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BIM – Just another buzzword or a real change in the Industry? - Professor Arto Kiviniemi
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BIM – Just another buzzword or a real change in the Industry? - Professor Arto Kiviniemi

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  • 1. BIM  –  just  another  buzzword     or  a  real  change  in  the  industry?   Prof.  Arto  Kiviniemi   Digital  Architectural  Design   10th  November  2010  
  • 2. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010 Content of the presentation   What  is  BIM?     Some  key  points  in  the  history  of  BIM     Open  BIM  -­‐  Interoperability  and  IFC     Where  is  the  market  now?     Some  obstacles  and  problems     Some  potenNal  benefits     Requirements  &  examples  of  successful  deployment     Future  development  needs?  
  • 3. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010 What is BIM?   Building  InformaNon  Modelling  is  the  process  of   generaNng  and  managing  building  data  during  its  life   cycle  (Wikipedia)       Building  InformaNon  Models   •  are  typically  produced  using  3-­‐dimensional,  dynamic   building  modeling  soVware   •  include  geometry,  properNes,  quanNNes,  spaNal  and   funcNonal  relaNonships  of  building  components,  and   possibly  geographical  informaNon  (GIS)     Integrated  BIM   •  consists  of  several  domain  models;  requirements,   architectural,  structural,  MEP,  producNon,  as-­‐built,   maintenance…   •  requires  interoperability  
  • 4. © VTT Arto Kiviniemi Information is exchanged as documents - often just on paper - which causes non-value- adding work, friction, data losses and errors Traditional document/2D-based process
  • 5. © VTT Arto Kiviniemi Information is shared in an exploitable data format directly between different systems Integrated BIM-based process
  • 6. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010 Some key points in the history of BIM   Charles  Eastman:  “The  use  of  computers  instead  of  drawings  in  building   design,”  Journal  of  the  American  InsNtute  of  Architects,  March  1975     Early  building  product  modelling  research  in  1980s  and  1990s   •  RATAS,  Combine  2,  ISO  STEP   •  According  to  Jerry  Laiserin  the  first  implementaNon  of  BIM  was   GraphisoV's  Virtual  Building  concept  in  1987.     Interoperability  -­‐  IAI/buildingSMART   •  Industry  Alliance  for  Interoperability  in  1994;  12  founding  members:   AT&T,  Archibus,  Autodesk,  Carrier,  HOK,  Honeywell,  Jaros  Baum  &  Bolles,   LBNL,    Primavera,  SoVdesk,  Timberline,  and  Tishman   •  InternaNonal  Alliance  for  Interoperability  in  1996;  7  founding  chapters:   French  Speaking,  German  Speaking,  Japan,  Nordic,  North  America,   Singapore  and  UK.  Later  new  chapters:  Australasia,  Benelux,  China,   Iberia,  Italia,  Korea,  Middle  East   •  New  name  “buildingSMART  InternaNonal”  in  2005     Term  BIM  launched  by  Phil  Bernstein  (Autodesk)  in  2002     GSA  and  Senate  ProperNes  started  to  demand  BIM  in  their  projects  in  2007  
  • 7. Open  BIM  –     Interoperability  and  IFC  
  • 8. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010
  • 9. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010
  • 10. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010 IFC is only a part of the solution  IFC  is  only  an  enabling  specifica5on;  one   component  for  soVware  development  and   implementaNon    SoluNon  components:   •  Enabling  technologies   •  ICT  infrastructure   •  Enabling  specificaNons   •  SoVware  applicaNons   •  Processes   •  Business  models   •  People   Common ICT development IAI/IFC (+ others) Software industry AEC/FM industry
  • 11. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010© Tekla: Leif Granholm 2009 Common (mis)understanding: IFC data is the master model
  • 12. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010© Tekla: Leif Granholm 2009 The correct image: IFC enables data sharing, native models are the masters
  • 13. Where  is  the  market  now?  
  • 14. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010 Where are we on the Hype Cycle? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  • 15. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010 BIM market transition Early   market   Tornado   Main  stream   Bowling   alley  Chasm   Forerunners   (Innovators)   Visionaries   (Early  adopters)   PragmaNsts   (Early  majority)   ConservaNves   (Late  majority)   SkepNcs   (Laggards)   Early   1990s   Expected   situaNon  in   5-­‐10  years   Current   market   situaNon   Market  saturaNon  
  • 16. Some  obstacles  and  problems  
  • 17. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010 Slow adoption of integrated BIM   Fragmented  industry  –  no  strong  drivers   •  Large  number  of  shareholders  with  potenNally   conflicNng  interests  in  every  project   •  Ad-­‐hoc  project  partners  =  no  cumulaNve  learning,   lowest  common  denominator  defines  the  level  of   integraNon   •  Very  few  sponsors  for  common  development   •  “Great  idea.  Tell  me  when  it  is  ready.”     ImplementaNon  of  open  standards  (IFC)  has  been   slow  and  suffered  from  inadequate  quality   •  Too  many  different  versions   •  Some  disappoinNng  results  in  early  projects   17
  • 18. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010
  • 19. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010 General obstacles   Sub-­‐opNmizaNon   •  Typically  low  bid  in  every  task,  although  minimized   design  and  planning  effort  can  lead  into  significant   addiNonal  costs  in  producNon   •  SeparaNon  of  design  and  producNon  knowledge     Legal  responsibiliNes  –  changes  may  increase   uncertainty  and  risks     In  general  change  adverse  aqtude   •  Known  exisNng  problems,  but  “Rather  the  devil  we   know.”   •  Nobody  wants  to  be  the  first;  “It  is  the  second  mouse   who  gets  the  cheese!”   19
  • 20. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010 Changing business case   Required  investments  and  achieved  benefits  do  not   necessarily  affect  the  same  player   •  More  work  and  added-­‐value  in  the  early  phases  of  the   process,  direct  gains  mainly  in  later  phases   •  Who  wins,  who  loses,  or  should  we  re-­‐think  the   rewards?  –  Good  results  of  IPD  in  USA     No  real  process  owners   •  Systemic  innovaNons  –  changes  affecNng  several  actors   –  are  difficult  to  implement     Most  clients  do  not  know  what  to  demand  and  how   to  control  the  new  processes   •  Missing  baseline  -­‐  difficult  to  compare  offers  and  results   20
  • 21. © VTT Arto Kiviniemi Briefing for Changes Sketching Design, Engineering Facility Management Construction Briefing Demolition Planning, Cost Information Focus of BIM has been mainly in projects
  • 22. © VTT Arto Kiviniemi Should we look at clients’ business? Change adaptation Client’s core business FM services Building process Design Construction
  • 23. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010 BIM to become part of public procurement process 1 October 2010 | By Anna Winston http://www.bdonline.co.uk/news/uk/bim-to-become-part-of-public-procurement-process/5006655.article
  • 24. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010 Is this the industry response? Or  should  we  think  why   clients  want  BIM?  
  • 25. PotenNal  benefits  
  • 26. 26 Source: Organizing to Exploit Integrated Information Technologies Ray Levitt and John Taylor, CIFE - Stanford University 2005
  • 27. 27 Source: Organizing to Exploit Integrated Information Technologies Ray Levitt and John Taylor, CIFE - Stanford University 2005
  • 28. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010
  • 29. Requirements  &  examples  of   successful  deployment  
  • 30. Six steps to ”successful BIM” 30
  • 31. Why to try to do everything in one go? 31
  • 32. Why to start from the most complex one? 32
  • 33. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010 Top level support and strategy
  • 34. 34 BIM: five 0 in construction process Results in a better productivity! 0-errors in design 0-errors in quantity- /cost estimations and scheduling 0-errors in procurement and logistics 0-errors in production 0-errors in hand-over 4.11.2010
  • 35. 35 BIM applications in a typical sequence order for implementation in Skanska Quantity take- off, Costing Facilities Mgt. = level 1 = level 2 = level 3 BU’s have the option to work with applications from a higher level 4D-Scheduling Simulations Energy, fire etc LCC- and LCA- analyses Safety Planning Visualizations Supply Chain Management Procurement Site BIM – Production Planning Intelligent 3D-Modeling Clash Detection 4.11.2010
  • 36. 36 Multidisciplinary model −  Architectural model: −  Partition walls −  Windows −  Doors −  Balcony railings and glazings −  Surfaces −  Etc. −  Structural model −  Foundations −  External wal.ls −  Load-bearing internal walls −  Stairs −  Balcony slabs, columns −  Etc. −  HVAC: −  Pipes −  Devices −  Electrical model: −  Devices −  Cable racs Johan Stenstrand4.11.2010
  • 37. Walking way Timber storage Precast panels Waste containers Safety railings Fencing Site access and roads Site and safety planning & BIM Johan Stenstrand 37 4.11.2010
  • 38. 38 Temporary structures Formwork, Suports & Scaffolding Johan Stenstrand4.11.2010
  • 39. Benefits of using BIM on site Problems in the design are apparent – no need to debate on that Total and faster understanding of what to be build Multi-disciplinary information in one place More precise, clear Information flows all the way to the doer Facilitates the development of the construction sequence so that health and safety are taken into account (best way to build in that sense) Trust the model & drawing -> gives opportunity to speed up production (design has to be finalized because it looks finalized in model & in drawings Model updated faster and more often than drawings - Production team do not rely on drawings that could be out of date Model based collaboration & communication Support co-operation between design disciplines Collaboration with subs with model Quicker problem solving Information easily available Quick and accurate quantities Less errors/Mistakes made because of better understanding Able to do proper production planning Johan Stenstrand 39 4.11.2010
  • 40. www.granlund.fiCopyright Granlund | 40January 2010 Example of integrated BIM simulation tools Building services Network BIM CFD simulation of demanding spaces Environmental analysis (LCA) Lightning simulations Virtual reality Comfort simulation of spaces Energy simulation of building Requirements’ management Self-reporting building Investment and LCC analysis Visualization of combined models Analysis building modelling FM and building portals Multiphysics calculations Technical visualizations BIM model auditing Building information model (BIM) Geometry model and databases
  • 41. www.granlund.fiCopyright Granlund | 41January 2010 Management of requirements and versions Reporting Client 1. Space type requirements 2. Geometry model 3. Validation of BIM 4. Space groups 5. Thermal simulation 6. System modeling Design Space data browsing, visualization by color charts • Comparisons: to targets and between versions • Overall checking of design process Geometry model Space data Simulation results Simulation results Design data Space types Zones by Modeling tools or Architectural model Comfort Lighting System needs Geometry Spaces Windows Doors Client’s needs Facilities Management
  • 42. www.granlund.fiCopyright Granlund | 42January 2010 Comparison of different alternatives Alternative simulation results compared in ROOMEX to support decision making and project management   Various versions can be made for ex. by simulating different window types   Differences between simulation results will be presented with colour maps   Simulation results can also be compared with original requirements   Comparable results are, for example: - cooling loads - heat losses - air flow rates - luminance rates
  • 43. www.granlund.fiCopyright Granlund | 43January 2010 Comparison to targets Classification of spaces •  Medical,… •  Special requirements, inspections Contract areas •  Tenants, maintenance, cleaning,… IT services in spaces •  LAN free/used connections, PC’s BIM in technical facilities management Service requests •  Locating spaces for need of service Workplaces •  Personnel data, telephone catalogue Measured comfort •  Temperatures in reference spaces Access •  Permissions to different areas •  Maintenance personnel routes Technical services in spaces •  Available electrical, telecom services Design targets of spaces •  Comfort, thermal loads Building information model (BIM) for FM • Building geometry / floor plans, spatial data • Technical FM database Archiving of Native models (MagiCAD,…) Graphical user-interface of RYHTI FM As-built data/ Renovations Information management of integrated design Building information model (BIM) for design Data publishing for FM Maintenance •  Locating equipment and zones. •  Group replacement of lamps Long Term Planning, Maintenance planning, Energy management etc
  • 44. www.granlund.fiCopyright Granlund | 44January 2010 RYHTI Executive Management reporting Operational tasks Processes / Contracts Maintenance Management LTP Repairs & Replacements Energy Management Service Request Management Strategic approach Management objectives
  • 45. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010 Public statement by government clients of the AEC/FM sector Statement  of  IntenNon  to  Support  Building  InformaNon   Modeling  with  Open  Standards:     ”We  will  support,  to  the  extent  legally  and  pracNcally  possible,  the  use  of   IFC-­‐related  BIM  soluNons  in  public  construcNon  works”     ”Our  intent  is  for  all  major  projects  to  use  open  BIMs  based  on  IFCs  on  a   regular  basis  but  no  later  than  within  a  two-­‐  to  four-­‐year  (i.e.,  2009-­‐2011)   Nmeframe”     ”We  also  intend  to  observe  and  assess  the  conNnuing  development  of   relevant  accompanying  open  BIM-­‐related  standards  like  IFD,  IDM  and  MVD   approach  to  describe  and  display  the  informaNon  required  for  the  design,   construcNon,  and  operaNon  of  constructed  faciliNes  and  the  interfacing  of   GIS-­‐related  open  standards”   Public statement by - U.S. General Services Administration (GSA), USA - Danish Enterprise and Construction Authority (DECA), Denmark" "- Senate Properties, Finland" "- Directorate of Public Construction and Property (Statsbygg), Norway
  • 46. HAKA6 Only one participant used BIM BIM used only in one phase of the project BIM used in all phases of the project All participants used BIM Canthia VTT Digi Building HU Animal Hospital Torikatu 36, Oulu Upinniemi Central Warehouse Didacticum TUT AdministrationTietotalo 2, Oulu HUT-600 Aurora 2 Helsinki Music Centre BIM tests of Senate Properties 2001-2006 Lohipato school As the result of testing Senate Properties started to demand BIM in all projects starting since October 1st, 2007
  • 47. How can BIM improve the decision making? 47 •  What information is needed for critical decisions? •  Which parts of this information are already possible to process with BIM better than in the traditional ways? •  Market readiness; both technical and skill view points? Senate Properties’ investment process
  • 48. 48 Publication of models Quality checking Use of models in analysis and simulations Scope, investment and lifecycle costs, sustainability Creation of the design models Mandatory use of BIM Optional use of BIM Senate Properties’ investment process 1.10.2007 Mandatory use of BIM Mandatory use of BIM 1.4.2009
  • 49. Senate Properties’ BIM requirements 49 2007 BIM guidelines available in English at http://www.senaatti.fi/
  • 50. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010 Helsinki Music Centre •  Integrated BIM used on site operations •  No installations allowed before the detailed, combined model is approved
  • 51. Future  development?  
  • 52. © VTT Arto Kiviniemi Need to re-think the process 52 Actors Phases Tasks Problems: •  process •  skills •  technology ECPIP-project: TKK SimLab and VTT }80% human issues } 20% technology
  • 53. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010 Business and contract models 53
  • 54. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010 Education: Media affects our thinking 1775 1900 1985 2000 2010 Requirement for building permit drawings in Finland Design by experience - physical models Manual drafting and tracing, highly illustrative drawings Manual drafting, copying machines, simplified/abstract representation Early CAD = automated drafting Modelling Interoperability Collaboration platforms Simulation Integrated BIM Back to the illustrative representation Virtual prototyping
  • 55. © VTT Arto Kiviniemi Markets Increased Functionality Increased Productivity Increased Operational Thinking Tactical Thinking Strategic Thinking Long Lasting Competitive Advantage TRANSFORMATIONAL INFORMATIONAL AUTOMATIONAL Business effects of ICT Starting point Source: VBE II project/VTT 2006