Constructions with the Infinitive. <ul><li>1. The objective infinitive construction; </li></ul><ul><li>2. The subjective i...
The objective infinitive construction <ul><li>consists of a noun in the common case or a pronoun in   the objective form a...
The subjective infinitive   construction <ul><li>consists of a noun in the common case or a   pronoun in the nominative fo...
The for - to infinitive construction. <ul><li>consists of the preposition for (or of), a noun in the   common case or a pr...
The for - to infinitive construction. <ul><li>The construction is polyfunctional:  </li></ul><ul><li>a  complex subject  (...
Constructions with the Gerund. <ul><li>Gerundial  </li></ul><ul><li>Half-Gerundial  </li></ul>
Constructions with the Gerund. <ul><li>Gerundial (Noun’s or Possessive Pronoun + Gerund); </li></ul><ul><li>Do you mind Jo...
Constructions with the Participle. 1)  The objective – participle construction; 2) The subjective – participle constructio...
The Objective Participial Construction <ul><li>is a construction in which the Participle is in predicate relation to a Nou...
The Subjective Participial Construction <ul><li>is a construction in which the Participle is in predicate relation to a No...
The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction <ul><li>is a construction in which the Participle stands in predicate rel...
The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction <ul><li>The nominal position   can be taken by the expletives (i.e. prop-...
The subjective-absolute participial construction <ul><li>functions in the sentence   as   </li></ul><ul><li>an adverbial o...
The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction   introduced by the preposition “with”. <ul><li>With him being sick, w...
The absolute participle construction <ul><li>is a construction in which the   participle is not connected with the sentenc...
<ul><li>The absolute participle   construction should not be confused with the adverbial participle construction, </li></u...
‘ D angling’participle <ul><li>is  a participle which does not depend on any other individual element   of the sentence,  ...
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Constructions with verbals

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Constructions with verbals

  1. 1. Constructions with the Infinitive. <ul><li>1. The objective infinitive construction; </li></ul><ul><li>2. The subjective infinitive construction; </li></ul><ul><li>3. The for - to infinitive construction. </li></ul>
  2. 2. The objective infinitive construction <ul><li>consists of a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective form and the infinitive. </li></ul><ul><li>In the sentence this construction has the function of a complex object, </li></ul><ul><li>I saw John cross the street. </li></ul><ul><li>is used after verbs of mental processes (e.g. hear, watch, feel, observe, notice; know,think, consider, believe, suppose, expect, imagine, find; like, want, wish, desire,mean, intend, choose), </li></ul><ul><li>verbal processes (e.g. pronounce, report, declare), </li></ul><ul><li>verbs of causative processes (e.g. make, cause, get, have, order, allow) </li></ul>
  3. 3. The subjective infinitive construction <ul><li>consists of a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative form and the infinitive. </li></ul><ul><li>In the sentence, the construction functions as a complex subject, </li></ul><ul><li>John was seen to cross the street. </li></ul><ul><li>The construction is used with verbs in the passive voice denoting mental (e.g. see, hear, etc), </li></ul><ul><li>verbal (e.g. say, report, etc.), </li></ul><ul><li>modal (epistemic) </li></ul><ul><li>p rocesses (e.g. appear, be likely, etc.), </li></ul><ul><li>verbs of causative processes (e.g. m ake,order,allow). </li></ul><ul><li>This construction is in fact a passive version of the former. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The for - to infinitive construction. <ul><li>consists of the preposition for (or of), a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective form and the infinitive . </li></ul><ul><li>He is a good man for you to know. </li></ul><ul><li>The prepositions are used when the speaker wishes to explicate the ‘subject’ of the infinitive clause. If the subject is not explicated, the sentence expresses a generic situation. </li></ul><ul><li>He is a good man to know. vs. </li></ul><ul><li>He is a good man for me/you to know. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The for - to infinitive construction. <ul><li>The construction is polyfunctional: </li></ul><ul><li>a complex subject (e.g. For you to do such a thing will only cause trouble ), </li></ul><ul><li>a complex object (e.g. The store arranged for us to pay the money in three installments ), </li></ul><ul><li>a complex predicative (e.g. The regulation is for boys and girls to live in separate dormitories ), </li></ul><ul><li>a complex adverbial (a complex adjunct) (e.g. In order for me to buy a car, I’ll have to take a loan from the bank ). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Constructions with the Gerund. <ul><li>Gerundial </li></ul><ul><li>Half-Gerundial </li></ul>
  7. 7. Constructions with the Gerund. <ul><li>Gerundial (Noun’s or Possessive Pronoun + Gerund); </li></ul><ul><li>Do you mind John’s smoking in the room? </li></ul><ul><li>I insist on Mary’s going there. </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘possessive’ form is considered to be more literary and elegant; </li></ul><ul><li>Half-Gerundial (Noun in the Common case or Personal Pronoun in the Objective Case + Gerund). </li></ul><ul><li>I insist on Mary going there. </li></ul><ul><li>the ‘objective’ form is found mainly in the spoken language, “where it is probably just as common as the possessive form” </li></ul><ul><li>(W. Stannard Allen) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Constructions with the Participle. 1) The objective – participle construction; 2) The subjective – participle construction; 3) The subjective – absolute participle construction; 4) The absolute participle construction
  9. 9. The Objective Participial Construction <ul><li>is a construction in which the Participle is in predicate relation to a Noun in the Common case or a Pronoun in the Objective case; </li></ul><ul><li>I saw John running away . (the situation in progress) </li></ul><ul><li>is similar to the corresponding objective-infinitive construction. </li></ul><ul><li>I saw John run away. (the completed situation) </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Subjective Participial Construction <ul><li>is a construction in which the Participle is in predicate relation to a Noun in the Common case or a Pronoun in the Nominative case, which is the Subject of the sentence; </li></ul><ul><li>John was seen running away. ( the process in progress) </li></ul><ul><li>is similar to the corresponding subjective-infinitive construction. </li></ul><ul><li>John was seen to run away. ( the process as completed) </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction <ul><li>is a construction in which the Participle stands in predicate relation to a Noun in the Common case or a Pronoun in the Nominative case, the Noun or Pronoun is not the Subject of the sentence </li></ul><ul><li>The elevator being out of order, everyone had to walk. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction <ul><li>The nominal position can be taken by the expletives (i.e. prop-words) it and there </li></ul><ul><li>It being Sunday, the stores were not open. </li></ul><ul><li>There having been some question about the bookkeeper’s honesty, the company asked him to resign. </li></ul><ul><li>The participle can be elided in such constructions </li></ul><ul><li>His book [being] now a best-seller, he felt pleased with the world. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The subjective-absolute participial construction <ul><li>functions in the sentence as </li></ul><ul><li>an adverbial of time </li></ul><ul><li>Dinner [being] ready, the hostess asked her guests to be seated . </li></ul><ul><li>cause </li></ul><ul><li>The children having been fed, their mother put them to bed . </li></ul><ul><li>condition </li></ul><ul><li>A riot once begun, our small police force will be unable to handle it . </li></ul><ul><li>manner </li></ul><ul><li>She sat in a corner, her hands over her eyes. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction introduced by the preposition “with”. <ul><li>With him being sick, we’ll have to do his work. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The absolute participle construction <ul><li>is a construction in which the participle is not connected with the sentence, just as the participle in the subjective absolute construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally speaking, I don’t like cats. vs. Her mother being away, she has to do all the housework. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>The absolute participle construction should not be confused with the adverbial participle construction, </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing the conclusion, he felt very lonesome . vs. Not knowing anyone in town , he felt very lonesome . </li></ul>
  17. 17. ‘ D angling’participle <ul><li>is a participle which does not depend on any other individual element of the sentence, </li></ul><ul><li>*Walking back, it snowed. </li></ul>

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