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BIM – Just another buzzword or a real change in the Industry? - Professor Arto Kiviniemi

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  • 1. BIM  –  just  another  buzzword     or  a  real  change  in  the  industry?   Prof.  Arto  Kiviniemi   Digital  Architectural  Design   10th  November  2010  
  • 2. Content of the presentation   What  is  BIM?     Some  key  points  in  the  history  of  BIM     Open  BIM  -­‐  Interoperability  and  IFC     Where  is  the  market  now?     Some  obstacles  and  problems     Some  potenNal  benefits     Requirements  &  examples  of  successful  deployment     Future  development  needs?   Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010
  • 3. What is BIM?   Building  InformaNon  Modelling  is  the  process  of   generaNng  and  managing  building  data  during  its  life   cycle  (Wikipedia)       Building  InformaNon  Models   •  are  typically  produced  using  3-­‐dimensional,  dynamic   building  modeling  soVware   •  include  geometry,  properNes,  quanNNes,  spaNal  and   funcNonal  relaNonships  of  building  components,  and   possibly  geographical  informaNon  (GIS)     Integrated  BIM   •  consists  of  several  domain  models;  requirements,   architectural,  structural,  MEP,  producNon,  as-­‐built,   maintenance…   •  requires  interoperability   Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010
  • 4. Traditional document/2D-based process Information is exchanged as documents - often just on paper - which causes non-value- adding work, friction, data losses and errors © VTT Arto Kiviniemi
  • 5. Integrated BIM-based process Information is shared in an exploitable data format directly between different systems © VTT Arto Kiviniemi
  • 6. Some key points in the history of BIM   Charles  Eastman:  “ The  use  of  computers  instead  of  drawings  in  building   design,”  Journal  of  the  American  InsNtute  of  Architects,  March  1975     Early  building  product  modelling  research  in  1980s  and  1990s   •  RATAS,  Combine  2,  ISO  STEP   •  According  to  Jerry  Laiserin  the  first  implementaNon  of  BIM  was   GraphisoV's  Virtual  Building  concept  in  1987.     Interoperability  -­‐  IAI/buildingSMART   •  Industry  Alliance  for  Interoperability  in  1994;  12  founding  members:   AT&T,  Archibus,  Autodesk,  Carrier,  HOK,  Honeywell,  Jaros  Baum  &  Bolles,   LBNL,    Primavera,  SoVdesk,  Timberline,  and  Tishman   •  InternaNonal  Alliance  for  Interoperability  in  1996;  7  founding  chapters:   French  Speaking,  German  Speaking,  Japan,  Nordic,  North  America,   Singapore  and  UK.  Later  new  chapters:  Australasia,  Benelux,  China,   Iberia,  Italia,  Korea,  Middle  East   •  New  name  “buildingSMART  InternaNonal”  in  2005     Term  BIM  launched  by  Phil  Bernstein  (Autodesk)  in  2002     GSA  and  Senate  ProperNes  started  to  demand  BIM  in  their  projects  in  2007   Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010
  • 7. Open  BIM  –   Interoperability  and  IFC  
  • 8. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010
  • 9. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010
  • 10. IFC is only a part of the solution  IFC  is  only  an  enabling  specifica5on;  one   component  for  soVware  development  and   implementaNon    SoluNon  components:   •  Enabling  technologies   Common ICT •  ICT  infrastructure   development •  Enabling  specificaNons   IAI/IFC (+ others) •  SoVware  applicaNons   Software industry •  Processes   •  Business  models   AEC/FM industry •  People   Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010
  • 11. Common (mis)understanding: IFC data is the master model © Tekla: Leif Granholm 2009 Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010 Arto
  • 12. The correct image: IFC enables data sharing, native models are the masters © Tekla: Leif Granholm 2009 Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010 Arto
  • 13. Where  is  the  market  now?  
  • 14. Where are we on the Hype Cycle? ? ? ? ? ? ? Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010
  • 15. BIM market transition Expected   situaNon  in   5-­‐10  years   Current   market   situaNon   Early   Tornado   Main  stream   1990s   Early   market   Bowling   Chasm   alley   Market  saturaNon   Forerunners   Visionaries   PragmaNsts   ConservaNves   SkepNcs   (Innovators)   (Early  adopters)   (Early  majority)   (Late  majority)   (Laggards)   Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010
  • 16. Some  obstacles  and  problems  
  • 17. Slow adoption of integrated BIM   Fragmented  industry  –  no  strong  drivers   •  Large  number  of  shareholders  with  potenNally   conflicNng  interests  in  every  project   •  Ad-­‐hoc  project  partners  =  no  cumulaNve  learning,   lowest  common  denominator  defines  the  level  of   integraNon   •  Very  few  sponsors  for  common  development   •  “Great  idea.  Tell  me  when  it  is  ready.”     ImplementaNon  of  open  standards  (IFC)  has  been   slow  and  suffered  from  inadequate  quality   •  Too  many  different  versions   •  Some  disappoinNng  results  in  early  projects   Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010 17
  • 18. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010
  • 19. General obstacles   Sub-­‐opNmizaNon   •  Typically  low  bid  in  every  task,  although  minimized   design  and  planning  effort  can  lead  into  significant   addiNonal  costs  in  producNon   •  SeparaNon  of  design  and  producNon  knowledge     Legal  responsibiliNes  –  changes  may  increase   uncertainty  and  risks     In  general  change  adverse  aqtude   •  Known  exisNng  problems,  but  “Rather  the  devil  we   know.”   •  Nobody  wants  to  be  the  first;  “It  is  the  second  mouse   who  gets  the  cheese!”   Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010 19
  • 20. Changing business case   Required  investments  and  achieved  benefits  do  not   necessarily  affect  the  same  player   •  More  work  and  added-­‐value  in  the  early  phases  of  the   process,  direct  gains  mainly  in  later  phases   •  Who  wins,  who  loses,  or  should  we  re-­‐think  the   rewards?  –  Good  results  of  IPD  in  USA     No  real  process  owners   •  Systemic  innovaNons  –  changes  affecNng  several  actors   –  are  difficult  to  implement     Most  clients  do  not  know  what  to  demand  and  how   to  control  the  new  processes   •  Missing  baseline  -­‐  difficult  to  compare  offers  and  results   Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010 20
  • 21. Focus of BIM has been mainly in projects Briefing Sketching Design, Engineering Briefing for Planning, Changes Cost Information Demolition Facility Construction Management © VTT Arto Kiviniemi
  • 22. Should we look at clients’ business? Client’s core business Change FM adaptation services Design Building process Construction © VTT Arto Kiviniemi
  • 23. BIM to become part of public procurement process 1 October 2010 | By Anna Winston http://www.bdonline.co.uk/news/uk/bim-to-become-part-of-public-procurement-process/5006655.article Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010
  • 24. Is this the industry response? Or  should  we  think  why   clients  want  BIM?   Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010
  • 25. PotenNal  benefits  
  • 26. 26
  • 27. 27
  • 28. Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010
  • 29. Requirements  &  examples  of   successful  deployment  
  • 30. Six steps to ”successful BIM” 30
  • 31. Why to try to do everything in one go? 31
  • 32. Why to start from the most complex one? 32
  • 33. Top level support and strategy Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010
  • 34. BIM: five 0 in construction process 0-errors in design 0-errors in quantity- /cost estimations and scheduling 0-errors in procurement and logistics 0-errors in production 0-errors in hand-over Results in a better productivity! 34 4.11.2010
  • 35. BIM applications in a Procurement Facilities Mgt. typical sequence order for implementation in Site BIM – Production Skanska Visualizations Planning Safety Planning Intelligent = level 1 Clash 3D-Modeling Detection 4D-Scheduling Simulations = level 2 Energy, fire etc = level 3 Supply Chain Quantity take- Management off, Costing LCC- and LCA- analyses BU’s have the option to work with applications from a higher level 35 4.11.2010
  • 36. Multidisciplinary model −  Architectural model: −  Partition walls −  Windows −  Doors −  Balcony railings and glazings −  Surfaces −  Etc. −  Structural model −  Foundations −  External wal.ls −  Load-bearing internal walls −  Stairs −  Balcony slabs, columns −  Etc. −  HVAC: −  Pipes −  Devices −  Electrical model: −  Devices −  Cable racs 36 4.11.2010 Johan Stenstrand
  • 37. Site and safety planning & BIM Precast panels Safety railings Waste Walking containers way Fencing Timber storage Site access and roads 37 4.11.2010 Johan Stenstrand
  • 38. Temporary structures Formwork, Suports & Scaffolding 38 4.11.2010 Johan Stenstrand
  • 39. Benefits of using BIM on site Facilitates the development of the construction Collaboration with subs sequence so that health and safety are taken Able to do proper with model into account (best way to build in that sense) production planning Quick and accurate quantities Multi-disciplinary information in one place Quicker problem solving Model updated faster and more often than drawings - Production team do not rely on drawings that could be out of Information easily date available Trust the model & drawing -> gives opportunity to speed up production (design has to be finalized because it looks finalized in model & in drawings Problems in the design are apparent – no need to debate on that Information flows all the way to the doer Less errors/Mistakes Model based collaboration & made because of better communication Total and faster understanding understanding Support co-operation between design of what to be build disciplines More precise, clear 39 4.11.2010 Johan Stenstrand
  • 40. Example of integrated BIM simulation tools Requirements’ Comfort simulation Energy simulation Investment and Environmental Multiphysics management of spaces of building LCC analysis analysis (LCA) calculations Self-reporting Analysis building modelling building Building information model (BIM) FM and building portals BIM model auditing Geometry model and databases Technical Lightning CFD simulation of Building services Visualization of Virtual reality visualizations simulations demanding spaces Network BIM combined models Copyright Granlund | January 2010 www.granlund.fi 40
  • 41. Management of requirements and versions Facilities Design Client Management Reporting Client’s needs Space data browsing, visualization by color charts 1. Space type requirements 6. System modeling •  Comparisons: to targets and between versions •  Overall checking of design process Comfort Design data Lighting Simulation results System needs 2. Geometry model 5. Thermal simulation Simulation results by Modeling tools Geometry model or Architectural Space data model 3. Validation of BIM 4. Space groups Geometry Space types Spaces Zones Windows Doors Copyright Granlund | January 2010 www.granlund.fi 41
  • 42. Comparison of different alternatives Alternative simulation results compared in ROOMEX to support decision making and project management   Various versions can be made for ex. by simulating different window types   Differences between simulation results will be presented with colour maps   Simulation results can also be compared with original requirements   Comparable results are, for example: - cooling loads - heat losses - air flow rates - luminance rates Copyright Granlund | January 2010 www.granlund.fi 42
  • 43. BIM in technical facilities management Information management Building information of integrated design model (BIM) for design Data publishing Archiving of As-built data/ for FM Native models Renovations (MagiCAD,…) Building information model (BIM) for FM •  Building geometry / floor plans, spatial data Long Term Planning, Maintenance planning, •  Technical FM database Energy management etc Graphical user-interface of RYHTI FM Maintenance Technical services in spaces •  Locating equipment and zones. •  Available electrical, telecom services •  Group replacement of lamps IT services in spaces Service requests •  LAN free/used connections, PC’s •  Locating spaces for need of service Classification of spaces Design targets of spaces •  Medical,… •  Comfort, thermal loads •  Special requirements, inspections Comparison to targets Access Measured comfort •  Permissions to different areas •  Temperatures in reference spaces •  Maintenance personnel routes Workplaces Contract areas •  Personnel data, telephone catalogue •  Tenants, maintenance, cleaning,… Copyright Granlund | January 2010 www.granlund.fi 43
  • 44. RYHTI Executive Management reporting Strategic approach Management objectives Operational tasks Processes / Contracts Maintenance Service Request Energy LTP Repairs & Management Management Management Replacements Copyright Granlund | January 2010 www.granlund.fi 44
  • 45. Public statement by government clients of the AEC/FM sector Statement  of  IntenNon  to  Support  Building  InformaNon   Modeling  with  Open  Standards:     ”We  will  support,  to  the  extent  legally  and  pracNcally  possible,  the  use  of   IFC-­‐related  BIM  soluNons  in  public  construcNon  works”     ”Our  intent  is  for  all  major  projects  to  use  open  BIMs  based  on  IFCs  on  a   regular  basis  but  no  later  than  within  a  two-­‐  to  four-­‐year  (i.e.,  2009-­‐2011)   Nmeframe”     ”We  also  intend  to  observe  and  assess  the  conNnuing  development  of   relevant  accompanying  open  BIM-­‐related  standards  like  IFD,  IDM  and  MVD   approach  to  describe  and  display  the  informaNon  required  for  the  design,   construcNon,  and  operaNon  of  constructed  faciliNes  and  the  interfacing  of   GIS-­‐related  open  standards”   Public statement by - U.S. General Services Administration (GSA), USA - Danish Enterprise and Construction Authority (DECA), Denmark" "- Senate Properties, Finland" "- Directorate of Public Construction and Property (Statsbygg), Norway Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010
  • 46. BIM tests of Senate Properties 2001-2006 HAKA6 Lohipato school All Aurora 2 participants used BIM HUT-600 Helsinki Music Centre Tietotalo 2, Oulu TUT Administration Upinniemi Central Warehouse Torikatu 36, Oulu As the result of testing Didacticum Senate Properties HU Animal Hospital started to demand VTT Digi Building BIM in all projects starting Only one since October 1st, 2007 Canthia participant used BIM BIM used only in one BIM used in all phase of the project phases of the project
  • 47. How can BIM improve the decision making? Senate Properties’ investment process •  What information is needed for critical decisions? •  Which parts of this information are already possible to process with BIM better than in the traditional ways? •  Market readiness; both technical and skill view points? 47
  • 48. Senate Properties’ investment process Mandatory use of BIM 1.10.2007 Optional use of BIM Mandatory use of BIM 1.4.2009 Mandatory use of BIM Creation of the design models Publication of models Use of models in analysis and simulations Quality checking Scope, investment and lifecycle costs, sustainability 48
  • 49. Senate Properties’ BIM requirements 2007 BIM guidelines available in English at http://www.senaatti.fi/ 49
  • 50. Helsinki Music Centre •  Integrated BIM used on site operations •  No installations allowed before the detailed, combined model is approved Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010
  • 51. Future  development?  
  • 52. Need to re-think the process     } 80% human issues   } 20% technology © VTT Arto Kiviniemi 52
  • 53. Business and contract models Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010 53
  • 54. Education: Media affects our thinking Design by experience - physical models Back to the illustrative Manual drafting and tracing, representation highly illustrative drawings Integrated BIM Requirement for building permit drawings in Finland Manual drafting, copying machines, simplified/abstract representation Early CAD = automated drafting Modelling Interoperability Simulation Collaboration platforms Virtual prototyping 1775 1900 1985 2000 2010 Arto Kiviniemi - Professorial lecture 10/11/2010
  • 55. Business effects of ICT Starting point Long Lasting Markets TRANSFORMATIONAL Competitive Increased Advantage Functionality INFORMATIONAL Increased Productivity AUTOMATIONAL Increased Operational Tactical Strategic Thinking Thinking Thinking © VTT Arto Kiviniemi Source: VBE II project/VTT 2006