Travelling Through Time
in aid of Sustainability:
Building Design &
Maintenance System
Professor Farzad Khosrowshahi
27 Oc...
• Maintenance on failure
• Preventative planned maintenance
• Time-based maintenance
Building Maintenance
Generations
• Too soon: uneconomical
• Too late: Poor service
Promise
. Building Maintenance Scheduling
. IDEAL (2) - Alternative Desi...
Visualisation of Building.
2D, 3D, animation, VR
4D Visualisation.
In time
Visualisation through time.
Visualisation of th...
Traditionally
Architect
Produce
building outline
design
Client briefing:
Define functional and strategic
needs
Building
Co...
Visual Building
Design
Information
Maintenance
Scheduler
Items Gen Properties
Building Design
Components AnalysisPropertie...
Architectural
Design
Building
Components
Maintenance
Schedule
Generation
Visualisation
Simulator
Maintenance
Scheduler
Sim...
Development Process
Event-Effect relationship model
Events: list, agents
Component: list, elements, time related variables...
LIFE CYCLE SIMULATIONLIFE CYCLE SIMULATIONLIFE CYCLE SIMULATIONLIFE CYCLE SIMULATIONLIFE CYCLE SIMULATIONLIFE CYCLE SIMULA...
Generalised life span modelGeneralised life span modelGeneralised life span modelGeneralised life span modelGeneralised li...
LifeAge
Dirt
&
Dust
Usage
rate
Room
Temperature
Voltage
Generalised status algorithm.Generalised status algorithm.Generalised status algorithm.Generalised status algorithm.Genera...
Example life span algorithm forExample life span algorithm forExample life span algorithm forExample life span algorithm f...
Example of a bedroom before lightExample of a bedroom before lightExample of a bedroom before lightExample of a bedroom be...
Example of a bedroom afterExample of a bedroom afterExample of a bedroom afterExample of a bedroom afterExample of a bedro...
Changes due to
lamps’ death.
General reduction
in lumens due to
dust factor and
lamp’s age.
EVENT-EFFECT MODELING
- CHELLENGE
Events-Effects
Event
Rain
Component
Cladding
Act on Effect
corrosion
EVENTS: many and diverse
Soft / Hard
COMPONENTS (internal / external / outside): many choices
Identify all variables that ...
Events-Effects – modeling
Event
Rain
Component
Cladding
Act on Effect
corrosion
Agents water
rain
steel
cladding
Events
Corrosion
Effects
Elements
Components
Events-Effects Relational Model
Short-circui...
popu
tionwater water
pollution
water
acid
Active AgentsAgents Auxiliary Agents
Example: Agent-water plus Agent-pollution =...
Combined effect of two or more Events
Example: Event-rain plus Event- vandalism-x = Active link to
Component-Cladding-Elem...
Extended model of Events-Effects
water
rain
steel
cladding
Agents
Events
Corrosion
Effects
Elements
Components
auxiliary
a...
Probes
Functions
Yes / no
chainEFFECT
Corrosion
EVENTEVENT
EVENT
Component
INTELIGENT OBJECTS
- construction & engineering
- facilities management
- environmental science
- materials science
- mechanical engineering
...
BEHAVIOURAL PATTERNS
eg. Degradation of Flooring Systems
[Visualisation of Impact of time on internal flooring]
1- Pattern...
There are two methods for analysing human spatial behaviour:
- Activity system (Chapin, S., 1968); is primarily
concerned ...
5 0 5 10
0
0.2
0.40.398947
9.13483e-012
a( )x
b( )x
c( )x
8-5 x
5 0 5 10
0
0.2
0.4
0.60.415847
8.64717e-010
g( )x
8-5 x
dy
y
yxf
xg
j
iy
∫=
=
),(
)(
The presentation of probability of appearance of
n creatures in a long room (Corridor)
with one entry (Door).
The presenta...
Unused Carpet Texture
Used Carpet Texture
ANTI-ANTHROPY
Clients
s
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
s
Input Data
Output Knowledge
(tailored)
Wider
Dissemination
Wider Exploitation
-Popularize ~music...
END
Travelling Through Time in Aid of Sustainability by Prof Farzad Khosrowshahi
Travelling Through Time in Aid of Sustainability by Prof Farzad Khosrowshahi
Travelling Through Time in Aid of Sustainability by Prof Farzad Khosrowshahi
Travelling Through Time in Aid of Sustainability by Prof Farzad Khosrowshahi
Travelling Through Time in Aid of Sustainability by Prof Farzad Khosrowshahi
Travelling Through Time in Aid of Sustainability by Prof Farzad Khosrowshahi
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Travelling Through Time in Aid of Sustainability by Prof Farzad Khosrowshahi

  1. 1. Travelling Through Time in aid of Sustainability: Building Design & Maintenance System Professor Farzad Khosrowshahi 27 October 2010
  2. 2. • Maintenance on failure • Preventative planned maintenance • Time-based maintenance Building Maintenance Generations
  3. 3. • Too soon: uneconomical • Too late: Poor service Promise . Building Maintenance Scheduling . IDEAL (2) - Alternative Design Solutions • Life cycle evaluation • sustainability Ideal (1): - Just-in-time maintenance - live through it twice - virtual
  4. 4. Visualisation of Building. 2D, 3D, animation, VR 4D Visualisation. In time Visualisation through time. Visualisation of the degradation of an object like a building: application in maintenance Building Visualisation Generations
  5. 5. Traditionally Architect Produce building outline design Client briefing: Define functional and strategic needs Building Component Selection for lifecycle, sustainability, energy. Define Project Environment (climate, usage, locality) Long Term & Periodical maintenance scheduling Construction Phase Use to design for lifecycle and generate repair & maintenance program Lifecycle engine (knowledge-based OR visual-based) Proposed
  6. 6. Visual Building Design Information Maintenance Scheduler Items Gen Properties Building Design Components AnalysisProperties of Items in Building Design Maintenance Scheduler Analysis Visual User Interface Eg. VRML Browser Cad output (convert to XML) contains all building details ’Items’ attributes and properties. Maintenance time period and type of maintenance.. Default properties of each standard ‘item’. Produce a map of building ‘items’ and assign the suitable properties to each one based on project initials. Calculate building maintenance procedure for the given time and for the given scheduler. Add building visual data and calculated data for the given time and maintenance scheduler and produce output VUI
  7. 7. Architectural Design Building Components Maintenance Schedule Generation Visualisation Simulator Maintenance Scheduler Simulator Maintenance Program Virtual Reality Output Architectural Design Building Components Maintenance Scheduler Generation Visualisation Simulator Maintenance Scheduler Simulator Maintenance Program Virtual Reality Output Program from visualisation Visualise the program
  8. 8. Development Process Event-Effect relationship model Events: list, agents Component: list, elements, time related variables Event / Component interaction Auxiliary events Maintenance scheduling expert system Data generation: collect, generate, knowledge conceptualisation, mobilisation Data Validation: case based , multi-modal Event-effect modelling / database design Product Development (software); interface design, web-based Visualisation; VUI Automate the maintenance decisions
  9. 9. LIFE CYCLE SIMULATIONLIFE CYCLE SIMULATIONLIFE CYCLE SIMULATIONLIFE CYCLE SIMULATIONLIFE CYCLE SIMULATIONLIFE CYCLE SIMULATIONLIFE CYCLE SIMULATIONLIFE CYCLE SIMULATION
  10. 10. Generalised life span modelGeneralised life span modelGeneralised life span modelGeneralised life span modelGeneralised life span modelGeneralised life span modelGeneralised life span modelGeneralised life span model Time Dead Components T1T2 A β PDF represent the lifetime If pi(tj)<=RND(tj) then “Item i is broken at the tj”
  11. 11. LifeAge Dirt & Dust Usage rate Room Temperature Voltage
  12. 12. Generalised status algorithm.Generalised status algorithm.Generalised status algorithm.Generalised status algorithm.Generalised status algorithm.Generalised status algorithm.Generalised status algorithm.Generalised status algorithm. Color of Component I at the time T Red =Initial_Red_Colour*PDF_FNr(I,T) *MaintenanceFactor; Green=Initial_Green_Colour*PDF_FNg(I,T) * MaintenanceFactor; Blue =Initial_Blue_Colour*PDF_FNb(I,T) * MaintenanceFactor; End of Colour calculation.
  13. 13. Example life span algorithm forExample life span algorithm forExample life span algorithm forExample life span algorithm forExample life span algorithm forExample life span algorithm forExample life span algorithm forExample life span algorithm for general light source.general light source.general light source.general light source.general light source.general light source.general light source.general light source. Lumens of lamp I at the time T Red_Lumens = Initial_Red_Lumen * PDF_FNr(I,T) * Dust_Factor; Green_Lumen= Initial_Green_Lumen * PDF_FNg(I,T) * Dust_Factor; Blue_Lumen = Initial_Blue_Lumen * PDF_FNb(I,T) * Dust_Factor; The_Lamp_Lit_Colour = RGB(Red_Lumens, Green_Lumens, Blue_Lumens); End of Lumens calculation. Death status of lamp I at the time T Probability_of_Death = PDF_FNd(I,T) * Environment function based on Maintenance factor (I); if Probability_of_Death >= RND(I,T) then Bulb is in broken state; Else Bulb is not in Broken State; End of lamp death status.
  14. 14. Example of a bedroom before lightExample of a bedroom before lightExample of a bedroom before lightExample of a bedroom before lightExample of a bedroom before lightExample of a bedroom before lightExample of a bedroom before lightExample of a bedroom before light manipulation.manipulation.manipulation.manipulation.manipulation.manipulation.manipulation.manipulation.
  15. 15. Example of a bedroom afterExample of a bedroom afterExample of a bedroom afterExample of a bedroom afterExample of a bedroom afterExample of a bedroom afterExample of a bedroom afterExample of a bedroom after supervised light manipulation.supervised light manipulation.supervised light manipulation.supervised light manipulation.supervised light manipulation.supervised light manipulation.supervised light manipulation.supervised light manipulation.
  16. 16. Changes due to lamps’ death. General reduction in lumens due to dust factor and lamp’s age.
  17. 17. EVENT-EFFECT MODELING - CHELLENGE
  18. 18. Events-Effects Event Rain Component Cladding Act on Effect corrosion
  19. 19. EVENTS: many and diverse Soft / Hard COMPONENTS (internal / external / outside): many choices Identify all variables that inflict degradation Define time-related visual attributes EVENT & EFFECT MODEL – linear Identify list of effects and associate with components Develop data structure for each component – effect of time Require conceptualisation INTERRELATIONS – chain events scenarios / cases EVENT SIMULATION Identification of event situations Heuristic rules for frequency and intensity of events Maintenance & Repair Complexity Events: Rain, Wear, temperature, people, air movement, long- wave radiation, chemical attack, biological attack, fire, man-made disaster, natural disaster. Effect: Colour rendition, surface texture, shape, mortality, erosion, corrosion, loosing reflective, absorption and transmission properties. LEVEL 2 . Wall finishes . Floor finishes . Ceiling finish . Sanitary appliances . Services equipment . Disposal installation . Water installation . Heating, Air & Vent. . Electrical installation . Gas installation . Lift/Convey instal'n . Communication instal'n . etc. LEVEL 1: COMPONENTS .Substructure .Superstructure .Internal Finish Fitting & Furnishing .Services .External Works .Etc… LEVEL 3 . Wall cover . Doors . Windows . etc. LEVEL 4 . fixture . handle . etc. LEVEL n . etc. Component Aggregation Levels
  20. 20. Events-Effects – modeling Event Rain Component Cladding Act on Effect corrosion
  21. 21. Agents water rain steel cladding Events Corrosion Effects Elements Components Events-Effects Relational Model Short-circuited? PVC
  22. 22. popu tionwater water pollution water acid Active AgentsAgents Auxiliary Agents Example: Agent-water plus Agent-pollution = Active Agent-acid Combined effect of two or more Agents
  23. 23. Combined effect of two or more Events Example: Event-rain plus Event- vandalism-x = Active link to Component-Cladding-Element-Steel popu tionrain cladding plastic steel cladding ComponentsEvents Auxiliary Events Rain/vandel
  24. 24. Extended model of Events-Effects water rain steel cladding Agents Events Corrosion Effects Elements Components auxiliary auxiliary
  25. 25. Probes Functions Yes / no chainEFFECT Corrosion EVENTEVENT EVENT Component INTELIGENT OBJECTS
  26. 26. - construction & engineering - facilities management - environmental science - materials science - mechanical engineering - meteorology - physics - chemistry - management – risk, project, safety, etc.. - architecture - maths & stats, simulation & modelling - computer science - visualisation - maintenance programming & scheduling - energy conservation - geologist - psychologists - sociologist - time geography - anthropology - etc. OTHER CHELLENGES; Holistic Nature - Several Expertise - anthropology
  27. 27. BEHAVIOURAL PATTERNS eg. Degradation of Flooring Systems [Visualisation of Impact of time on internal flooring] 1- Pattern of usage 2- Visualisation of degradation
  28. 28. There are two methods for analysing human spatial behaviour: - Activity system (Chapin, S., 1968); is primarily concerned with the organisation of the sequence of activities taking place in a setting. - Behaviour Settings (Barker, R., 1968); concerned with the relationship between the setting and a recurring pattern of behaviour. [anthropology] Centre Keep distance
  29. 29. 5 0 5 10 0 0.2 0.40.398947 9.13483e-012 a( )x b( )x c( )x 8-5 x
  30. 30. 5 0 5 10 0 0.2 0.4 0.60.415847 8.64717e-010 g( )x 8-5 x dy y yxf xg j iy ∫= = ),( )(
  31. 31. The presentation of probability of appearance of n creatures in a long room (Corridor) with one entry (Door). The presentation of appearance of n creatures in a long room (Corridor) with two entries (Doors).
  32. 32. Unused Carpet Texture Used Carpet Texture
  33. 33. ANTI-ANTHROPY
  34. 34. Clients s t a n d a r d s Input Data Output Knowledge (tailored) Wider Dissemination Wider Exploitation -Popularize ~music FINAL PRODUCT: ‘universal’ Web-based Design & Maintenance knowledge Broker Designers Maintenance manager Financiers/Insurers Public authorities Community Pressure Groups Web – HOLMES Knowledge Broker Manufacturers Researchers HOLMES Phase1 : Initial population Phase 2: Promotion&Publicity Phase 3: Data volunteers General Public Etc.
  35. 35. END

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