Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Constructions with verbals
Constructions with verbals
Constructions with verbals
Constructions with verbals
Constructions with verbals
Constructions with verbals
Constructions with verbals
Constructions with verbals
Constructions with verbals
Constructions with verbals
Constructions with verbals
Constructions with verbals
Constructions with verbals
Constructions with verbals
Constructions with verbals
Constructions with verbals
Constructions with verbals
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Constructions with verbals

8,708

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
8,708
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Constructions with the Infinitive.
    • 1. The objective infinitive construction;
    • 2. The subjective infinitive construction;
    • 3. The for - to infinitive construction.
  • 2. The objective infinitive construction
    • consists of a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective form and the infinitive.
    • In the sentence this construction has the function of a complex object,
    • I saw John cross the street.
    • is used after verbs of mental processes (e.g. hear, watch, feel, observe, notice; know,think, consider, believe, suppose, expect, imagine, find; like, want, wish, desire,mean, intend, choose),
    • verbal processes (e.g. pronounce, report, declare),
    • verbs of causative processes (e.g. make, cause, get, have, order, allow)
  • 3. The subjective infinitive construction
    • consists of a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative form and the infinitive.
    • In the sentence, the construction functions as a complex subject,
    • John was seen to cross the street.
    • The construction is used with verbs in the passive voice denoting mental (e.g. see, hear, etc),
    • verbal (e.g. say, report, etc.),
    • modal (epistemic)
    • p rocesses (e.g. appear, be likely, etc.),
    • verbs of causative processes (e.g. m ake,order,allow).
    • This construction is in fact a passive version of the former.
  • 4. The for - to infinitive construction.
    • consists of the preposition for (or of), a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective form and the infinitive .
    • He is a good man for you to know.
    • The prepositions are used when the speaker wishes to explicate the ‘subject’ of the infinitive clause. If the subject is not explicated, the sentence expresses a generic situation.
    • He is a good man to know. vs.
    • He is a good man for me/you to know.
  • 5. The for - to infinitive construction.
    • The construction is polyfunctional:
    • a complex subject (e.g. For you to do such a thing will only cause trouble ),
    • a complex object (e.g. The store arranged for us to pay the money in three installments ),
    • a complex predicative (e.g. The regulation is for boys and girls to live in separate dormitories ),
    • a complex adverbial (a complex adjunct) (e.g. In order for me to buy a car, I’ll have to take a loan from the bank ).
  • 6. Constructions with the Gerund.
    • Gerundial
    • Half-Gerundial
  • 7. Constructions with the Gerund.
    • Gerundial (Noun’s or Possessive Pronoun + Gerund);
    • Do you mind John’s smoking in the room?
    • I insist on Mary’s going there.
    • The ‘possessive’ form is considered to be more literary and elegant;
    • Half-Gerundial (Noun in the Common case or Personal Pronoun in the Objective Case + Gerund).
    • I insist on Mary going there.
    • the ‘objective’ form is found mainly in the spoken language, “where it is probably just as common as the possessive form”
    • (W. Stannard Allen)
  • 8. Constructions with the Participle. 1) The objective – participle construction; 2) The subjective – participle construction; 3) The subjective – absolute participle construction; 4) The absolute participle construction
  • 9. The Objective Participial Construction
    • is a construction in which the Participle is in predicate relation to a Noun in the Common case or a Pronoun in the Objective case;
    • I saw John running away . (the situation in progress)
    • is similar to the corresponding objective-infinitive construction.
    • I saw John run away. (the completed situation)
  • 10. The Subjective Participial Construction
    • is a construction in which the Participle is in predicate relation to a Noun in the Common case or a Pronoun in the Nominative case, which is the Subject of the sentence;
    • John was seen running away. ( the process in progress)
    • is similar to the corresponding subjective-infinitive construction.
    • John was seen to run away. ( the process as completed)
  • 11. The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction
    • is a construction in which the Participle stands in predicate relation to a Noun in the Common case or a Pronoun in the Nominative case, the Noun or Pronoun is not the Subject of the sentence
    • The elevator being out of order, everyone had to walk.
  • 12. The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction
    • The nominal position can be taken by the expletives (i.e. prop-words) it and there
    • It being Sunday, the stores were not open.
    • There having been some question about the bookkeeper’s honesty, the company asked him to resign.
    • The participle can be elided in such constructions
    • His book [being] now a best-seller, he felt pleased with the world.
  • 13. The subjective-absolute participial construction
    • functions in the sentence as
    • an adverbial of time
    • Dinner [being] ready, the hostess asked her guests to be seated .
    • cause
    • The children having been fed, their mother put them to bed .
    • condition
    • A riot once begun, our small police force will be unable to handle it .
    • manner
    • She sat in a corner, her hands over her eyes.
  • 14. The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction introduced by the preposition “with”.
    • With him being sick, we’ll have to do his work.
  • 15. The absolute participle construction
    • is a construction in which the participle is not connected with the sentence, just as the participle in the subjective absolute construction.
    • Generally speaking, I don’t like cats. vs. Her mother being away, she has to do all the housework.
  • 16.
    • The absolute participle construction should not be confused with the adverbial participle construction,
    • Drawing the conclusion, he felt very lonesome . vs. Not knowing anyone in town , he felt very lonesome .
  • 17. ‘ D angling’participle
    • is a participle which does not depend on any other individual element of the sentence,
    • *Walking back, it snowed.

×