Workshop on energy and grid connection basics, salford 26.06.13
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Workshop on energy and grid connection basics, salford 26.06.13

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Grid connection & energy basics

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Workshop on energy and grid connection basics, salford 26.06.13 Workshop on energy and grid connection basics, salford 26.06.13 Presentation Transcript

  • Fully Funded Workshop on Energy and Grid Connection Basics Electricity Northwest, Salford, 26th June 2013 Welcome and Introduction Ross Fielding, Supply Chain Development Officer The Wind-Tech Project INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  • Programme 9.00 Introduction Ross Fielding, Wind-Tech Project, UCLan 9.15 9.30 10.45 11.00 General Introduction to Grid Connection Part 1: Understanding Energy and Power Morning Refreshments Part 2: The Electricity Supply System Geoff Owen, Grid Connections 12.30 1.30 Lunch Part 3: Grid Connection from the perspective of the DNO Mike Taylor, Electricity Northwest 1.45 3.00 3.15 Part 4: How the Grid works, connection tour and site survey tips Afternoon refreshments Part 5: Connection Requirements and Applications Geoff Owen, Grid Connections Question and Answer session Geoff Owen, Ross Fielding Close 4.30 5.00 INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD
  • The Wind-Tech project • Part funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) to support businesses interested in investing in a small wind turbine, or supplying into the small wind turbine industry; • Free to Northwest SMEs; • Delivery team: • Dr. George Hall, Project Manager • Ross Fielding, Supply Chain Development Officer • Dr. Matt Stables, Project Engineer • David Ainsworth, Project Officer • Alex Mayes, Research Assistant • Dr. Chris Hill, Research Associate • Academic staff from the School of Computing, Engineering and Physical Science. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 3
  • Wind-Tech: Support available Demand assistance Led by Dr. Matt Stables • Feasibility studies, wind & site assessment; • Turbine selection; • Planning; • Radar issues; • Installation; • Performance Supply Chain Development Led by Ross Fielding • Design; • Manufacturing; • Market analysis; • Project dynamometer; turbine performance. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 4
  • Today’s workshop • Recognised that a barrier to small wind turbine installation (and other renewables) is knowledge about grid connection and cost; • Today will serve as an introduction to energy and grid connection basics; • To be followed by a further FREE workshop covering Engineering recommendations in more detail; • Follow-on 1-to-1 support also available for specific projects, including grid connection feasibility and cost studies; • Support is FREE, but our funders require paperwork to be completed to enable this; registration form (today), confirmation of assistance, and recording any benefits of the assistance. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 5
  • Today’s workshop Please note: The information provided today is done so in an advisory capacity only. The supplier shall not incur any liability for any action or omission arising out of any reliance being placed on this information by any organisation or other person. Any organisation or person in receipt of this information should take their own legal, financial and other relevant professional advice when considering what action (if any) to take in respect of any grid connection, renewable strategy, initiative, proposal, or other involvement with any renewable technology, before placing any reliance on anything contained herein. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 6
  • Fully Funded Workshop on Energy and Grid Connection Basics Geoff Owen, Grid Connections INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 7
  • Workshop Contents Part 1: Understanding energy and power Part 2: The Electricity supply system Part 3: Grid Connection from the perspective of the DNO Part 4: Overview of how the grid works, connection tour and site survey tips Part 5: Connection requirements and applications Questions and answers INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 8
  • Workshop Objectives • Improve your technical knowledge of electrical energy and electrical supplies • Appreciation of the electrical grid network works • Better understanding of terminology • To fill knowledge gaps INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 9
  • My aim for today • Not to make you technical experts • To present new or old ideas in an interesting enjoyable way • An interactive session with demonstrations – seeing helps to reinforce understanding • Develop the ability to explain and communicate in my work environment • Give you confidence and encouragement INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 10
  • Part 1 Understanding Energy and power • Looking at the basics • Demonstration • Application INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 11
  • Electricity  Fuel of the future  Security of supply  Dependency & complacency  Cost  Danger  Blackouts  What does the future look like INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 12
  • The increasing focus on energy and usage drivers for change and economic efficiency Strategic drivers • Energy and carbon reduction policy and legislation • Energy security • Energy cost Feed-in-Tariffs • The largest financial incentive scheme • Aimed at encouraging the development of renewable energy • Guaranteed return for a 20-25 year period RHI and the Green Deal INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 13
  • Rising energy costs increasing energy awareness • 9 million in fuel poverty by 2016 INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 14
  • What is energy ? Electricity fuel of the future Essential to modern day life INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 15
  • Electrical Energy Explained Overview of terminology • Basic power terminology • Voltage • Current • Resistance • Power measurement: watts, kilowatts, mega watts (but also KVA or MVA) INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 16
  • The danger of electricity ? • Pressure – measured in volts • Electrical contact with AC can stop your heart • Electrical fatalities every year in industry and the home environment • Electrical pressure – we use the term it is LIVE • No pressure we use the term is – Dead INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 17
  • Electricity - The Flow of Electrons • Electricity is essentially the flow of electrons through a conductor. • In metals, electrons are able to pass along a metal conductor if a force is applied to make them move. • In glass or insulators, the electrons are fixed and unable to move. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 18
  • To move electricity requires conductors and insulators Transmission Conductors Very low resistance Transmission Insulators Very high resistance Transmission of electricity INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 19
  • Similar to Water?  Voltage can be likened to water pressure (the higher the pressure, the faster the water flows through the pipe - the higher the voltage, the greater the flow of electricity through a conductor).  Current can be likened to the rate at which the water flows through the pipe.  Resistance can be likened to the friction that the water experiences as it flows through the pipe.  Power is the rate at which energy is supplied - think of water striking a wheel. You could get the same effect from a small flow (current) at high pressure (voltage) or from a large flow at low pressure. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 20
  • Water Pipe Analogy Electrical pressure greatest at the sending end (the substation) Flow of water through a pipe Water main Water pressure greater at the sending end Reduced water pressure due to, customers load , bends and distance Reminder - what is electrical pressure Voltage Reduced electrical pressure Customer supply INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 21
  • Demonstration • Looking at the basic concepts , voltage, current and power for two different appliances • Heater 1200 watts (1.2 kW) • Simple power calculation INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 22
  • Watt is power Easy mathematical relationship WATT- The power unit, defined as one joule per second , measures the rate of energy conversion or transfer. Power is measure in watts Thanks to Power divide James Watt 1736-1819 Voltage Amps multiply INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 23
  • James Watt • Calculated the comparison between a steam train and a working horse 1 Hp = 746 watts Capacity of a car engine often rated in HP INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 24
  • Ohm’s Law  Certain materials such as metals, have a linearly proportional relationship between voltage, current and resistance.  These materials are described as Ohmic, and the relationship can be described by Ohm’s Law: Thanks to  V=IxR Georg Simon Ohm 1826 INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 25
  • Getting the Measure of Electricity • The main parameters used in measuring electricity are as follows: Voltage (V) SI Unit: Volt, V The pressure Current (I) SI Unit: Amp, A The moving energy Resistance (R) SI Unit: Ohm,  Opposition Power (P) SI Unit Watt, W Work done • Voltage is the potential difference between two points in a circuit • Current is the rate of flow of electrons through a conductor • Resistance is the tendency of a material to resist the passage of an electric current and to convert electrical energy into heat • Power is the rate at which energy is expended or work is done INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 26
  • Review • We have looked at the essential basics of energy and power • We have built a foundation reference in the demonstration • Practical application of results INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 27
  • Questions? How big is this valley? How big is- my electrical supply- a Substation- 16 amps? INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 28
  • How big is 16 amps ? What happens to the electricity that I generate ? • • • • • • kettle 9 amps Toaster 8 amps Iron 4 amps Hoover 5 amps 8 kW shower 34 amps The generated electricity that is used in your property reduces the intake from the grid. Any surplus is exported to the grid and your electricity supplier will pay you for it. 16 amps 6 amps to grid 10 amps House demand INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 29
  • MCS approved F.I.T Schematic update G83 control equipment Generator 10 kW PV panels 10 kW Wind Power flow F.I.T Payment Per kWh GENERATION F.I.T METER 13.5 p 21.65 p 21.65 p Customer installation ( power consumption) 10 kW Hydro DNO INCOMING SUPPLY & ENERGY METER Energy supplier Charge 12 p/ kWh INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 30
  • Practical Application of Results This is the G83 generator connection document Published by the Electrical Network Association It is the engineering recommendation for small generation that all MCS installers must comply with G83 generation is limited to 16 amps at 230/400 declared voltage Our demonstration ( rule of thumb ) 1 kW = approximately 4 amps GOLDEN RULE 16 AMPS INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 31
  • Break time INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 32
  • After Break Thought You are Important INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 33
  • Part 2 The Electricity Supply System • Simply terminology • Single phase and three phase supply • Simple calculations • kW / MW /kVA/ kVAr / power factor INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 34
  • Power Engineering Terminology AC Voltage: Statutory voltage 230/400 volts LV low voltage: 240 volts ( your house ) LV low voltage: 240/415 volts HV high voltage supplies: 6,600 volts 6.6KV 11,000 volts 11 KV EHV Extra high voltages Just for reference DC Voltage: Battery volts: 1.5 volts Car battery voltage: 12 volts INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 35
  • Power Engineering Terminology Power measurement : • Power is the rate of consuming or generating energy • Measured in kW (kilowatts) • 1000 watts = 1 kW or (1 KVA) remember our demonstration • 1,000 kW = 1 MW (megawatt) or (1 MVA) INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 36
  • Power Engineering Terminology Energy consumption: • Energy is measured over a period of time and usually given in kWh (kilowatt-hours) • 1 “unit” of electricity is 1 kWh • We pay approx 10-12p per unit • 1,000 kWh = 1 MWh (megawatt-hour) INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 37
  • Direct / Alternating Current  Direct current (DC) systems have a steady voltage/current over time.  Alternating current (AC) systems have a sinusoidal voltage/current profile over time.  The electricity network in the UK generates and supplies power using AC  This is because its voltage can be easily changed up or down using transformers.  Appliances, such as televisions and DVD players, convert the AC supply into a reduced voltage DC supply which is used by electronic circuits. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 38
  • Practical Demonstration • • • • Seeing the transformer in action No moving parts Changes the voltage Can be designed to increase or reduce the voltage INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 39
  • The Secret of the UK Grid Transformers Change the AC • Transformers are very simple devices. • The alternating current is fed through a primary coil of wire, which produces an alternating magnetic field in the ring-shaped core of soft iron. • This creates a voltage in a second coil, from which the output current can be drawn. • If the secondary coil has more turns than the primary, the output voltage is higher than the input voltage and is called a step up transformer. • A step down transformer has more turns in the primary coil than in the secondary coil. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 40
  • What is Single Phase ? • 1 live conductor and 1 neutral • Alternating current ( AC ) systems have a sinusoidal voltage/current profile over time • The domestic supply INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 41
  • What is Three Phase? Three live conductors and one neutral INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 42
  • How we Generate Three Phase? INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 43
  • Why Three Phase • Most cost effective way to move energy • 30 % of all electricity that is used is by electrical motors INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 44
  • Single and Three Phase Systems  Certain electrical devices (e.g. large motors) work more efficiently when there are multiple AC supplies which peak at different times.  Therefore the UK distribution network is three phase, generated at a frequency of 50Hz (cycles per second).  Each phase peaks every 1/50th of a second and is given different colours to distinguish them.  Domestic properties are supplied at single phase and are balanced across the three phase cable down the street. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 45
  • Easy Single Phase Calculation FORMULA TRIANGLE Power = volts x amps POWER divide Volts = power amps VOLTS AMPS Amps = power volts multiply INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 46
  • Calculating Single Phase Line Current for a Single Phase Project • PV array is rated at 3.68 kWp (3,680 watts) • What is the maximum current output in amps if the voltage is: • 230 volts • Formula: Amps = power kW / voltage • Answer: • For 230 volts = 16 amps INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 47
  • Introduction to kW kVA kVar and power factor Hole in my bucket Full kVA hole kW Water loss 20% loss kVar INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 48
  • Lunch INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 49
  • After lunch focus Project failure •Installed with planning consent but no grid connection • 10 kW single phase turbine ( approx 40 amps) • On installation of the turbine the connection application was submitted to the DNO • The DNO connection cost option no 1 was £ 41,000 •Option no 2 was no cost but to limit the export to 16 amps •Option no 3 was a off grid project supplying under floor or water heating INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 50
  • Part 3 Grid connection from the perspective of the DNO INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 51
  • Part 4 How the grid works, connection tour and site survey tips • Overview of how the grid works • Grid connection tour INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 52
  • The UK Electricity Grid Understanding electrical grids INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 53
  • History of the Electricity Grid • The Electricity Board developed from 1920 to 1990 Cash asset rich company with investment strategy. The biggest supply engine in the UK. • Privatisation 1990 move to the free market Happy shareholders and investors. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 54
  • How it Works Free market overseen by Ofgem (the government regulator) The grid consists of five parts: • • • • • Power Station Generators The National Grid ( NGT) Distribution Network Operators (DNO ) Energy supply companies Consumers Consumers Generators INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 55
  • Electricity Grid Layout INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 56
  • Electrical Plant and Apparatus  Electricity is generated at power stations which basically work like a motor in reverse - kinetic energy is converted into electrical energy by the generator.  Overhead lines and underground cables are used to covey the electricity from one place to another - larger overhead line constructions will be supported by metal pylons and smaller ones on wooden poles.  Substations are used to step the voltage of the electricity up or down - they contain transformers and switches to open or close the circuit. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 57
  • UK Power Stations • • • • Coal Gas Nuclear Renewables INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 58
  • Electricity Transmission • The National Grid Company (NGC) operates a network of 275kV and 400kV transmission lines across the country. • The majority of these are overhead conductors supported by huge pylons. • Some circuits may be underground, especially through urban areas. • Supergrid substations owned and operated by the NGC transform the voltage down from 275kV and 400kV to 132kV ready for distribution at a more localised level. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 59
  • At bulk supply points, DNOs receive energy at 132,000 volts INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 60
  • Very Large Grid Transformers INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 61
  • Use the ENA site to access the correct DNO information www.energynetworks.org/info/faqs/electricity-distribution-map.html • Electricity North West • Northern Ireland Electricity • • • • • Northern Power grid Scottish Power (SP Energy Networks) SSE Power Distribution UK Power Networks Western Power Distribution INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 62
  • Electricity Northwest Network Map 58,000 km of cables 96 bulk supply points 363 primary sub stations 33,000 transformer points 2.3 million customers Grid system voltages INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 63
  • All Electrical Networks Designs and operation of grid systems are covered by electricity at work regulations • • • • • Grid code DNO’s licence conditions ENA engineering documents EQSR Buildings 17 edition of the IEE Wiring regulations INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 64
  • Grid Connection Picture Tour • Help you to appreciate that customers have different load requirements with different sizes of connection. • To help you to identify equipment on site. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 65
  • Small Grid Supplies Domestic single phase Small commercial three phase INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 66
  • Reminder! Single phase Three phase 1 live conductor and 1 neutral 3 live conductors and 1 neutral INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 67
  • Single Phase Supply: 240 volts Domestic or Small Commercial meter • Maximum rated capacity 18 kW ( approx 80 amps per phase ) • MCS generator project connectivity is 3.68 kW 80 amp Grid fuse Single phase – one live conductor Incoming Grid Cable INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 68
  • Domestic Metering • There are two main types of metering used in domestic situations : • Single rate • Dual rate • Single rate is the most common in which there is usually some form of gas or non-electric heating in the property. • Dual rate is used where the property is electrically heated and a cheaper rate of electricity is applicable at certain times of the day. • All meters used are “whole current” which means the current flowing through the meter does not have to be transformed down to a more manageable value in order to measure it. • Current transformer (CT) metering is used in larger supplies above 72kVA. • Future developments will include smart meters. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 69
  • Domestic Supplies • All the equipment up to and including the electricity meter is owned and maintained by the local DNO and the meter operator. • Beyond the meter, the rest of the installation is the responsibility of the homeowner. • There is a consumer unit which protects all the wiring in your home. • Without fuses or a mini circuit breaker (MCB’s), the wires may overheat if a fault develops, causing a fire risk. • You may also have an earth leakage circuit breaker, also called a residual current device (RCD). • This cuts off the electricity supply, if a small current (usually 30mA) flows through the earth wire. • The main fuse protects the supply system from any risk of overload. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 70
  • Three Phase Supply: 240/415 volts Small Commercial Three phase – three live conductors Cables to meter 3 x 80 amp fuses Earth Incoming grid cable • Maximum rated capacity 60 KVA ( approx 80 amps per phase ) • MCS generation project connectivity is 11kW • Exceeding 11kW will require connection approval from the DNO INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 71
  • Local Substation How big is 1 MW ( 1000kW) transformer This substation can supply 500 houses with gas central heating INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 72
  • Opening the Local Substation Door (at low voltage) Supply to your House Single phase connection arrangements Small single phase cable to house 240 v Cable joint in highway 240/415 volts 11,000 volts INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 73
  • Single Phase Supply (farms and rural connections) 80 amp grid fuse Incoming grid cable INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 74
  • Larger Supplies from 60kVA up to 300kVA Larger generator projects will require permission from the DNO to connect Power meter Large DNO supply panel Customer’s LV supply switch gear Modern supply arrangements DNO supply fuses DNO supply cable sized to customer’s load requirements INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 75
  • Old Existing Supply Arrangements Larger generator projects will require permission from the DNO to connect Power meter Customer’s LV cables in steel tube to switch panel DNO supply fuses DNO supply cable sized to customer’s load requirements INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 76
  • Over 300kVA up to 1000kVA A Low Voltage Connection Larger generator projects will require permission from the DNO to connect Customer supply Meter DNO substation Large power supply connection Other LV supplies INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 77
  • Customer’s Dedicated HV Connection Larger generator projects will require permission from the DNO to connect HV metering unit 11kV customer HV cable HV switchgear 11kV grid supply cables INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 78
  • Modern Dedicated HV Customer Supply New DNO substation £ 45,000 Larger generator projects will require permission from the DNO to connect New HV cables to customers circuit breaker and G59 control equipment New HV cables to grid connection point INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 79
  • Rural Overhead LV 240/415 Volt Supplies Bare exposed live cables Insulated twisted cables INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 80
  • Connections in Rural Areas Site Surveying 200 KVA area Grid supply No three phase grid supply Dedicated customer three phase supply Grid connection and cost will depend on existing supply arrangements. New overhead line supply and connection may add significant costs to the project. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 81
  • 11kV and 33 kV Grid 33,000 volt lines have larger insulators and no pole mounted transformers 11,000 volt lines Will have pole mounted transformers supplying the local LV grid INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 82
  • Site Survey Tips Bring back • Customer electricity bills, all pages with the MPAN no. • Site photographs • Name and number of local substation • Details of any existing generation • Marked plan showing grid supply and substation location INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 83
  • Site Survey Tips The Power Source - DNO Substation S/S name and number on plate Main distribution sub station 1000kVA larger stronger grid supplies Rural substation 50 kVA remote weaker grid supplies INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 84
  • Break time INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 85
  • Part 5 • Connection requirements and applications • The job of the inverter • Connecting generators to the customers’ supply and grid INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 86
  • Compliance Documents • UK National Standards • G83 and G59 generation engineering documents 60 pages 123 pages 189 pages INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 87
  • Generation Compliance Picture Guide INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 88
  • Connecting to the Grid G83 Stage 1 – Connect and Notify If the entire installation is 3.68kW or < 16 amps per phase: •You need to inform the DNO within 28 days, using the fully completed appendix 3 form •You must include the MPAN •You must use a MCS registered installer •Charge: Nil Charge INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 89
  • Renewable Energy: Type of application • G83 stage 1 single application: • Legal obligation for installers to notify the DNO within 28 days of commissioning. • G83 stage 2 multiple applications • Stage 2 application form must be completed with associated test sheets to be forwarded to the DNO. • The DNO will consider the application and advise of any work, cost and associated timescales. • There may be a charge to evaluate larger projects. • G59 larger applications • Generally, for generators in excess of 16 amps per phase INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 90
  • What is G59 Generation • G59 is an industry standard for generators >16 amps per phase. • Where necessary, G59 applications must be submitted for DNO system studies and associated network reinforcements, prior to connection. • Charges: Charges will apply for work if required. INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 91
  • How to Make Successful Applications to the DNO • • • • • • • Having the correct information from the site survey The right project design Supply the correct information to the DNO Make the right application for budget or firm quote Remember: Keep a copy of information you send to the DNO Always request a project number and contact details from the DNO • Always look to build a relationship with the DNO INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 92
  • The Inverter • All PV projects and some small wind turbines have inverters • Changes generated DC to the same AC of the grid • Automatically connects to the grid • Automatically protects INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 93
  • Connecting Generators to the Grid • Rotating generators require special equipment to connect to the grid • Synchronous operation , A SWITCH that closes at the right time, like the clutch in your car • Protection equipment that will prevent damage to the grid supply or to the generator • All generators over 16 amps per phase must have permission to connect to the grid INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 94
  • Automatic Relay and Contactor Synchronous Operation Grid Generator INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 95
  • Generator Connection Difficulties Remember the water pipe analogy Electrical pressure greatest at the sending end (the substation) Force water back into the main Flow of water through a pipe Water main Water pressure greater at the sending end Customer Effect the supplying water pressure Reminder - what is electrical pressure Reduced water pressure due to, customers load , bends and distance supply Reduced electrical pressure Effect the supplying Electrical pressure Voltage INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 96
  • Why Generator Connections Require Permission to Connect into a Customers Installation Generator pressure Grid Pressure What is pressure ? Voltage The DNO has to guarantee the customer supply voltage • Customer submits a competent application request to the DNO • DNO engineer completes a network study • DNO issues to customer conditions for connection INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 97
  • No 1 Life Saving Rule • Hanging cables • Exposed cables • Bare conductors • Electrical fittings All must be assumed to be LIVE (have electrical pressure ) A competent person must be the one to confirm it is dead (have no electrical pressure ) INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 98
  • No 2 Life Saving Rule Electrical equipment outside the house must have special safety protection A socket or potable device at the source of supply that has : • A 30 milli amp ( 0.03 amp) R.C.D residual current device that will protect you from electrical shocks • To be tested prior to use INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 99
  • Level 2 Advanced Workshop: UCLan, Preston, 4th July or Sci-Tech Daresbury, 16th July 2013 • Free to NW SME’s, registered at today’s event. • Limited places, sign-up today. Overview of grid networks and connections for larger projects Generator applications; budgetary or firm? with examples The rural grid with technical information Variation in grid voltage and the reason for DNO network studies Filling in the ENA application form How to submit good applications to the DNO Real Case studies to bring clarity to the workshop learning INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 100
  • Questions? INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 101
  • Thank-you Geoff Owen T: 07921 589144 E: jeoffrey.owen@ntlworld.com INNOVATIVE THINKING FOR THE REAL WORLD 102