Produsage Revisited
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Produsage Revisited

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Invited paper presented at the Uses across Media symposium, Copenhagen, 31 Oct. 2013.

Invited paper presented at the Uses across Media symposium, Copenhagen, 31 Oct. 2013.

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Produsage Revisited Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Produsage Revisited Axel Bruns ARC Centre of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation Queensland University of Technology a.bruns@qut.edu.au @snurb_dot_info http://mappingonlinepublics.net/
  • 2. PRODUSAGE • Where it started: – Gatewatching: Collaborative Online News Production (Peter Lang, 2005) – Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and Beyond: From Production to Produsage (Peter Lang, 2008) • Where it‟s going: – Mainstreaming, adaptation, cooption, atomisation?
  • 3. THE PARTICIPATORY TURN • From the industrial value chain… producer  distributor  consumer • …to the participative Web: (as user) content produser (as producer) content
  • 4. PRODUSAGE • Key principles of produsage environments: – Open Participation, Communal Evaluation: the community as a whole, if sufficiently large and varied, can contribute more than a closed team of producers, however qualified – Fluid Heterarchy, Ad Hoc Meritocracy: produsers participate as is appropriate to their personal skills, interests, and knowledges; this changes as the produsage project proceeds
  • 5. Image by barjack
  • 6. KEY PRINCIPLES • Key principles of produsage environments: – Open Participation, Communal Evaluation: the community as a whole, if sufficiently large and varied, can contribute more than a closed team of producers, however qualified – Fluid Heterarchy, Ad Hoc Meritocracy: produsers participate as is appropriate to their personal skills, interests, and knowledges; this changes as the produsage project proceeds – Unfinished Artefacts, Continuing Process: content artefacts in produsage projects are continually under development, and therefore always unfinished; their development follows evolutionary, iterative, palimpsestic paths – Common Property, Individual Merit: contributors permit (non-commercial) community use of their intellectual property, and are rewarded by the status capital
  • 7. Image by zota
  • 8. PRODUSAGE AND BUSINESS • Professional? Amateur? Both? Pro-Ams work at their leisure, regard consumption as a productive activity and set professional standards to judge their amateur efforts. (Leadbeater & Miller, 2004) • Connectors between produsage communities and business interests • Alternatively: – Lead users (von Hippel, 2005) – Community leaders – Prosumers? (Toffler, 1970)
  • 9. Image by topherous
  • 10. BEWARE THE PROSUMER • Dreams of a “customer-activated manufacturing system”: – In the end, the consumer, not merely providing the specs but punching the button that sets this entire process in action, will become as much a part of the production process as the denim-clad assembly-line worker was in the world now dying. (The Third Wave, 1980: 274) – Producer and consumer, divorced by the industrial revolution, are reunited in the cycle of wealth creation, with the customer contributing not just the money but market and design information vital for the production process. Buyer and supplier share data, information, and knowledge. Someday, customers may also push buttons that activate remote production processes. Consumer and producer fuse into a “prosumer.” (Powershift, 1990: 239)
  • 11. Image by Chris Devers
  • 12. TOWARDS PRO/AM COLLABORATION • Establishing the „netarchist firm‟: They are „acceptable‟ intermediaries for the actors of … participatory culture. (Bauwens, 2005) – – – – Breaking down corporate boundaries Working with the community, but for profit Establishing heterarchical governance structures Transcending copyright as the central business model
  • 13. Image by V31S70
  • 14. JOINING PRODUCTION AND PRODUSAGE • Requirements for Pro/Am Projects: – Shared Responsibility and Control: neither side controls the project outright, and each must respect the other‟s interests; governance mechanisms must support a sharing of responsibility – Mobility between Community and Corporation: participants – especially Pro-Ams – must be able to move between the two sides with ease; this also creates incentives for staff and community to participate
  • 15. JOINING PRODUCTION AND PRODUSAGE • Requirements for Pro/Am Projects: – Shared Responsibility and Control: neither side controls the project outright, and each must respect the other‟s interests; governance mechanisms must support a sharing of responsibility – Mobility between Community and Corporation: participants – especially Pro-Ams – must be able to move between the two sides with ease; this also creates incentives for staff and community to participate – Redesign of Products as Evolving Artefacts: disruptions of the ongoing, incremental produsage process in order to package outcomes as complete „products‟ are disruptive and unacceptable – Acceptance of Non-Exclusive Corporate Use of Content: corporations cannot expect to gain exclusive rights to user-created content, but neither can communities fully rule out commercial use
  • 16. CANARIES IN THE COALMINE • Journalism in transition: – – – – Current models failing – badly Silver bullet solutions doubtful (paywalls, iPad delivery) Credible participatory models emerging Global crises amplify interest in the news • Will we see new Pro-Am frameworks develop here?
  • 17. Image by Yea I Knit
  • 18. SOCIAL MEDIA AND REAL-TIME NEWS • Key news-related uses of social media: – First-hand news reports: • Hudson River emergency landing; Arab Spring; crises and disasters – Continuing news discussion: • Information sharing, commentary, story curation – „Ambient‟ news coverage (Hermida; Burns): • Early indicator of breaking stories; trending topics, themes, URLs, etc. • Ad hoc formation of online communities: – – – – Drawing on available tools and platforms Driven by current themes and problems Para-journalistic research and commentary – “working the story” User-driven data journalism as journalistic produsage
  • 19. „WORKING THE STORY‟ ON TWITTER • Journalism as a distributed effort: – – – – Large number of contributors performing „random acts of journalism‟ Network of „sleeper sources‟, on the scene well before journalists Collaborative curation of stories, ad hoc but self-organising Journalists and news organisations participating as equals with users • Journalism in the open: – – – – Information sourcing, sharing, verification, curation as it happens Separate, uncontrolled, third-party spaces for ambient journalism Sharing of individual news items, disembedded from the brand No scoops, no embargoed knowledge, no controlled releases • Journalism as a participatory sport: – “the news may be too important to leave to the journalists alone” (Gans, 1980)
  • 20. VIDEO http://youtu.be/4V81s5sAiqM
  • 21. PRODUSAGE AND / IN SOCIAL MEDIA? • Atomisation of produsage activities: – Small, individual, random acts of participation – Overlapping private groups / privately public networks / personal publics / issue publics: • E.g. @mention, follower, hashtag networks on Twitter – Are unconsciously swarm-like behaviours still produsage? • … and does it matter? • Produsage curation as a new professional role: – Journalists employed to be / assuming roles as “social media reporters” • Reporting through social media, not about • E.g. Andy Carvin (NPR), Latika Bourke (ABC) – Managing and guiding unfolding social media produsage processes – Organisational imprint secondary to activity in social media space – Curational / gatewatching approaches in imprints: outlinks to competitors
  • 22. Image by Maproom Systems
  • 23. TWITTER AND SOCIETY • Richard Rogers: – – – • Needs: – – – – • From “studying the Internet” to “studying society with the Internet” Social media issue publics as indicators of current concerns, topics, trends Social media as a first draft of the present More comprehensive theories of social media communication More flexible and powerful research methods (e.g. beyond the Twitter hashtag) More interdisciplinary research teams and approaches Better research infrastructure for accessing, processing, analysing, visualising „big data‟ Katrin Weller, Axel Bruns, Jean Burgess, Merja Mahrt, and Cornelius Puschmann, eds. Twitter and Society. New York: Peter Lang, 2014.
  • 24. http://mappingonlinepublics.net/ @snurb_dot_info @jeanburgess @dpwoodford @timhighfield @lena_sauter @_StephenH @quods @socialmediaQUT – http://socialmedia.qut.edu.au/