Open Source:  Software and beyond...  <ul><ul><li>KCB201 Virtual Cultures Adam Muir [email_address] </li></ul></ul>
This Presentation made with OpenOffice Impress on OpenSUSE Linux...  Free and Open Source Software!
Overview <ul><li>What is Software? </li></ul><ul><li>What is Free Software? </li></ul><ul><li>Proprietary vs Open Source <...
How Software Works <ul><li>Source Code  =  Instructions written in Programming Languages that tell a computer to do certai...
<ul><li>Source Code written in an Open Source programming language called  Ruby  [  http://www.ruby-lang.org/  ]. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Historically Software was Free...  Anyone could contribute, share and reuse code...  “ Bazaar style ”  (Raymond, 1...
Free Software? <ul><li>Free Software Foundation -  Started by MIT “hacker” Richard M Stallman in 1985... ( http://www.fsf....
Free Software Principles <ul><li>Freedom 0: The freedom to run the program, for any purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom 1: ...
What about Open Source? <ul><li>In an attempt to push  “Free Software” into the  business world... ... The Name Free Softw...
<ul><li>Open source in its own words: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The basic idea behind open source is very simple: When programme...
Open Source vs Proprietary <ul><li>Software development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary Software (closed source) model ...
How Open Source Works <ul><li>Key assumptions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>everyone has a contribution to make </li></ul></ul><u...
Open Source as Produsage <ul><li>Key aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ user innovation network” (von Hippel,  Feller et al....
Motivations <ul><li>What motivates open source participants? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ scratching that itch” ( Eric Raymond ...
Pros and Cons of Open Source <ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>potentially faster development: larger team of develo...
Linux <ul><li>GNU/Linux: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>highly successful operating system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>alternative t...
Sourceforge.net <ul><li>Sourceforge provides a space for users and software creators to collaborate </li></ul><ul><li>Not ...
Open- ? <ul><li>Creative Commons  -  Creativity that allows “remix” and re-use </li></ul><ul><li>Open Knowledge – Ideas, b...
Summary <ul><li>Free Software principles adapted to describe a community-centric mode of production... </li></ul><ul><li>I...
 
Further Resources: <ul><li>References Cited: Gay, Joshua (ed). Free Software, Free Society: Selected Essay by Richard M St...
Your Mission: <ul><li>Try some free software today! </li></ul><ul><li>Mozilla firefox, mozilla thunderbird, openoffice.org...
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KCB201 Week 9 Lecture (Adam Muir): Open Source - Software and Beyond...

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Week 9 lecture slides by Adam Muir for KCB201 Virtual Cultures in the Creative Industries Faculty at Queensland University of Technology, semester 1/2008.

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  • KCB201 Week 9 Lecture (Adam Muir): Open Source - Software and Beyond...

    1. 1. Open Source: Software and beyond... <ul><ul><li>KCB201 Virtual Cultures Adam Muir [email_address] </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. This Presentation made with OpenOffice Impress on OpenSUSE Linux... Free and Open Source Software!
    3. 3. Overview <ul><li>What is Software? </li></ul><ul><li>What is Free Software? </li></ul><ul><li>Proprietary vs Open Source </li></ul><ul><li>Open Source </li></ul><ul><li>Pros and Cons of Open Source </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: GNU/Linux, Sourceforge </li></ul>
    4. 4. How Software Works <ul><li>Source Code = Instructions written in Programming Languages that tell a computer to do certain things. </li></ul><ul><li>Source Code is “compiled” (translated) into files that can run on specific computers... These files that run on computers are called Binary Files or Executables (e.g: those files on Windows that end in .exe)‏ </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Source Code written in an Open Source programming language called Ruby [ http://www.ruby-lang.org/ ]. </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Historically Software was Free... Anyone could contribute, share and reuse code... “ Bazaar style ” (Raymond, 1999) But as Personal Computers moved into the business world ... => Commercialisation of software production, transforms software (code) into a commodity that must be guarded... ...Source Code is locked away. Only a select few may see it and change it... “ Cathedral model ” (Raymond, 1999) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Free Software? <ul><li>Free Software Foundation - Started by MIT “hacker” Richard M Stallman in 1985... ( http://www.fsf.org/ ) His goal was to create a completely free Unix-like Operating System made from free software (like the good old days before proprietary software)... This free OS is called GNU ( G NU's N ot U nix ) ( http://www.gnu.org/ ) </li></ul>
    8. 8. Free Software Principles <ul><li>Freedom 0: The freedom to run the program, for any purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom 1: The freedom to study how the program works, and adapt it to your needs. ( Access to the source code is a precondition for this. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom 2: The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor. (In other words, for the good of the community .) </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom 3: The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements to the public, so that the whole community benefits. ( Access to the source code is a precondition for this. ) ... (cited in Stallman, 2002: 43)‏ </li></ul>
    9. 9. What about Open Source? <ul><li>In an attempt to push “Free Software” into the business world... ... The Name Free Software is replaced with Open Source... * Emphasis on “ Open ”, rather than “ Free ” ( http://www.opensource.org/ )‏ </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Open source in its own words: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The basic idea behind open source is very simple: When programmers can read, redistribute, and modify the source code for a piece of software, the Software evolves. People improve it, people adapt it, people fix bugs. And this can happen at a speed that, if one is used to the slow pace of conventional software development, seems astonishing. </li></ul><ul><li>“ We in the open source community have learned that this rapid evolutionary process produces better software than the traditional closed model, in which only a very few programmers can see the source and everybody else must blindly use an opaque block of bits.” </li></ul><ul><li>( Opensource.org )‏ </li></ul>
    11. 11. Open Source vs Proprietary <ul><li>Software development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary Software (closed source) model (e.g. MS-Windows, MacOS, MS-Office, Internet Explorer): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>source code remains confidential </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>non-disclosure agreements and other legal protections on code as content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>software development mainly in-house, by paid staff teams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>development goals set by software company </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>business model is selling finished software packages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>traditional software production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Software (open source) model (e.g. Linux, OpenOffice, Firefox): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>source code freely and openly available </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>anyone can see it, edit it, use it, under limited-rights licence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>software development by teams of volunteers in the community </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>development goals set by community, ‘forking’ is possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>business model is providing services around the software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>software produsage </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. How Open Source Works <ul><li>Key assumptions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>everyone has a contribution to make </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. code changes, beta testing, error reports, feature requests, documentation, community leadership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>community involvement more likely if community experimentation is encouraged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. limited success if project direction is determined from above </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>users will contribute if to do so is easy and beneficial for them and all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. combination of self-interest and altruistic motives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shared ownership of the project is crucial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. contributions less likely if they only benefit a commercial software publisher </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Compare to key preconditions for produsage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>equipotential users: everybody knows something </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>probabilistic processes: someone will find a solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>granular tasks: even small contributions add up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shared content: nobody will exploit the community </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Open Source as Produsage <ul><li>Key aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ user innovation network” (von Hippel, Feller et al. ch. 14)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ networked-enabled collaboration” (O’Reilly, Feller et al. ch. 24)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ architecture of participation” (O’Reilly, Feller et al. ch. 24)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Produsage principles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>open participation, communal evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>project is open for anyone to make contributions (which are tested by the community)‏ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fluid heterarchy, ad hoc meritocracy (adhocracy)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>constructive contributors grow in community esteem and influence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unfinished artefacts, continuing process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>project is never finished, always under development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>common property, individual rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>project is only feasible with open source licencing, but individuals can benefit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Open source as early precursor to wider produsage trends… </li></ul>
    14. 14. Motivations <ul><li>What motivates open source participants? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ scratching that itch” ( Eric Raymond )‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Those that expressed enjoyment and learning as primary motivators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fixing necessary code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Those that simply need the code to satisfy non-work-related user needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>developing and showcasing skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Those that have work-related needs and career concerns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contributing to the greater good of the community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Those that feel an obligation to the community and believe that software should be free/open </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. combination of individual and altruistic motivations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( Feller et al. , p. xix)‏ </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Pros and Cons of Open Source <ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>potentially faster development: larger team of developers (no “resource horizon”)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to explore multiple solutions quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>development in direct response to user requests and suggestions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>immediate release of new revisions (commercial considerations irrelevant)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>greater transparency – no hidden functionality, clearly documented file standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>zero cost for software purchases or upgrades </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>survival of open source project depends on size and viability of community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>development mostly in areas of interest to community majority (“interest horizon”)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lack of financial support for marketing or solving ‘dull’ problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>switching costs from commercial software to open source </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solution? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pro-am model: companies investing in open source and offering services </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Linux <ul><li>GNU/Linux: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>highly successful operating system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>alternative to MS-Windows or MacOS, especially for high-end / critical uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be run on almost all computer architectures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1991: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finnish IT student Linus Torvalds develops experimental Linux kernel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Torvalds makes kernel source code freely available online </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Torvalds invites others to test, modify, and share it, under open source licence (GPL and derivatives)‏ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During this phase they added parts from the GNU free OS (hence the full name GNU/Linux)‏ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1992: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>communities of Linux developers form and grow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1993-4: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>various Linux ‘distros’ emerge (SLS, Slackware, Yggdrasil, Debian, Red Hat, etc) focus on specific uses and users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>today: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linux widely used especially in the server market – ~30% market share </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Sourceforge.net <ul><li>Sourceforge provides a space for users and software creators to collaborate </li></ul><ul><li>Not only a repository to find FLOSS applications, also has tools for teams to track changes and revisions </li></ul><ul><li>Other community </li></ul><ul><li>Many platforms supported </li></ul><ul><li>Hosts thousands of FLOSS projects </li></ul><ul><li>Has a very “in progress” feel ... </li></ul>
    18. 18. Open- ? <ul><li>Creative Commons - Creativity that allows “remix” and re-use </li></ul><ul><li>Open Knowledge – Ideas, building on those who came before </li></ul><ul><li>Open Democracy - Encourages Citizen-Democracy (see KCB201 Week 12 for more information) </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of other examples? </li></ul>
    19. 19. Summary <ul><li>Free Software principles adapted to describe a community-centric mode of production... </li></ul><ul><li>Initially for software but adapted to other areas of creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Open model has not one author but many... </li></ul><ul><li>More eyeballs = more quality control </li></ul><ul><li>Wide Participation encouraged by nature of the central philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>... Can be described as one form of “produsage”... </li></ul>
    20. 21. Further Resources: <ul><li>References Cited: Gay, Joshua (ed). Free Software, Free Society: Selected Essay by Richard M Stallman. GNU Press: Boston, MA: GNU Press, 2002. ( download for free from http://www.gnu.org/doc/book13.html ) Raymond, Eric S. The Cathedral and the Bazaar : musings on Linux and Open Source by an accidental revolutionary. Cambridge, Mass: O'Reilly, 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>Documentaries Shown: Richard M Stallman on “the Four Freedoms” from “the CodeBreakers” BBC Documentary, (2006) ( you can get it legally online at a bunch of places including torrent sites ) Eric S Raymond on “the Cathedral and the Bazaar” in JTS Moore's “Revolution O.S.”, (2003). </li></ul><ul><li>Extra websites: Free Software Foundation - http://www.fsf.org/ Distro-Watch (Linux distributions) - http://distrowatch.com/ </li></ul>
    21. 22. Your Mission: <ul><li>Try some free software today! </li></ul><ul><li>Mozilla firefox, mozilla thunderbird, openoffice.org, gimpshop, amsn, pidgin, etc etc... </li></ul>
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