial floor space built - New transport gateway at Central Park KEY ACHIEVEMENTS 2000 - 2007
    43. 43. LUDA Framework A. Evaluation Step B. Stakeholders C. Sustainability Issues D. Spatial E. Time scale 1. Diagnosis 2. Visioning 3. Predicting 4. Implementing 5. Monitoring 1. Policy makers City administrators Local authorities Government agencies NGO’s Research institutions 2. Private enterprise Property developers Building & infrastructure owners Banks & other financial backers 3. Planners Town planners Urban designers Consultants Development control officers 4. Service providers Transport & utility service providers Facilities managers Marketing officers Health and safety officers Insurers 5. Citizens 1. Urban Infrastructure Land use Urban design Buildings 2. Economic Employment Inward investment Commercial activity Land & property values 3. Social Income Health Education Safety & Security Community 4. Environmental Air quality Water quality Energy consumption Waste management Bio-diversity 1. Global 2. National 3. Urban region 4. City 5. District 6. Neighbourhood 7. Estate 8. Building 1. Long-term >20 years 2. Mid-term 5 – 20 years 3. Short-term <5 years Elected officials Entrepreneurs
    44. 44. Hard to reach spaces and communities: E.G.; Chapel Street, Salford Towards Sustainable Urban Regeneration
    45. 45. “There is nothing in a caterpillar that tells you it’s going to be a butterfly.” R. Buckminster Fuller Towards Sustainable Urban Regeneration
    46. 46. Introduction CSURC Development Framework Area North Chapel Street Conservation Area South Chapel Street
    47. 47. GLENN HOWELLS ARCHITECTS Chapel Street Elevation Study Existing Street View
    48. 48. GLENN HOWELLS ARCHITECTS “MORE SALFORD” “Less Anywhere” • “Transform Chapel Street into a vibrant tree lined street, which will form the focal point for the regeneration area” • “Enhance the existing architectural setting” • “Create an attractive urban neighbourhood, with a focus on family housing” • “High quality, contemporary buildings”
    49. 49. GLENN HOWELLS ARCHITECTS Preferred Proposed Masterplan
    50. 50. GLENN HOWELLS ARCHITECTS Chapel Street South Locally Listed Buildings Study Location Plan Location Aerial 1234 1 - Ye Olde Nelson 3 – 301 Chapel Street 2 - 289 Chapel Street 4 – The Bell Tower
    51. 51. GLENN HOWELLS ARCHITECTS Ye Olde Nelson Front elevation visible along full length of Chapel Street High quality buildings opposite Ye Olde Nelson Poor quality neighbouring buildings Gap sites surrounding building Site Constraints Existing Condition
    52. 52. GLENN HOWELLS ARCHITECTS Chapel Street Elevation Study Cathedral Square
    53. 53. CABE model for sustainable communities Source: Places Matter (CABE/ RENEW)
    54. 54. Building for Life Criteria 20 criteria under four heads: Environment and community Character Streets, parking and pedestrianisation Design and construction Building for Life is run by CABE and the Home Builders Federation with the Civic Trust, Design for Homes, English Partnerships and the Housing Corporation.
    55. 55. Thanks: Sean McGonigle, NEM Dave Carter, MDDA Peter Baker, Central Salford URC The teams from the Intelligent Cities and SURegen projects CABE Gorton Monastery Contact details: s.r.curwell@salford.ac.uk SURregen: m.wallwork@salford.ac.uk

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