Stories are a powerful means oflanguage teaching. A skillfulteacher can use stories todevelop “more efficientlistening, more fluent speakingand the ability to read andwrite easily and competently”(Garvie 1990)
Children usually enjoy hearing the same story many times. For instance;
You can tell the storyusing a picture book, or aflannel board and movablecharacters.
You can tell or read thestory while children movepuppets or dolls, or as theywear masks and act out thestory.
You can tell storywhile children drawit.
You can tell a versionof a familiar story by adifferent author andillustrator.
Children may listen to atape-recorded storytogether orindividually, usingearphones.
Many follow-up activitiesare possible. When they haveheard a story severaltimes, children can retell it, act it out, write a script for the story.
Donna Brinton Story activities can alsobe games.
Wright (1995) provides activities to use before, during and after a story as well as stories and lessons plans for children and different ages.
Ur and Wright (1992) described brief activities thatinclude stories, such as a chainstory: One student begins astory and others take turnsadding sentences, whether orallyor in writing.
Gesture and Movement
Children need to move aroundmore than adults to. Asmentioned, the teacher cancombine gesture and movementwith; songs poems or chants drama stories
Total PhysicalResponse (TPR)
The best known ESL approachinvolving movement is TOTALPHYSICAL RESPONSE (Asher1969).In TPR, the teacher; gives commands, models them, and gradually weans the studentfrom watching the teacher’s model
TPR fits withincomprehension-basedapproaches such as the NaturalApproach (Krashen and Terrel1983). Grammar is not overlytaught, the focus is oncomprehension, and the input issupposed to be comprehensible.
Total PhysicalResponse (TPR) Storytelling
TPR storytelling (Ray andSeely 1998; Seely and Romjin1998) is a method of second orforeign language teaching thatincludesactions, pantomime, and othertechniques. Much is taughtthrough stories.
TPR in gestures, the student are First, Students are able to tell thestory themselves, while other act it out. In the next step, the teacher tellsa main story which students laterretell and revised. Last, students create their ownstories and tell them.
Tests focus on vocabulary. Inthe second or thirdyear, grammar is taught bytelling the stories from anotherpoint of view, thus requiring thelearner to changetenses, pronounces and so on.
Younger children are lesslikely to focus on the vocabularyor pronunciation errors ofothers, or to correct them. Aschildren grow older, theirmetalinguistic awarenessgrows, and they do not tend tonotice errors much the same asadults do.
In EFL situation, where timeis short and class is perhaps theonly place where the child speaksEnglish, many teachers arecareful about noting errors, andplan lessons and homework inresponse.
All in all, when teachers noticeerrors in grammar, vocabulary, andpronunciation, they can choose fromrange of strategies: ignored the error make a mental note rephrase the sentence rephrase and expand present a lesson to a group orthe whole class
Prepared by:Rizza E.MangunayBEED 3A
Some of the strategies andmaterials that Celce-Murcia andHilles (1998) presents for grammarlessons could be used with children.Ur’s grammar practice activities (1998)are arranged by grammaticalcategory (adjectives, negativesentences) and many can be used asis or adapted.