Mood, Non-Finite Verb Forms

6,402 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
9 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
6,402
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
9
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Mood, Non-Finite Verb Forms

  1. 1. VERB: MOOD <ul><li>The definition of the category </li></ul><ul><li>The problem of the Imperative Mood </li></ul><ul><li>The varieties of the Subjunctive Mood </li></ul><ul><li>The ways the Moods are realized in English </li></ul><ul><li>The homonymity of Subjunctive forms with Indicative forms </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li> The category of mood in the present English verb has given rise to so many discussions, and has been treated in so many different ways, that it seems hardly possible to arrive at any more or less convincing and universally acceptable conclusion concerning it. </li></ul><ul><li>B. A. Ilyish: </li></ul>
  3. 3. The definition of the category <ul><li>H. Sweet: The category of mood is represented by grammatical forms expressing different relations between the Subject and the Predicate. </li></ul><ul><li>G. O. Curme: Moods are changes in the form of a word to show the various ways in which an action or state is thought of by the speaker. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The definition of the category <ul><li>Whitehall, H.: The category of mood establishes the speaker’s mood about the actuality of the happening action. </li></ul><ul><li>M. Blokh: The category of mood expresses the character of connection between the process denoted by the verb and the actual reality, either presenting the process as a fact that really happened, happens or will happen, or treating it as an imaginary phenomenon, i.e. the subject of a hypothesis, speculation, desire. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The definition of the category <ul><li>Mood is a grammatical category which expresses the speaker’s attitude toward the process, indicating whether it is regarded as </li></ul><ul><li>a fact or </li></ul><ul><li>as a non-fact , i.e. as a matter of supposition, desire, possibility, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence there are two moods – fact and non-fact. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Presenting facts, <ul><li>the speaker may be </li></ul><ul><li>categoric and </li></ul><ul><li>non-categoric: </li></ul><ul><li>John’s health is bad. vs. </li></ul><ul><li>John’s health must be bad. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Facts </li></ul><ul><li>are expressed by the Indicative mood </li></ul><ul><li>I go to university. </li></ul><ul><li>I am a student again. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-facts </li></ul><ul><li>are expressed by the Subjunctive mood . </li></ul><ul><li>He suggests I (should) go to university. </li></ul><ul><li>I wish I were a student again. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The problem of the Imperative Mood <ul><li>M. Blokh thinks that the imperative is a variety of the mood of attitudes, i.e. the subjunctive. </li></ul><ul><li>Be off! _ I demand that you (should) be off. </li></ul><ul><li>Do be careful with the papers. _ My request is that you (should) be careful with the papers. </li></ul><ul><li>Do as I ask you! _ I insist that you (should) do as I ask you. </li></ul>
  9. 9. MOOD FACT NON-FACT The Indicative. The Non-indicative or Spective or Subjunctive
  10. 10. The varieties of the Subjunctive Mood <ul><li>The classification of Non-fact Mood on the basis of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Inducement _______ Come! </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility_________they come, should come, may come </li></ul><ul><li>Unreal condition____ came, had come </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence </li></ul><ul><li>of unreal condition ___ should have come, would have come </li></ul>
  11. 11. The classification of Non-fact Mood on the basis of form and meaning <ul><li>Come! ___________ Inducement </li></ul><ul><li>they come _________ Possibility </li></ul><ul><li>came, had come____ Unreal condition </li></ul><ul><li>should come _____Unlikely condition </li></ul><ul><li>should come, </li></ul><ul><li>would come _______ Consequence of unreal condition </li></ul><ul><li>may come ________ Wish or purpose </li></ul>
  12. 12. Smirnitsky’s classification of Non-fact Mood <ul><li>Subjunctive I – problematic action but not contrary to reality ( mostly in simple sentences) </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. May long live peace! </li></ul><ul><li>It’s ordered that all soldiers be sent home . </li></ul><ul><li>Subjunctive II – action contradictory to the reality </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. If I were you I should know it. </li></ul><ul><li>If he had put on warm shoes, he would not be cold. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Smirnitsky’s classification of Non-fact Mood <ul><li>Suppositional – problematic but not contrary to the reality (should) </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Should he come, tell him to wait. </li></ul><ul><li>Conditional – unreal actions due to the absence of conditions in the main clause (should/would) </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. If I were you, I should go there. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The classification by I. B. Khlebnikova should/ would have been moving should/would have moved should/ would be moving should/would move Condi-tional had been moving had moved were moving moved Subjun-ctive Perfect Continuous Perfect Continuous Indefinite PERFECT NON-PERFECT ACTIVE
  15. 15. How does English realize the moods? <ul><li>The fact, or the indicative mood, is expressed by indicative mood forms. Its modalized variety is expressed by the use of appropriate modal verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>The imperative variety of the non-fact mood is realized by the use of the bare (i.e. unmarked) infinitive. </li></ul>
  16. 16. How does English realize the moods? <ul><li>The only regular inflections by which the subjunctive is distinguished from the indicative are the forms of the old subjunctive: </li></ul><ul><li>1) the citation form of the verb (i.e. the bare infinitive); </li></ul><ul><li>2) the form were . </li></ul><ul><li>Mary suggests I go to university.- the present subjunctive </li></ul><ul><li>My wife wishes she were a student again. - the past subjunctive </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>The past subjunctive form were is being replaced by the form was in spoken English </li></ul><ul><li>If I was an architect, I’d re-design this house. </li></ul><ul><li>This would still be true if Britain was out of the Community. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes, however, both forms can be found in the same text: </li></ul><ul><li>My wife says she wishes I were a thousand miles away, and I wish I was. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>One and the same form can be used to express both facts and non-facts . </li></ul><ul><li>If only I had more time ! vs. I had more time when I was younger. </li></ul><ul><li>If only I had had more time ! vs. He said he had had more time then. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The homonymity of Subjunctive forms with Indicative forms <ul><li>Homonyms are only those homographs that belong to different microsystems and therefore express diametrically opposed grammatical features. For example: were in we were there and if we were there , things would be different are considered homonyms because they express, in a certain environment, incompatible grammatical features of reality – unreality.” </li></ul><ul><li>J. B. Khlebnikova (1965) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Past forms can also be viewed as polysemous, <ul><li>i.e. related semantically. </li></ul><ul><li>The meaning that underlies both past forms is the meaning of distance . </li></ul><ul><li>Something that occurred in the past can be treated as distant from the speaker’s current situation . </li></ul><ul><li>In the case of the subjunctive , the past form marks a process presented by the speaker as not being close to present reality . </li></ul><ul><li>The past form, then, could be called the remote or distal form which can be used to communicate not only distance from the moment of speaking, but also distance from current reality (George Yule, 1996) </li></ul>
  21. 21. English possesses analytic ‘subjunctive’ forms <ul><li>composed of shall/should, will/would, may/might, can/could and the base form of a verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a note of it so that you shan’t forget. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a note of it lest you should forget. </li></ul><ul><li>They have arrived early so that they won’t miss the overture. </li></ul><ul><li>They came early so that they wouldn’t miss the overture. </li></ul><ul><li>He is going to London so that he can/may see the Queen. </li></ul><ul><li>He bought a car so that he could/might be more mobile. </li></ul>
  22. 22. The category of mood is represented <ul><li>by two oppositions: the indicative mood and the spective mood. </li></ul><ul><li>The indicative mood is the basic mood of the verb. Morphologically it is the most developed system. Semantically, it is a fact mood; it is the least subjective of all the moods. </li></ul><ul><li>The spective mood, which includes the traditional imperative and the subjunctive mood, represents a process as a non-fact, i.e. as something imaginary, desirable, problematic, contrary to reality. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>The imperative variety of the spective mood is morphologically the least developed mood: it is only expressed by the bare infinitive form. </li></ul><ul><li>The subjunctive variety of the spective mood makes use of two types of construction: </li></ul><ul><li>1) non-modal: a) the base form of a verb; b) were; c) forms identical with indicative mood forms; </li></ul><ul><li>2) modal (modal verb + the base form of a verb). </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>The problems that face the analyst are: </li></ul><ul><li>1) the linguistic status of non-modal subjunctive forms; </li></ul><ul><li>2) the linguistic status of the modal forms shall/should, will/would, etc. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Verbals: The Infinitive. The Gerund. The Participle. Participial Constructions.
  26. 26. Verbals <ul><li>There are three verbals in English – </li></ul><ul><li>the Infinitive, </li></ul><ul><li>the Gerund </li></ul><ul><li>the Participle. </li></ul><ul><li>They have a double nature: nominal and verbal. </li></ul><ul><li>They cannot be the predicate of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>They do not express person, number or mood. The tense distinctions are relative, they show only whether the action expressed by the verbal is simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb or prior to it. </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Infinitive <ul><li>developed from the verbal noun which in course of time became verbalized retaining at the same time some of its nominal properties. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Nominal character of the Infinitive <ul><li>is manifested in its syntactical functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Subject, </li></ul><ul><li>Object, </li></ul><ul><li>Predicative. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Verbal characteristics of the Infinitive <ul><li>the Infinitive of the transitive verb can take a direct object; </li></ul><ul><li>the Infinitive can be modified by an adverb; </li></ul><ul><li>the Infinitive has the following grammatical categories: time-relation, voice and aspect. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Forms of the Infinitive To have been written To have written Perfect To have been writing Perfect Continuous To be writing Continuous To be written To write Indefinite Passive Active
  31. 31. The infinitive has two presentation forms: <ul><li>Marked </li></ul><ul><li>The marked infinitive is an analytic grammatical form. </li></ul><ul><li>“ to” can be used to represent the corresponding construction as a whole, </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. you can read any of the books if you want to (read). </li></ul><ul><li>It can also be separated from its notional part by a word or phrase, usually of adverbial nature, forming the so-called split infinitive, </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. To systematically rid this town of lay abouts, we must adopt a special law . </li></ul><ul><li>Unmarked </li></ul><ul><li>It is traditionally called the bare infinitive. </li></ul><ul><li>It is used in various analytic forms (non-modal and modal), </li></ul><ul><li>with verbs of physical perceptions, </li></ul><ul><li>with the verbs let, bid, make, help (optionally), </li></ul><ul><li>with a few modal phrases (had better, would rather, would have, etc.), </li></ul><ul><li>with the relative why . </li></ul>
  32. 32. Infinitive Constructions: <ul><li>the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is a construction in which the Infinitive is in predicate relation to a Noun in the Common case or a Pronoun in the Objective case; </li></ul><ul><li>the Nominative-with-the-Infinitive Construction is a construction in which the Infinitive is in predicate relation to a Noun in the Common case or a Pronoun in the Nominative case; </li></ul><ul><li>the for-to-Infinitive Construction is a construction in which the Infinitive is in predicate relation to a Noun or Pronoun preceded by the preposition “for”. </li></ul>
  33. 33. The Gerund <ul><li>like the Infinitive developed from the verbal noun. </li></ul><ul><li>It coincides in form with Participle 1. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Forms of the Gerund. Passive Active Having been written Having written Perfect Being written Writing Indefinite
  35. 35. Nominal characteristics of the Gerund: <ul><li>The Gerund can perform the function of Subject, Object, Predicative; </li></ul><ul><li>The Gerund can be preceded by a preposition; </li></ul><ul><li>The Gerund can be modified by a Noun in the Possessive case or by a Possessive Pronoun. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Verbal characteristics of the Gerund : <ul><li>the Gerund of the transitive verb can take a direct object; </li></ul><ul><li>the Gerund can be modified by an adverb; </li></ul><ul><li>the Gerund has time-relations and that of transitive verbs has voice distinctions. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Predicative Constructions with the Gerund <ul><li>is a construction in which the verbal element expressed by the Gerund is in predicate relation to the nominal element expressed by a Noun or Pronoun: </li></ul><ul><li>Gerundial (Noun’s or Possessive Pronoun + Gerund); </li></ul><ul><li>Half-Gerundial (Noun in the Common case or Personal Pronoun in the Objective Case + Gerund). </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>The child was not afraid of remaining alone vs. He was afraid to remain alone on such a stormy night. </li></ul><ul><li>He remembered posting the letter (about the past). vs. He remembered to post the letter (about the future from the moment denoted by the finite verb). </li></ul><ul><li>He stopped smoking (gave up the habit). He stopped to smoke (purpose). </li></ul><ul><li>The Infinitive - can be used with reference to a special occasion and the Gerund - to a general statement . </li></ul>
  39. 39. The Participle <ul><li>is a non-finite form of the verb which has a verbal and an adjectival character or an adverbial character. </li></ul><ul><li>Participle 1 (4 forms) and Participle 2 (Past Participle – 1 form). </li></ul>
  40. 40. Forms of the Participle. Having been written Having written Perfect Written Past Being written Writing Present Passive Active
  41. 41. Adjectival or adverbial character of the Particple <ul><li>is manifested in its syntactical functions, those of: </li></ul><ul><li>Attribute, </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbial Modifier. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Verbal character of the Participle: <ul><li>Participle 1 of a transitive verb can take a direct object; </li></ul><ul><li>Participle 1 and Participle 2 can be modified by an adverb; </li></ul><ul><li>Participle 1 has tense distinctions and that of transitive verbs has voice distinctions. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Predicative Constructions with the Participle: <ul><li>the Objective Participial Construction is a construction in which the Participle is in predicate relation to a Noun in the Common case or a Pronoun in the Objective case; </li></ul><ul><li>the Subjective Participial Construction is a construction in which the Participle is in predicate relation to a Noun in the Common case or a Pronoun in the Nominative case, which is the Subject of the sentence; </li></ul>
  44. 44. Predicative Constructions with the Participle: <ul><li>the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction is a construction in which the Participle stands in predicate relation to a Noun in the Common case or a Pronoun in the Nominative case, the Noun or Pronoun is not the Subject of the sentence; </li></ul><ul><li>the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction is introduced by the preposition “with”. </li></ul>

×