The verb classification


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The verb classification

  1. 1. THE VERB. 1.General characteristics. 2. The Problem of English Verbs Classification
  2. 2. The verb  is a part of speech that denotes a process in the wide meaning of the word.  performs the central role in the expression of the predicative functions of the sentence.  possesses quite a lot of grammatical categories.
  3. 3. Semantic features of the verb.  The verb possesses the grammatical meaning of verbiality - the ability to denote a process developing in time.  The processual meaning is embedded in all the verbs.
  4. 4. The types of process:  processes of doing, or material processes,  e.g. Mary is writing a letter;  processes of happening, e.g. The old man is dying;  verbal, e.g. She told me the truth;  mental, or evaluative  e.g. The student did not know the answer; She did not feel the pain; He hates spiders.  relational,  e.g. John is clever; Mary is at home; John has a new car;  existential, e.g. There is a dog under the table.
  5. 5. According to the lexical meaning The Verb bounded (terminative) of double lexical nature unbounded (non-terminative or durative)
  6. 6. Unbounded verbs  are verbs that have no endpoint built in.  Such verbs denote processes that go on without reaching a limit.  The earth turns round the sun.  Unbounded processes can be paraphrased using the verb stop:  John loves Mary. vs. John stopped loving Mary.  Unbounded processes can only be interrupted, but not finished.
  7. 7. Bounded verbs  can be paraphrased using the verb finish:  John wrote a novel. vs. John finished writing a novel.  Verbs like boil, write can be called bounded verbs proper.  Bounded verbs proper do not have to be ‘programmed’ with respect to an end- point; an end-point is inherent in their semantics.
  8. 8. The verbs of double lexical nature  may represent both an action in its development and an action as a single act  To see – видеть – увидеть  To hear -слышать – услышать  To understand - понимать - понять
  9. 9. Unbounded verbs Stative Dynamic
  10. 10.  Stative unbounded verbs express a static situation, i.e. a situation in which the entity is at rest.  Dynamic verbs express a situation in which the entity is engaged in some or other activity.
  11. 11. To stative verbs belong:  1) cognitive verbs (e.g. know, think, i.e. be of an opinion; understand, believe, remember);  2) perceptive verbs (e.g. smell, taste, feel);  3) affective verbs (e.g. like, love, hate);  4) relational verbs (e.g. be, have, lack).
  12. 12.  John has learned the rule. _ John knows the rule.  Mary has grasped the meaning of the word. _ Mary understands the word.  The dog has perceived the smell of a cat. _ The dog smells a cat.
  13. 13. Dynamic unbounded verbs  express a dynamic situation, i.e. a situation in which the entity is engaged in some activity.  The verbs run, walk, swim, skate, play, sleep, stand (i.e. to keep an upright position), live, stay, etc. belong to dynamic unbounded verbs.
  14. 14. Bounded verbs  constitute a much larger class.  We can distinguish two subclasses of the verbs:  1) punctual (e.g. shoot, promise, propose, fire, name);  2) non-punctual (e.g. boil, read, write, paint, peel, slice, kill).
  15. 15.  Punctual verbs have very short duration: the time occupied to express the process is longer than the time occupied to perform it. Such processes are indivisible.  *The soldier started shooting an arrow nor *The soldier is shooting an arrow nor *The soldier finished shooting an arrow.  Only non-punctuals can be divided:  He started writing; he is writing; he finished writing.
  16. 16. he started going; he is going; he is arriving.  Verbs that denote only the inceptive or the final phase are called achievements; and verbs that have all the three phases are called accomplishments (e.g. write, read, paint, do, make, etc.)
  17. 17. The Verb Categories and Forms  Tense  Aspect  Mood  Voice  Person  Number  Taxis or Time-Relation
  18. 18. Tense  The category of tense is a verbal category that reflects the objective category of time.  Present Past  Future I Future II  work worked
  19. 19. Aspect  work - is working  Non-Continuous Continuous  - be V-ing discontinuous morpheme employs the meaning of a process
  20. 20. Taxis or Time-Relation  represents temporal correlation  works - has worked  - has/have V-ed meaning of priority
  21. 21. Voice  writes - is written  - be V 3/ed meaning of Passivity
  22. 22. Syntactic features and Combinability  Sentence level: Predicate; a part of Predicate  Phrase-level:1) N + V 2) V + N 3) V + D 4) V + Adj
  23. 23. Classifications of English verbs  According to different principles of classification, classifications can be  morphological,  lexical-morphological,  syntactical and  functional.
  24. 24. Owing to the historical development of the verb system the English verbs fall into two groups: regular and irregular. The regular verbs, which go back to the Germanic weak verbs, constitute the largest group. The past indefinite and participle II of these verbs are formed by means of the dental suffix –ed added to the stem of the verb E.g.: to talk-talked-talked to live-live-lived to decide-decided-decided
  25. 25. All English irregular verbs are native, originating in Old English. Groups of irregular verbs include:  The remaining strong verbs, which display the vowel shift called ablaut and sometimes have a past participle in -en or -n: e.g., ride/rode/ridden.  Weak verbs that have been subjected to sound changes over the course of the history of English that have rendered them irregular. Many of these acquired a long vowel in the present stem, but kept a short vowel in the preterite and past participle; e.g., hear/heard/heard.
  26. 26.  Weak verbs that show the vowel shift sometimes called "Rückumlaut" in the present tense e.g.. think/thought.  Weak verbs that end in a final -t or -d that made the addition of the weak suffix -ed seem redundant; e.g., cost/cost/cost.
  27. 27.  A handful of surviving preterit-present verbs. These can be distinguished from the rest because their third person simple present singular (the he, she, or it form) does not take a final -s. All of the surviving verbs of this class are modal verbs, a class of auxiliary verbs or quasi-auxiliaries; e.g., can/could/could.  Verbs that contain suppletive forms, which form one or more of their tenses from an entirely different root. e.g., be; go/went/gone (where went is originally from the verb to wend).
  28. 28. The irregular verbs are divided into some subclasses:  The verbs that change their forms by the vowel gradation (sing-sang-sung) interchange of consonants (send-sent-sent) suffixation and alteration (speak-spoke-spoken, show-showed-shown)  The verbs with homonymous forms (cut-cut-cut; cost-cost-cost)  Suppletive verbs (be-was, were-been; go-went- gone)  Special type (do-did-done; have-had-had)  Defective verbs (can-could; may-might)
  29. 29. From the point of view of outward structure of the verbs, they are characterized by specific forms of word-building. The verb stems may be  Simple (go, take, read, etc)  Sound-replacive (feed, bleed)  Stress-replacive (to im’port, to trans’port)  Expanded (typical suffixes –ate (cultivate), -ify (clarify), -en (broaden), -ize (normalize); be- (befriend), en-/em- (engulf, embed); re- (remark), over- (overestimate), sub- (submerge), mis- (misunderstand), un- (undo), etc.  Composite (blackmail, proof-read)  Phrasal (have a smoke; give in)
  30. 30. The class of verbs falls into a number of subclasses distinguished by different semantic and lexico-grammatical features  the set of verbs of full nominative value (notional verbs). It includes the bulk of the verbal lexicon  the set of verbs of partial nominative value (semi-notional or functional verbs)
  31. 31. auxiliary verbs (be, have, do, shall, will, should, would) whose function it is to give further semantic information about the main or full verb which follows it (be, have, do, shall, will, should, would) E.g.: is written, has written Do you understand, I don’t know; Yes I do English contains many verb phrases that function as quasi-auxiliaries, such as be going to, used to, is about to.
  32. 32. modal verbs (can, may, must, shall, will, ought, need), which express ability, obligation, permission, advisability, etc. Most of the modal verbs are defective – with an incomplete conjugation. semi-notional verbid introducer verbs of discriminatory relational semantics (seem, happen, turn out) of subject-action relational semantics (try, fail, manage) of phasal semantics (begin, continue, stop)
  33. 33. link verbs, which introduce the nominal part of the predicate commonly expressed by a noun, an adjective, or a phrase of a similar semantico- grammatical character pure link verb be perceptional seem, appear, look, feel, taste factual become, get, grow, remain, keep