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The parts of speech problem
 

The parts of speech problem

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    The parts of speech problem The parts of speech problem Presentation Transcript

    • THE PARTS OF SPEECH PROBLEM.
      • WORD CLASSES
      • Definition
      • Principles of Classification
        • Classical (logical-inflectional)
        • Functional –Formal
        • Distributional
        • Complex
      • Notional word-classes vs. functional word-classes
      • The parts of speech are
      • classes of words,
      • all the members of these classes having certain characteristics in common
      • which distinguish them from the members of other classes.
      • L. M.Volkova
    • The parts of speech are
      • Are lexico-grammatical classes of words possessing
      • A certain common (abstract, categorical) meaning
      • The system of grammatical categories typical of this class
      • Peculiarities of syntactic function
      • Special types of word-form derivation
      • Olga Sergeyevna Akhmanova
    • Word Class
      • refers to a group of words which have similar functions.
      • Word classes are divided into open classes and closed classes.
      • Cambridge Grammar of English 2007
    • Open classes
      • include lexical words such as
        • nouns (dinner, place, Francis),
        • verbs (meet, drive, go, pick),
        • adjectives (old, angry, helpful),
        • adverbs (quickly, carefully, fast).
      • Open classes admit new words.
    • Closed classes
      • have limited membership. They include function words such as
        • pronouns (it, he, who, anybody, one),
        • determiners (a, the, that, some, each, several),
        • modal verbs (may, could, must),
        • auxiliary verbs (be, have, do),
        • conjunctions (and, but, if, unless),
        • prepositions (in, at, of, by, with).
      • They do not admit new words.
    • The problem of word classification into parts of speech
      • still remains one of the most controversial problems in modern linguistics.
      • There are four approaches to the problem:
      • Classical (logical-inflectional)
      • Functional-formal
      • Distributional
      • Complex
    • The Classical (logical-inflectional) Principles of Classification (Prescriptive Grammarians)
      • Prescriptive grammarians, who treated Latin as an ideal language, described English in terms of Latin forms and Latin grammatical constraints.
      • e.g. the Latin noun paradigm for nouns in English
      • Nominative: the house
      • Genitive: of the house
      • Dative: to the house
      • Accusative: the house
      • Ablative: in, at, by, or from the house
      • Vocative: O house
    • The Classical (logical-inflectional) Classification
      • Words were divided dichotomically
      • declinable and indeclinable
      • parts of speech.
      • nouns, pronouns, adverbs, prepositions
      • verbs, participles, conjunctions, interjections,
      • adjectives articles
    • The Classical (logical-inflectional) Classification
      • The underlying principle of classification was form , which, as can be seen from their treatment of the English noun, was not only morphologic but also syntactic.
      • The logical-inflectional classification is quite successful for Latin but it cannot be applied to the English language because the principle of declinability/indeclinability is not relevant for analytical languages.
    • Functional –Formal Principles of Classification ( Non-Structural Descriptive Grammarians )
      • Henry Sweet (1892), a prescriptivist divided words into
      Indeclinables ( particles ): adverb, preposition, conjunction, interjection. Declinables ( nominative ): noun-words (noun, noun-pronoun, noun-numeral, infinitive, gerund), adjective-words (adjective, adjective-pronoun, adjective-numeral, participle), verb (finite verb), verbals (infinitive, gerund, participle)
    • Functional –Formal Principles of Classification ( Non-Structural Descriptive Grammarians )
      • Henry Sweet speaks of three principles of classification: form, meaning, and function.
      • However, the results of his classification of parts of speech into nominative and particles is a division based on form.
      • Only within the class we can see the operation of the principle of function.
    • Functional-Formal Principles of Classification ( Non-Structural Descriptive Grammarians )
      • Otto Jespersen, a descriptivist, (1935)
      • “ In my opinion everything should be kept in view, form, function and meaning...”
      • He distinguishes:
      • substantives,
      • adjectives,
      • pronouns,
      • verbs,
      • particles (adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, interjections).
    • Functional-Formal Principles of Classification ( Non-Structural Descriptive Grammarians )
      • Otto Jespersen
      • separates nouns (which he calls substantives) from noun-words, a class of words distinguished on the basis of function – a noun word is a word that can function as a noun;
      • distinguishes pronouns as a separate part of speech, thus isolating them from Henry Sweet’s noun-words and adjective-words.
      • Although the scholar speaks of form, function and meaning, in practice he gives preference to form.
    • Distributional Principles of Classification ( Structural Descriptive Grammarians )
      • Charles Fries (1956)
      • rejected the traditional principle of classification of words into parts of speech
      • replaced it with the methods of distributional analysis and substitution.
      • The distribution of a word is the position of a word in the sentence ( the ability of words to combine with other words of different types). At the same time, the lexical meaning of words was not taken into account.
    • Charles Fries’s substitution frames
      • Frame A
            • 1 2 3 4
      • The concert was good (always).
      • Frame B
            • 1 2 1 4
      • The clerk remembered the tax (suddenly).
      • Frame C
            • 1 2 4
      • The team went there.
    • Charles Fries’s classification
      • 4 major classes of words
      • They contain 67% of total instances of the vocabulary
      • 15 form-classes
      • These function words (numbering 154 in all) make up a third of the recorded material.
    • 4 major classes of words
      • Class 1 words are words that can substitute for concert (e.g. food, coffee, taste , etc.) and words that can substitute for clerk, tax and team .
      • Class 2 words are words that can substitute for was, remembered and went ;
      • Class 3 words are words that can substitute for good.
      • Class 4 words are words that can fill the position of there .
    • 15 form-classes
      • Group A words (determiners);
      • Group B (modal verbs);
      • Group C (the negative particle “not”);
      • Group D (adverbs of degree);
      • Group E (coordinating conjunctions);
      • Group F (prepositions);
      • Group G (the auxiliary verb “to”)
      • Group H (the introductory “there”);
      • Group I (interrogative pronouns and adverbs);
      • Group J (subordinating conjunctions);
      • Group K (interjections);
      • Group L (the words “yes” and “no”);
      • Group M (the so-called attention-giving signals: look, say, listen);
      • Group N (the word “please”);
      • Group O (the forms “let us”, “lets” in request sentences).
    • pro et contra
      • Charles Fries was the first linguist to pay attention to some of function words (form-classes) peculiarities.
      • He used the principle of function, or combinability (the position of a word in the sentence is the syntactic function of word).
      • Not all relevant positions were tested.
      • His functional classes are very much broken into small groups.
      • Being deprived of meaning, his word-classes are “faceless”, i.e. they have no character.
    • Complex Principles of Classification (Post-Structural Traditional Grammar)
      • Parts of speech are discriminated according to three criteria: semantic, formal and functional.
      • The semantic criterion presupposes the grammatical meaning of the whole class of words (general grammatical meaning).
      • The formal criterion reveals paradigmatic properties: relevant grammatical categories, the form of the words, their specific inflectional and derivational features.
      • The functional criterion concerns the syntactic function of words in the sentence and their combinability in the phrase.
    • When characterizing any part of speech
      • we are to describe: a) its semantics; b) its morphological features; c) its syntactic peculiarities.
      • The lexemes of a part of speech are united by their grammatical meaning .
      • This meaning is a category forming one. Therefore, it is referred to as categorical meaning.
      • As categorical meaning is derived from lexemes, it is often called lexico-grammatical meaning and finds outward expression in morphological forms. These outward features are a formal criterion of classification.
      • The functional criterion concerns the syntactic role of a word in the sentence and combinability in the phrase.
    • All the words of the language are divided into:
      • notional words
      • are those denoting things, objects, notions, qualities, etc. – words with the corresponding references in the objective reality –
      • function words, or grammatical words
      • are those having no references of their own in the objective reality; most of them are used only as grammatical means to form up and frame utterances
      • Notional words
      • nouns,
      • pronouns,
      • numerals,
      • verbs,
      • adjectives,
      • adverbs.
      • The notional parts of speech present open classes: the number of items constituting the notional word-classes is not limited
      • Function word s
      • articles,
      • particles,
      • prepositions,
      • conjunctions,
      • modal words,
      • the interjection.
      • The functional parts of speech present closed classes: the number of items constituting the functional word-classes is limited and can be given by the list.
    • The contrast Notional word-classes vs. Functional word-classes
      • does not suggest that functional word-classes are devoid of content.
      • As suggested by B.Khaimovich and B.Rogovskaya (1967), function words can be called semi-notional. This distinction is to some extent reflected in the phenomenon of substitution: notional words usually have substitutes:
      • I saw a cat in the street. It was shivering with cold.
      • He gave me an interesting book. vs. He gave me this book.
      • John has ten friends. vs. John has many friends.
      • He speaks English better than you do .
      • She lay down. Her eyes closed . It was thus (i.e. in this manner) that Robert saw her.
    • Function words
      • are to ‘service’ the notional words
      • by restricting the reference of a notional word (the article),
      • by substituting for them (the pronoun),
      • by expressing a relation between notional words or predications (the preposition and the conjunction),
      • by intensifying the meaning of a notional word (the particle).
      • As for the modal words and interjections, they function as restrictors of predications: modal words help to remove the directness of a statement or express the presence or absence of an obligation
      • interjections serve to colour our statement emotionally.
      • A
      • The dog is man’s best friend ( the dog refers to the whole class ).
      • I need a dog ( a dog refers to an unspecified member of the class ).
      • I saw a dog running across the street ( a dog refers to a specific, i.e. concrete member of the class ).
      • The dog came to our house again ( the dog refers to a particular member of the class: you know what dog I’m talking about ).
      • B
      • He was a member of a famous golf club.
      • I came here in 1972 and I have lived here ever since.
      • C
      • Even Anthony enjoyed it.
      • The video is to be used for teaching purposes only .
      • D
      • There are perhaps fifty women here.
      • If nothing is done, there will certainly be an economic crisis.
      • E
      • “ He refused to marry her the next day!” “ Oh!” said Scarlett, her hopes dashed (M. Mitchell).
      • Oh dear , I’m late.
    • The most important of all the parts of speech
      • the noun and the verb
      • they form the nucleus of the sentence, i.e. a subject-predicate structure.
      • However, of the two parts of speech, the central role in the sentence is played by the verb: it is ‘responsible’ for both its meaning and structure.
      • e.g. Peter broke the window
      • The verb does not only shape the semantic and syntactic structures but also expresses grammatical information, without which the sentence would only have a propositional structure.
      • Cf. Peter broke the window (sentence) - Peter + break + the window (proposition).
    • The role of the noun
      • in the semantic (propositional) structure the noun performs the role of a participant;
      • in the syntactic structure the noun is a constituent.
      • in both types of structure the noun serves as a building-block .
      • Although it is the verb that is responsible for the form of the sentence, the noun determines the person and the number of the verb:
      • The student is in the lecture-room vs. The students are in the lecture room.
      • The grammatical information which turns a proposition into a sentence is: person, number, tense, aspect, voice, mood, order .
    • The remaining notional parts of speech
      • are satellites of
        • the noun (adjective, numeral)
        • the verb (adverb)
      • they serve as their restrictors, or concretizers.
    • The functional parts of speech
      • some serve as satellites of the noun (article, pronoun, preposition),
      • others serve as satellites of the verb (modal words, interjections).
      • Some functional parts of speech – the conjunction, the particle – serve two masters – the noun and the verb.
    • Task for Tutorial 5
      • Parts of Speech, their classification. Different approaches to classifying words into parts of speech.
      • The definition of parts of speech. Different points of view on the problem.
      • The theories of Parts of Speech.
      • The Classical (logical-inflectional) Principles of Words Classification (Prescriptive Grammarians). The main reasons of impossibility to apply those principles to the English language
      • H. Sweet’s classification of words into parts of speech. Three criteria of the classification. O. Jesperson’s classification.
      • Distributional Principles of Classification. Ch. Fries’s frames.
      • Complex Principles of Classification (Post-Structural Traditional Grammar), criteria in describing parts of speech.
      • The contrast Notional word-classes vs. Functional word-classes
      • Recommended Literature.
      • Blokh M.Y. Chapter 3-4, p. 27-48.
      • Ilyish B.A. p. 27-35.
      • Irtenyeva N.F. et alia, p. 41-46, 53-58.
      • Иванова И.П. et alia стр. 11-20.
      • Readings. p. 41-57.
      • Practical Assignment:
      • Write out from the dictionary of Linguistics definitions of the following terms: part of speech, form, function, declinable, particle, .
      • Make a gist of different approaches to the problem of parts of speech (Readings): their specification of each theory, strong and weak sides of their appliance to the English language.