Smau Firenze 2014 -  	Laboratorio RIS3: La smart specialisation come strategia per lo sviluppo dell'economia regionale
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Smau Firenze 2014 -  	Laboratorio RIS3: La smart specialisation come strategia per lo sviluppo dell'economia regionale Smau Firenze 2014 - Laboratorio RIS3: La smart specialisation come strategia per lo sviluppo dell'economia regionale Presentation Transcript

  • Leonardo GhezziLeonardo Ghezzi
  • PIL Var. % tendenziale 0 -0,5 -1 -1,5 -2 -2,5 -3 Toscana Italia
  • 10-12 altabassa Medio bassa Medio alta alta Medio alta Medio bassa bassa 07-09 1736 555 432 325 616 303 View slide
  • 2012 % su valore complessivo % imprese che esportano nell'area UE 15 38,1% 59,5% Altra Europa 13,1% 53,0% US e Canada 9,2% 39,1% Medio Oriente 7,1% 29,3% Cina e Hong Kong 5,7% 31,9% View slide
  • Investimenti. Toscana Valori assoluti in milioni di Euro 30 miliardi
  • Euro di valore aggiunto attivato da 1 Euro di export
  • Smart Specialisation, KETS and cluster policies: policy approaches and examples 1 Martina Pertoldi S3 Platform SMAU/Toscana Technologica Firenze, 10th July 2014
  • Agenda What is Smart Specialisation (for)?1 2 3 What is the role of KETs and cluster policies in Smart Specialisation? Eye@RIS3. The S3Platform database on S3 priorities of European Regions. 4 Policy approaches and examples.
  • Smart Specialisation (National/Regional) Research and Innovation Strategies for Smart Specialisation (S3) that are:  - integrated,  - place-based,  - economic transformation agendas. •“Innovation is not considered as a linear process that starts with research, eventually leading to development, translated later into growth in the territories that have more capabilities. Instead, it is the product of a policy mix, including several bodies and stakeholders in which the territories, their specificities and conditions are paramount.” • Danuta Hübner (2009) 1
  • What is Smart Specialisation ? • Evidence-based • Entrepreneurial discovery process • Mobilisation of investments and synergies across different departments and governance levels • Outward looking and • Source in • Differentiation • Priority setting • Cross-sectoral links and new market niches • Not sectors but activities • All forms of innovation
  • The role of KETs and cluster policies in Smart Specialisation 2 as horizontal issues/priorities and policy delivery instruments • Green Growth: Eco-innovation & Energy efficiency • Digital agenda: enabling knowledge flows throughout the territory (connected regions) • Key Enabling Technologies (KETs): systemic potential to induce structural change • Innovation-friendly business environments for SMEs • Public sector innovation • Stronger focus on financial engineering • Public Procurement for market pull: pre-competitive PP to open new innovation friendly market niches • Lifelong Learning in research and innovation: support knowledge triangle (KICs) and university- enterprise cooperation • Clusters for regional growth • Research infrastructure/centres of competence • Creativity and cultural industries: innovation beyond technology and outside manufacturing • Social Innovation: new organisational forms to tackle societal challenges
  • KETs  KETs are knowledge-intensive and associated with high R&D intensity, rapid innovation cycles, high capital expenditure and highly-skilled employment.  They bear enormous market potential: • The overall global market volume will most likely increase from EUR 610 billion to EUR 945 billion.  They are multidisciplinary, cutting across many technology areas with a trend towards convergence and integration.  KETs have been singled out by the European Commission in the proposal for the new Cohesion Policy as one of the investment priorities of the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) as a relevant investment for the smart growth of regions.  KETs are seen as the route to new and better products and processes, capable of generating economic growth and employment and strengthening the competitiveness of the EU economy. • KETs can spur innovation, increase productivity, give rise to new applications and help tackle societal challenges.
  • SystemsApprocah Interpendent Variables AnalyticalApproach Independent Variables Social Model Biological Model Machine Model NatureofInquiry Nature of Organization From:Markkula,M.,Pirttivaara,M.&Miikki,L.,2009&2013.Developedusing theideasfrom:Gharajedaghi,J.,2006.SystemsThinkig:ManagingChaosand Complexity. Traditional Organisation Specific Business Plan Success Factors: Ecosystem thinking Co-creation Entrepreneurial Discovery Effective use of KETs Knowledge Triangle (synergy between R&E&I) Regional Innovation Test-Bed / Case Espoo Innovation Garden: Technology linked with Factories & Living Labs & Start-ups KETs as the Real Enablers for Systemic Change based on Smart Specialisation
  • Clusters Clusters are highly relevant for smart specialisation. However, the two concepts are not the same: • clusters are potential elements of a regional innovation eco-system, while smart specialisation policies are wider policies aiming at transforming this eco-system. • Smart specialisation aims at exploiting emerging linkages between economic activities that can cut across traditional cluster boundaries. This may or may not strengthen existing clusters, and in any case should allow for new, emerging ones. At the same time: • Existing cross-border clusters can help develop the transnational dimensions of smart specialisation strategies. • Cluster initiatives can be key players in the entrepreneurial discovery process. • • Clusters can be used as platforms to open innovation processes to new interactions, beyond industrial productivity and efficiency.
  • S3Platform_Eye@RIS3 an online database of S3 priorities • to identify their unique niches; • to enable Regions to position themselves in the EU; • to seek out potential partners for collaboration. Some warnings: • Data from peer reviews, expert assessment reports, and national reports; • Additional data can also be uploaded, and any existing entries can be edited; • Categories are not perfect matches, but allow to understand how different regions focus their priorities. • Priorities are based on not up-to-dated documents 3
  • Distribution of KETs-related priorities Over two-thirds (66%) of all EU regions in the database (and 9 out of 13 MS) have indicated KETs-related priorities. Map 1: All Regions with registered priorities (July 2014) Map 2: Regions with KETs-related priorities (July 2014) The database includes data on over 126 EU regions, 13 MS, and 17 non-EU regions.
  • Regional KETs-related Priorities Over 20% of all priorities encoded in EYE@RIS3 are KETs-related. These priorities fall in the following categories (a year-to-year change, 2013- 2014): •• Advanced materials 53 priorities (+7%) •• Advanced manufacturing systems 49 priorities (+48%) •• Industrial biotechnology 47 priorities (+14%) •• Photonics 10 priorities (+21%) •• Micro/Nano-electronics 10 priorities (+21%) •• Nanotechnology 7 priorities (-58%)
  • Policy approaches and examples4  When these results are cross-checked with the Regional Innovation Scoreboard or the Territorial patterns of innovation in Europe (Espon KIT), one would notice that all types of regions aim for KETs. With regard to Kets and clusters, regions present different approaches to address the key issue: What kind of R& (broad) I activities and/or generic technology(ies) can help to transform the existing economic structure and to diversify the regional economy into higher value added markets, modernise/rejuvenate or exploit new/emerging economic activities?
  • Northern Netherlands (NL) Cross-cutting KETs for integrated regional development 4.1 Smart innovation means to pursue: • … Solutions that fit to the societal needs … Composite innovations, bringing solutions to composite societal needs and challenges, means: •Involving society in the innovation process from the earliest stage; Innovating in Living Labs, which directly shows the adoptation and adaption of innovations, telling us if and how they add value to the larger society; Innovations focussed on inclusive well being. Source: Presentation by region Northern Netherlands , Bruxelles, March 2014.
  • Baden-Württemberg (DE) Nurturing the Entrepreneurial Discovery Process 4.2 Source: Presentation by region Baden-Württemberg,Bruxelles ,October 2013 RegioWIN aims to initiate the development and implementation of strategic approaches towards smart specialization at sub-regional level.
  • Flanders (BE) From clusters to domain for Smart Specialisation 4.3 Source: Presentation by region Flanders at the S3 thematic workshop, Norrköping, April 2014 "A new approach based on value chains, clusters and systemic projects. Two axes: on the one hand, the already existing strong industrial clusters focus on tackling the new global challenges; the second axis focuses on the innovative power of new industries such as micro-electronics,biotech or new materials."
  • Flanders (BE) From clusters to domain for Smart Specialisation 4.3 Source: Presentation by region Flanders at the S3 thematic workshop, Norrköping, April 2014 Cluster- Roadmaps –Technology driven (KET) –Value Chains – crossover Case: Transition Sustainable Chemistry – Bio based Europe –Largest petro-chemical cluster in Europe in Flanders; strong links with food, building e.o. sectors; cross-border links with NL and DE –Transition towards bio-based economy, but incomplete science base! –How to become a world-class cluster in sustainable chemistry? –Focus on strategic road mapping for a transition (also cross-border!) Some instruments: Shared vision between NL – NRW – Flanders •KET Roadmap •Lead companies : Procter Gamble, BASF, Bayer, Afga, … •Strategic Innovation Platform : FISCH •Pilot plants •Incubator •DG REGIO : ERDF and Interreg •JTI BBI (H2020)
  • Flanders (BE) From clusters to domain for Smart Specialisation Source: Presentation by region Flanders at the S3 thematic workshop, Norrköping, April 2014 Cluster- Roadmaps –Technology driven (KET) –Value Chains – crossover Case: Emerging cluster Nano-for-Health – largest independent nano-electronics research institute in Europe; technology platform for open innovation, but weak industrial cluster. –Health: transition towards ‘personalised therapy’ –How to leverage this technology platform for these new application areas? –Focus on the management of an emerging eco-system (cross-border!) Some instruments: •Strategic Research Centre : IMEC, VIB, .. •Lead Companies : J&J ; specialised SMEs, •Cluster organisations : DSP Valley, Flanders Bio •Living Lab : Health Care •Demoprojects •KET Roadmaps , Value driven roadmaps •DG Research : AAL, CASA, DAA, … •DG Enterprise project : Nano4Health (interconnection with other cluster in Europe)
  • Grazie! http://s3platform.jrc.ec.europa.eu JRC-IPTS-S3PLATFORM@ec.europa.eu
  • RIS3: “ The Smart Specialisation as a strategy for the development of the regional economy” Florence, 10th of July, 2014 RIS 3 in Languedoc-Roussillon Raphaelle Lamoureux
  • Short presentation of the region Languedoc- Roussillon Basic facts
  • • Population : 2,6 million inhabitants - the highest population growth in France (forecast : 3,3 million inhabitants in 2030) • GDP/per inhabitant : about 75% of EU 27 average (Eurostat – 2011) • Key figures of regional économy : – Entreprises - Registered businesses : 127 570 – Services : 61 144 – Industry : 12 264 – Construction : 17 849 – Trade and repairs : 36 313 • Services : 503. 000 jobs • Industry : 70, 000 jobs - 8% of jobs • Firm size : SME : 95% < 10 employees 3 Basic Facts
  • Basic Facts Languedoc –Roussillon : an average innovator region (Regional European Scoreboard - 2011 ) • 5 Universities, 95 000 students, • 8000 researchers (5500 public), • 10 research organizations • A wide variety of research fields : – Agronomy and environnemental sciences – Health sciences – ITC and engineering – Chemistry – Earth sciences and water – Management and humanities Expenditures of R. et D./GDP : 3% (but 2/3 on public funds) High Education and Public research
  • General overview of our RIS3 (+ see the website www.3s-en-lr.com)
  • 6 European Benchmark Workshops Selection of 7 domains A action plan and an organisation for each domain « entrepreunarial dynamics » Place based analysis www.3s-en-lr.com launch 40 domains - 23 indicators
  • DOMAINS OF INNOVATION Languedoc-Roussillon Coastal Economy Water - H2O Industrial and energetic Transition Advanced and targeted therapies - diagnostic (especially applied to chronic diseases and ageing) Bioeconomy on mediterranean and tropical cultures Biomarqueurs et Diagnostic médical Entrepreneurship and Innovation Smart systems, data processing, and visualization of digital data Large and small water cycle: Solutions for the joint management of resources, water re-use Dismantling, Decommissioning, Demolition, Disposal waste, Separative technologies Solar Concentration - High solar performance Biomarkers and diagnostic medical Advanced and targeted therapies Alternative medical care/therapy Smart systems/big data/ applications to the living, to the environment and smart territories Creative industries Innovative and sustainable production Recycling Bioeconomy Engineering: coast, ports Housing and building in Mediterranean climate Nautism - kite
  • STRATEGIC CLUSTER POLICIES FOR NEW GROWTH SHAPING STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS FOR THE TRANSFORMATION OF OUR ECONOMIES The evolution of Cluster policies in the Basque Country Florence, 10th July 2014
  • Background
  • 3 Industrial Policy in the Basque Country: history and background Basque Country has a long history defining economic development strategies over the past 35 years. The continuousness of plans and strategies, responding to specific needs at each stage, have progressively sought modernisation, competitiveness, specialisation, diversification and sophistication of the Basque economy based on existing capacities and exploitation of greatest potential opportunity areas. The Basque Country has been at the forefront of the design and implementation of cluster policy since the early 1990s, when it embarked on a strategy to transform its economy in response to deep economic crisis and high levels of unemployment. Policy responses were sought to construct new competitive advantages, and the Basque government was a pioneer in the establishment of a Porterian cluster policy. Technological Infrastructure Development Europa 2020 Innovation Union Common strategic framework Smart Specialisation Horizon 2020 Business Innovation Centers (BIC) Regional Innovation Strategies (RIS) 1,2,3,4,5 Framework programme Competitiveness Plan 2010-2013 PCTI 2015 1980 2020201020001990 PCTI 2010 Interinstitutional Plan for the Economic Promotion 2000-03 Plan for Business Competitiveness and Social Innovation 2005-2009 PCTI 2001-04 BioBasque Strategy NanoBasque strategy EnergiBasque strategy Science, Technology and Innovation Plan (PCTI)1997-2000 University Plan 2000-2003 University Plan 2007-2010 University Plan 2011- 2014 Basque Country Digital Agenda 2015 PESI 2010 Support R & D business units Science policy programme The Basque Country in the Information Society Plan (PESI) 2002- 2005 PRAI Euskadi 2015 Clusters Policy Euskadi Europe Plan 93 Industrial Technology Plan 93-96 Technological strategy plan (PET) Technological management and innovation programme (PGTI) 91-96 Industrial Policy Plan 96-99 Industrial Policy Plan 91-95 Performances Industrial Policy 1981-1991 SOFAD 1982-1989 ECTA1983-1987 Advanced Manufacturing Sm artSpecialisation StrategyRIS3 Regional Innovation Strategies (RIS+) Regional Innovation and Technology Transfer Initiatives (RITTS) 6, 7 Framework programme RIS3 strategies are a natural extension of Basque historical policies
  • 4 The Basque Country applies strategies for regional development since the 80s. The cluster policy and the specific cluster associations that it supports have been remarkably stable during the more than twenty-year life of the policy and have run in parallel to the different R&D strategies Strategies for regional development . During this time three key milestones can be identified: •1992: Following a mapping of industrial sectors, instruments were developed to support the development of new associations based on the weight of the identified clusters in the regional economy and to support the strengthening of the existing ones. The first two cluster associations were set up, from which another ten followed in the subsequent years. •2000: After almost a decade managing cluster agreements, a thorough reflection took place to develop a new framework which put more emphasis on the strategic planning process of the cluster associations in order to better align cluster logic and regional priorities. •2009: There was a move to extend the policy to other activities, beginning a ‘pre-cluster policy’ to identify and develop new clusters. This new scheme was open to existing sectoral associations providing specialized services in markets or technology that voluntary wanted to extend their range of actions to become full cluster initiatives. Source: The Basque Country Competitiveness Report 2013. Productive transformation for the future. Orkestra
  • Outcome
  • 6 Competitive position Similar in: -Demographic structural aspects -Economic and technological specialisation -Business structure The Basque Country is in a better relative position in result indicators and determinants of competitiveness than in indicators of intermediate performance. Source: The Basque Country Competitiveness Report 2013. Productive transformation for the future. Orkestra
  • 7 Manufacturing sectors´ GVA evolution. Millions of current euros, %, 2005 and 2012 Impact of technological intensity 230 57 1,130 1,188 763 443 1,635 4,526 514 891 93 819 681 265 59 1,391 1,300 712 361 1,435 3,758 87 881 90 780 533 Computer products & electronics Pharmaceutical products Machinery & equipment Transport equipment Electrical equipment Chemical industry Rubber, plastic & other non-metallic Metallurgy and metal products Manufacture of coke and refined petroleumproducts Food industry, bevarages, tobacco products Textiles, clothing, leather and footwear Timber, paperand printing & reproduction Furniture and other manufacturing 2005 2012 Medium-high- technology industries Medium-low- technology industries Low-technology industries High-technology industries+15.5% +3.0% +23.1% +9.5% -6.6% -18.5% -12.2% -17.0% -83.1% -1.2% -4.0% -4.8% -21.8% The Basque Country is an innovation follower according to the Regional Innovation Scoreboard. Medium-low technology intensity activities (OECD 2011) represent the 45% of manufacturing GVA, medim-high technology industries the 34%, low technology industries 20% and high intensity industries reach up to 2%
  • 8 Energy Machine tools Electronics & ICT Environment Life Sciences Paper Forge & Stamping Metallurgy Casting Final user sectors Supplying sectors Household appliances Transport Furniture Hand tools Cluster based industrial structure for a manufacturing oriented approach The existing policy today supports 12 priority clusters associations and 10 pre-clusters. Financial support from the Government is around 2.5 M€/year. A key concern in undertaking a modernisation of the policy is with how best to use clusters to align Basque industry with a strategy of re-industrialization through upgrading the higher added value manufacturing activities
  • Cluster Policy 2.0
  • 10 • New challenges are pressing, related to the need to transform Basque industry towards higher-value and more radically innovative activities and to stem the renewed de-industrialisation processes of recent years. • We are in the task of reviewing not only the temporary scheme launch in 2009, but the very own role of clusters associations and development instruments as multipliers of competitiveness in the new scenario. • All of this points towards the need to modernise a cluster policy that has been in place for a long period of time and comes with considerable inertias. Now in 2014 we find ourselves at a critical moment for reflection and change. 26% 25% 24% 23% 19% 20% 20% 20% 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Percentage of manufacturing GVA GDP 51 54 59 61 58 59 60 59 CARG 05-12 -1.5% CARG 05-12 2.2% 24% 24% 24% 23% 22% 21% 21% 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Percentage of people employed in the manufacturing sector People employed 979 1,002 1,030 1,034 998 898 997 CARG 05-11 -2.7% CARG 05-12 0.0% Encouraging regional structural change through clusters
  • 11 The response to these challenges is strongly connected with an emergent RIS3 strategy that emphasises cross-cutting synergies that are no necessarily well-served by the existing cluster policy. •Main priorities meet different profile fields that together constitute a solid proposition, diversified and complementary. Priorities are not isolated elections, but a balanced strategy that combines a cross-cutting priority to various sectors in which the Basque Country has strong expertise and capacities (Advanced Manufacturing), and key sectorial area in the Basque Country (Energy) combined with commitment in a diversification field in search of a high-tech businesses with high growth potential (Biosciences). Bioscience s Advanced Manufacturing Energy BUSINESS SECTORS Health and ageing Energychallenge clean,cheap,forall, etc.. Clim ateChangeand Sustainability Urbanisation and Mobility AREAS OF OPPORTUNITY Biotecnol. Microtecnolog Nanotecnolog. Materials Means Processes Systems Tecnologies Advanced m anufacturing CPS ICT Materials SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICALCAPACITIES IN KEY ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES Health •Personalized Medicine •Medtech Energy •Generation •Transmission and distribution •Power electronics and capital goods •Commercialition Transport •Automotive •Aeronautics •Railroad •Naval Machine tool Metal Agro industry Environm ental Advanced services RIS3 priorities of the Basque Country CRITERIA FOR DEFINING SMART SPECIALISATION PRIORITIES IN THE BASQUE COUNTRY •Be supported by identifiable strengths: • A competitive business sector with the ability to exploit innovations and invest in their development. • Differential technological and scientific capabilities. •Address challenges in which Basque Country has capacity to provide knowledge-based solutions. •Count on support tools (strategies, support programmes, etc.).
  • 12 Advanced Manufacturing Health •Personalized Medicine •Medtech Energy •Generation •Transmission and distribution •Power electronics and capital goods •Commecialization Transport •Automotive •Aeronautics •Railroad •Naval Machine tool Meta l Agro industry Environm ental Advanced services BUSINESS SECTORS Health and ageing Energychallenge clean,cheap,forall, etc.. Clim ateChangeand Sustainability Urbanisation and Mobility AREAS OFOPPORTUNITY Biotecnol. Microtecnolog Nanotecnolog. Materials Means Processes Systems Tecnologies Advanced m anufacturing CPS ICT Materials SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICALCAPACITIES IN ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES Based on whole cross-sectorial coverage, on the strong industrial tradition in the Basque Country, on the compared strength of a diverse business sector and on the existence of important technological capabilities related to manufacturing. • High specialisation in the industrial sector (126% compared to UE 15), highlighting: metallurgy, transportation, machinery and equipment, energy, in general. Sectors with medium –level technology. • Greater productivity in industrial sector and larger weight in R&D • Existence of strong manufacturing clusters (automotive, aerospace, machine - tool ....), with an exporting profile and competitive (in terms of share of global exports). • Reality of a ICT and electronics cluster with potential capabilities to incorporate these cross sectorial technologies in manufacturing business sectors • Clusters with an "ecosystem“ comprised of SMEs, tractor companies, multinationals and scientific- technological agents. • Consistency in industrial policy and wide range of support tools. • Research capabilities in all types of agents of the RVCTI * • Main area in industrial strategic research projects in the last five years • High specialisation in Advanced Manufacturing of a number of Basque research centers ** • CIC marGUNE as a specific center oriented to the coordination of Advanced Manufacturing in the metal-mechanical field. • Higher concentration of R&D business units (about 55% of all business units accumulating 70% of business sector research in R&D units) • Experience incorporating enabling technologies in products and services • R&D + innovation Advanced Manufacturing strategy focused in areas such as automation, intelligence, materials, efficiency and emergent capabilities. • Sustainability-related elements that act as driver in the manufacturing industry: • Efficient use of resources • Process efficiency (in process design and energy) • Reducing the overall environmental impact of the activities • Creation and use of new materials • New ways of manufacturing (3D, …) • Smart mobility solutions adapted to the needs and lifestyle of the future • Design and manufacturing of products that enable sustainable and intelligent development of large urban agglomerations * RVCTI: Red Vasca de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación – Basque Science , Technology and Innovation Network ** In the analysis were included Tecnalia Corporation, IK4 Alliance and CICs. Advanced Manufacturing
  • 13 Advanced Manufacturing Agency R&D&I agents Advanced Manufacturing Technolgies Advanced Materials Nanotechnologies Microtechnologies ICTBiotechnology Unidades I+D empr. Final user sectors Energy Life Sciences Other sectors Transport Materials production Production means and systems Supplying sectors Primary transformation Advanced services Advanced Manufacturing. Cluster integration
  • 14 Strategic goals SG5. To support education and practical training in technology and management systems related to advanced manufacturing SG1. To help basque companies to move towards more knowledge intensive and higher value-added manufacturing activities SG4. To promote collaboration and support to accelerate the industrialization of R&D&i results in Manufacturing SG2. To promote a structured multidisciplinary and technological convergence to develop manufacturing capabilities and "best in class“ solutions, optimizing existing resources SG3. To integrate value chains in order to meet the advanced manufacturing challenges by adding the unique capabilities of each sector and its companies kets global value chains scaling up social innovation added value Advanced Manufacturing. The challenge To buid bridges between different value chains and better exploit the transformative potential of cross-cutting technologies
  • 15 A sectorial choice that seeks to strengthen a industrial sector that combines all links in the value chain, globally competitive, and that must find answers to highly strategic challenges that provide opportunities at local and international level. • The energy sector is a key field, representing more than 6% of the total GVA of the Basque Country (17% of the industrial sector). • The energy sector has 8 of the 25 largest companies in the Basque Country. It also comprises more than 350 companies and R&D agents. • Sector with significant presence abroad, export share and research activity. • Basque companies oriented to global market niches with a relatively attractive competitive position. • The existence of Energibasque strategy oriented to coordinate technological and industrial development, and various support tools. This strategy focuses in areas where capabilities and potential are combined: smart grids, energy storage, wind energy, thermal energy, tidal / wave power, transport electrification. • Energy companies generate 35% of revenues in the Basque Country, whilst retaining 58% of its R&D activity. Energy Health and ageing Energy challenge clean,cheap, forall,etc.. Clim ateChange and SustainabilityUrbanisatio n and Mobility AREAS OFOPPORTUNITY Biotecnol. Microtecnolo g Nanotecnolog. Materials Means Processes Systems Tecnologies Advanced m anufacturing CPS ICT Materials SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICALCAPACITIES IN ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES Health •Personalized Medicine •Medtech Energy •Generation •Transmission and distribution •Power electronics and capital goods •Commecialization Transport •Automotive •Aeronautics •Railroad •Naval Machin e toola Metal Agro industry Environ mental Advanced services BUSINESS SECTORS • Research capabilities in all types of agents of the RVCTI • Main focus market in strategic research projects (18% of centres and CICs researchers are devoted to this sector) • R&D effort of business sector • Basque Country has a number of technology centres specialised in Energy and cooperative research centre, CIC Energigune dedicated to research in energy storage. • R&D business units (20% approx.) linked to Energy. • Challenges related to a cleaner and safer energy, but also a cheaper one: • Evolution of renewable energies • Energy storage • Opportunities resulting from the automatization of distribution network and energy transport. (smart grids) • Solutions to ensure universal access to energy. • Efficient and sustainable energy solutions for mobility and urban agglomerations. • Efficient use of energy resources concerning demand. Energy
  • 16 STRATEGY, STRUCTURE &RIVALRY ENTITIES FOR COLABORATION GOVERNMENT FACTOR CONDITIONS DEMAND CONDITIONS RELATED AND SUPPORTED INDUSTRY Energy. Consolidated Cluster
  • 17 17 Public – Private Coordination Sectoral positioning analysis Outreach R&D International isation Education Resources Associates Basque Government Other segments of interest ACTIVITIES VALUE PROPOSITION ADRESSED SEGMENTS Innovation International strategy Value chain integration Energy. The challenge The World Class Cluster business model - Regional integration: - Customised SME support - Driving companies anchorage - Local added value to multinationals - International strategy: - Cross-border bridge building - Cross-sectoral collaboration: - Specialization patterns diversification - Near-market cluster-led demonstrators: - De-risking the scaling-up - User-driven approach - Bringing together all relevant public and private players
  • 18 Based on a sustained commitment where important investments have been made in the creation of new high-level skills that open “windows of opportunity” in new economic sectors and market niches for existing businesses and start-ups. • It is an emerging activity with rapid growth in the number of companies, and with some examples of success an creation of business groups within the sector, with international presence. • Companies with a high component of R&D. • Orientation to human health, and with minor application to food industry and industrial / environmental industry, and opportunities to deepen in its application in this fields. • There are opportunities for diversification of certain industrial base traditional sectors (machine tool, rubber and plastic, metal components, etc.). Bio Sciences Health and ageing Energy challenge clean,cheap,for all,etc.. Clim ateChange and SustainabilityUrbanisation and Mobility AREAS OFOPPORTUNITY Biotecnol. Microtecnolog Nanotecnolo g. Materials Means Processes Systems Tecnologies Advanced m anufacturing CPS ICT Materials SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICALCAPACITIES IN ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES Health •Personalized Medicine •Medtech Energy •Generation •Transmission and distribution •Power electronics and capital goods •Commercialization Transport •Automotive •Aeronautics •Railroad •Naval Machine tool Metal Agro industry Environ mental Advanced services BUSINESS SECTORS • Facilitate health management (prevention, diagnosis, personalisation in care and treatment, incorporating new technologies, etc..), to address issues related to progressive ageing of population. • Promoting the sustainability of health systems to meet the demands and requirements of people. • Contribute to the improvement of quality of life through other elements (not specifically healthcare) • New environmental management techniques • Design of more efficient and sustainable industrial processes. • Significant results generating new world-class capabilities related to biotechnology and nanotechnology. • Creation of specialised centres: CIC bioGUNE, CIC biomaGUNE, CIC nanoGUNE, CIC microGUNE. • Improving and strengthening the research and traction capacity of the health system. • Orientation of micro-technology activity to the health sector. • Use of materials technologies for development of new products in health sector. • Agri-food research centres that have incorporated enabling technologies in their development. Biosciences
  • 19 19 Service Provision Diagnostics Therapeutics Other Medical devices Advanced materials Software Biosciences. Emerging cluster
  • 20 Biosciences . The challenge Taking into account the specific features of emerging industries, such as high technological intensity, global market orientation, mostly newly based companies and capital intensive businesses, cluster services should address: • Intellectual property protection • Professional investor analysis • Design of bundled offerings • Access to international markets • Out / In-licensing • Leverage capacities to outsourcers • Cross pollination Shaping the value chain
  • 21 CRISTINA OYON Responsable de Iniciativas Estratégicas Head of Strategic Initiatives Alda. de Urquijo nº 36 48011 BILBAO Bizkaia Tel.: 944037055 cristina@spri.es www.spri.es
  • SMART SPECIALISATION STRATEGYSMART SPECIALISATION STRATEGY IN TOSCANAIN TOSCANA EMANUELE FABBRI Laboratorio RIS3: La smart specialisation come strategia per lo sviluppo dell'economia regionale Firenze 10/07/2014
  • Orientamenti comunitariOrientamenti comunitari
  • Orientamenti comunitariOrientamenti comunitari
  • Verso la RIS3 in Toscana (1/2)Verso la RIS3 in Toscana (1/2)
  • Verso la RIS3 in Toscana (2/2)Verso la RIS3 in Toscana (2/2)
  • Versione preliminareVersione preliminare DGR n.478/2014DGR n.478/2014
  • PrioritPrioritàà tecnologichetecnologiche “..bacini di competenze nei quali la Toscana esprime eccellenze scientifiche, competenze tecnologiche, infrastrutture di ricerca ed un tessuto produttivo in grado di valorizzare specifici investimenti strategici con ampie ricadute sul territorio.” Priorità ICT e Fotonica Priorità Fabbrica Intelligente Priorità Chimica e nanotecnologia
  • Roadmap Ricerca e sviluppoRoadmap Ricerca e sviluppo Priorità ICT e Fotonica Internet of the things and services; Fotonica ed ICT per applicazioni medicali, industriali, civili; Applicazioni fotoniche e ICT per aerospazio. Priorità Fabbrica Intelligente Sviluppo soluzioni di automazione e meccatronica per il sistema manifatturiero; Sviluppo soluzioni energetiche; Sviluppo soluzioni robotiche multisettoriali. Priorità Chimica e nanotecnologia Sviluppo soluzioni tecnologiche integrate per la salute (nano/opto/farma); Sviluppo nuovi materiali per il manifatturiero; Sviluppo soluzioni per l’ambiente ed il territorio.
  • Roadmap InnovazioneRoadmap Innovazione Priorità ICT e Fotonica: Applicazioni e servizi per la città intelligente; Piattaforme e servizi per il turismo e commercio; Piattaforme e servizi per l’industria ed il trasferimento tecnologico; Priorità Fabbrica Intelligente: Processi ecosostenibili; Soluzioni di progettazione avanzata; Trasferimento tecnologico tra robotica medicale, bio-robotica, applicazioni multisettoriali; Priorità Chimica e nanotecnologia: Innovazione ed implementazione soluzioni tecnologiche sui nuovi materiali in ambito manifatturiero; Innovazione ed implementazione soluzioni tecnologhe per la prevenzione, diagnosi e cura della persona; Innovazione ed implementazione soluzioni tecnologiche per l’ambiente il territorio e l’agricoltura sostenibile;
  • Interventi di sistemaInterventi di sistema Priorità ICT e Fotonica: Diffusione della banda larga; Sostegno all'offerta di servizi on-line interoperabili integrati della P.A. – piattaforme digitali Interventi a sostegno dello scambio di servizi qualificati (KIBS); Potenziamento del sistema di incubazione ed infrastrutture di trasferimento tecnologico Sviluppo soluzioni di mobilità urbana sostenibile; Valorizzazione patrimonio culturale e sistema museale; Sviluppo piattaforme ICT per la promozione e il miglioramento dell’offerta turistica e servizi turistici; Priorità Fabbrica Intelligente: Diffusione della banda larga (Agenda digitale); Sostegno all'offerta di servizi on-line interoperabili integrati della P.A. – piattaforme digitali Interventi a sostegno dello scambio di servizi qualificati (KIBS); Potenziamento del sistema di incubazione ed infrastrutture di trasferimento tecnologico; Sviluppo soluzioni di efficientamento energetico e di riconversione industriale; Sviluppo soluzioni organizzative per il recupero della materia; Priorità Chimica e Nanotecnologia: Integrazioni e partnership per lo sviluppo di tecnologie integrate per la salute; Integrazioni e partnership per lo sviluppo di tecnologie integrate per l’ambiente il territorio e l’agricoltura sostenibile ed intelligente; Interventi a sostegno dello scambio di servizi qualificati (KIBS); Potenziamento del sistema di incubazione ed infrastrutture di trasferimento tecnologico;
  • Introduzione del concetto di impresa dinamica; Introduzione del concetto di investimento strategico; Concentrazione tematica delle attività di ricerca e sviluppo; Demarcazione tra innovazione e ricerca; Adozione di iniziative di sistema; Individuazione di specifici interventi di contesto; Filiere interne e domanda interna; Agenda Digitale come parte integrante della RIS3; RIS3: elementi caratterizzantiRIS3: elementi caratterizzanti
  • RIS3: cluster policy e mercatiRIS3: cluster policy e mercati internazionaliinternazionali Razionalizzazione del sistema del trasferimento tecnologico - Divulgazione tecnologica; - Intelligenza economica; - Business matching. Massima integrazione delle politiche - Poli di innovazione e servizi qualificati; - Catalogo servizi qualificati con servizi per l’internazionalizzazione; - Opportunità per integrazione interventi FSE e FESR; Partnership con i sistema del credito -Maggiore facilità di capitalizzazione dei risultati della ricerca;
  • Grazie per l’attenzione! emanuele.fabbri@regione.toscana.it Laboratorio RIS3: La smart specialisation come strategia per lo sviluppo dell'economia regionale Firenze 10/07/2014
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Laboratorio RIS3 Firenze, 10 luglio 2014
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni Agenda 1. Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita 2. La metrica dell’innovazione 3. La situazione dell’Italia 4. L’innovazione in Toscana
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni Il declino: fatti stilizzati Nell’ultimo ventennio la dinamica del PIL in Italia `e stata inferiore a quella di altri paesi industrializzati. Il ritardo nel PIL `e imputabile pi`u all’andamento del PIL pro capite che a quello della popolazione. Il ritardo nel PIL pro capite `e imputabile pi`u al prodotto per occupato che al tasso di occupazione e alla quota di popolazione in et`a da lavoro. Il ritardo nel prodotto per occupato dipende solo parzialmente dalla dotazione di capitale per addetto. In ultima istanza il ritardo nel PIL `e legato alla dinamica della produttivit`a totale dei fattori, a sua volta funzione del progresso tecnico.
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni Il legame tra innovazione e produttivit`a Early work on the sources of productivity growth revealed that growth in capital and labor explained less than half of such growth in the United States and many other countries. The remainder (the “residual”) was ascribed to technical change and a large literature grew up that attempted to find measures for technical change (improvements in capital and labor quality, R&D activities, and so forth) and use these measures to try to explain the residual growth in productivity. Innovation and Productivity, NBER Working Paper Bronwyn H. Hall
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni L’idea di innovazione: confini e tassonomia Definizione operativa (Oslo manual): “the implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service), or process, a new marketing method, or a new organisational method in business practice, workplace organisation or external relations”. Idea: l’attivit`a innovativa `e condotta dalle imprese e dal settore pubblico, si svolge in un determinato contesto (environment), richiede uno sforzo (input) e produce un risultato (output).
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni L’idea di innovazione: le dimensioni Environment Capitale umano: diffusione titoli di studio, qualit`a della didattica e della ricerca universitaria. ICT: diffusione e costi accesso a Internet, uso dell’ICT da parte di famiglie, imprese e PA. Regolazione: costi e tempi per l’avvio di nuove attivit`a, protezione degli investitori, enforcing dei contratti (efficienza del sistema giudiziario). Finanza: presenza di intermediari specializzati (venture capitalist, business angel), accesso ai mercati borsistici. Input Composizione della forza lavoro Networking con altri soggetti privati o pubblici Spesa R&D privata e pubblica Output Diffusione di imprese innovative Adozione di strumenti per la protezione della propriet`a intellettuale
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni Il confronto internazionale Dove “perdiamo”: Diffusione e utilizzo del web Contesto regolamentare Strumenti finanziari Istruzione forza lavoro Networking Spesa (privata) in R&D Dove “pareggiamo”: Quantit`a e qualit`a dei research paper Diffusione di imprese innovative Marchi e design Benvenuti, Casolaro e Gennari, Occasional paper, Banca d’Italia, 2013.
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni Radici e possibili rimedi Punti di intervento: Frammentazione sistema produttivo: dimensione aziendale ostacolo ad assumere costi e rischi R&D. Carenza di capitale umano: nelle funzioni manageriali, nella ricerca; eccessiva flessibilit`a ostacolo agli investimenti in formazione. Carenza di risorse finanziarie: scarsamente diffuso il capitale azionario. Modesti risultati dalle risorse pubbliche: necessit`a di migliorare disegno e gestione degli incentivi. Bugamelli, Cannari, Lotti e Magri Occasional paper, Banca d’Italia, 2012. http://www.bancaditalia.it/studiricerche/convegni/atti/ innovation-in-Italy
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni La situazione in Toscana Il quadro `e analogo a quello italiano: La spesa in R&D `e limitata; vi incide il peso ridotto di settori ad alta tecnologia. L’impiego di fondi europei `e, in termini pro capite, pi`u elevato della media nazionale. Una impresa su tre ha introdotto innovazione di prodotto o di processo. Protezione della propriet`a intellettuale: Brevetti: meno dell’Italia, ma dipende dalla struttura. Marchi: meno dell’Italia, a causa di una minore propensione. Design: pi`u dell’Italia, ma solo per la struttura, non per la propensione.
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni Questioni aperte L’applicazione della metrica all’Italia conduce a una valutazione largamente insoddisfacente, da tanti punti di vista, della capacit`a di innovare del sistema economico. La via d’uscita (autoindulgente) poggia su due spiegazioni vicine tra loro: S`ı, ma data la specializzazione settoriale la nostra innovazione `e differente. Quanto `e convincente la storia dell’innovazione incrementale? S`ı, ma la nostra capacit`a competitiva si fonda su elementi diversi da quelli qui misurati. Quanto `e (ancora) convincente la storia del volo del calabrone? In generale la lettura della capacit`a innovativa - e la connessa attivit`a di policy - dovrebbe porsi laicamente rispetto all’assenza attuale di un paradigma prevalente di sviluppo.
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni Grazie per l’attenzione
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni Scomposizione del PIL PIL = PIL popolazione · popolazione PIL popolazione = PIL occupati · occupati pop.attiva · pop.attiva popolazione PIL occupati = progresso tecnico · capitale occupati a
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni La produttivit`a Figura 9.1 Dinamiche della produttività nei maggiori paesi dell’area dell’euro: totale economia (indici 1993=100) (a) produttività del lavoro (1) (b) produttività totale dei fattori (2) 90 100 110 120 130 140 '93 '95 '97 '99 '01 '03 '05 '07 '09 '11 Italia 90 100 110 120 130 140 '93 '95 '97 '99 '01 '03 '05 '07 '09 '11 Fonte: Eurostat, National accounts e Ocse. (1) Valore aggiunto ai prezzi base per ore lavorate; quantità a prezzi concatenati; cfr. nell’Appendice la sezione: Note metodologiche. – (2) Contributo alla crescita del prodotto, non spiegato dalle dinamiche dei fattori lavoro e capitale; cfr. nell’Appendice la sezione: Note metodologiche. Tali dinamiche sono il risultato di varie determinanti. Analisi su dati dell’OCSE indicano che, in Italia, il contributo derivante dalla riallocazione della produzione verso le imprese e i settori più efficienti è inferiore rispetto agli altri principali paesi avanzati, a causa di una più restrittiva regolamentazione dei mercati dei beni, dei servizi e dei fattori produttivi e di un contesto istituzionale meno favorevole all’attività imprenditoriale.
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni Web: diffusione e utilizzo IT FR GE SP SW Web access indicators % of broadband subscribers (left) % of individuals using Internet (left) Fixed subscription cost (% of GPD PC, right) 0102030405060708090100 00.20.40.60.811.21.4 IT FR GE SP SW Web usage indicator ICT use and government efficiency Impact of ICT on accesses to basic services Extent of business Internet use 01234567 01234567
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni Contesto regolamentareITFRGESPSW Doing business areas (world ranking) Overall Starting a business Getting credit Protecting investors Enforcing contracts 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 ITFRGESPSW Doing business areas (world ranking) Resolving insolvency Paying taxes Trading across borders Registering property Dealing with construction permits Getting electricity 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni Finanza per l’innovazione IT FR GE SP SW Venture capital and business angels Venture capital, % GDP (left) Business angels, no. (right) 00.0250.050.0750.10.125 0153045607590 IT FR GE SP Stock capitalization (% GDP) 01530456075 01530456075
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni Forza lavoro: istruzione e addetti R&D IT FR GE SP SW Work force: graduates and R&D personnel Graduates, % (left) R&D personnel, % (right) 0510152025303540 02.557.51012.51517.520 IT FR GE SP SW R&D personnel by sector (%) All sectors Business enterprise Government Higher education 00.511.522.53 00.511.522.53
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni Networking IT FR GE SP SW Enterprises engaged in cooperation (%) Any form Consultants, comm. labs, private R&D Universities, higher education inst. Government, public research inst. 0510152025303540 0510152025303540 IT FR GE SP SW Co-publications 0500010000150002000025000 0500010000150002000025000
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni Spesa in R&D e fonti di innovazione IT FR GE SP SW HERD financed by industry (%) 02.557.51012.515 02.557.51012.515 IT FR GE SP Sources of innovation (%) Within enterprise/group Suppliers Customers Competitors 0102030405060 0102030405060
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni Produzione di ricerca universitaria IT FR GE SP SW Universities in top 500 0510152025303540 0510152025303540 IT FR GE SP SW Research paper indicators Number of pubblication (x1,000, left) Citations per document (right) 0255075100125150 00.250.50.7511.251.51.752
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni Diffusione imprese innovative IT FR GE SP SW Enterprises engaged in innovative activity (%) Overall Small Medium Large 0102030405060708090100 0102030405060708090100 IT FR GE SP SW Enterprises engaged in technological innovative activity (%) Overall Small Medium Large 0102030405060708090 0102030405060708090
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni Protezione propriet`a intellettuale IT FR GE SP SW Patents Patents per 100,000 workers (left) Triadic patents, % (right) 050100150200250300 036912 IT FR GE SP SW Trademarks and industrial designs Trademarks per 1,000,000 pop. (left) Industrial designs per 1,000,000 pop. (right) 050100150200250300 0255075100125150175
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni R&D Ciò è dovuto alla minore presenza in settori a più alta concentrazione di ricerca e svi- luppo: secondo l’Archivio statistico delle imprese attive (ASIA) dell’Istat la percen- tuale di addetti in settori ad alta tecnologia è in Toscana largamente inferiore a quella del Centro (2,4 per cento, contro il 4,3). Analogamente, gli investimenti in ricerca e sviluppo nel 2009 rappresentavano l’1,2 per cento del prodotto, un valore inferiore alla media del Centro (fig. 1.5b). Figura 1.5 Input del processo di innovazione (valori percentuali) (a) Ricercatori e addetti ricerca e sviluppo (1) (b) Spesa in ricerca e sviluppo (2) 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 Quota ricercatori Quota addetti R&S 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 Toscana Centro Italia 0,0 0,4 0,8 1,2 1,6 R&S imprese R&S pubblica R&S totale 0,0 0,4 0,8 1,2 1,6 Toscana Centro Italia Fonte: Eurostat. Cfr. la sezione: Note metodologiche. (1) Quota sul totale addetti; dati riferiti al 2010. – (2) In percentuale del PIL; dati riferiti al 2010. I progetti realizzati a livello nazionale e regionale con l’utilizzo di fondi europei rappresentano un importante strumento di finanziamento pubblico dell’attività inno- vativa delle imprese, singolarmente o in partnership con enti di ricerca pubblici e pri- vati. Utilizzando la banca dati OpenCoesione del Ministero dello Sviluppo economi- co (cfr. la sezione: Note metodologiche), emerge che la regione è stata destinataria per il periodo di programmazione 2007-2013 del finanziamento di 828 progetti, per un ammontare totale di risorse pubbliche pari a circa 410 milioni di euro (tav. a16).
  • L’attivit`a innovativa in Toscana Michele Benvenuti Banca d’Italia - Sede di Firenze Innovazione, produttivit`a e crescita La metrica dell’innovazione La situazione dell’Italia L’innovazione in Toscana Conclusioni Protezione propriet`a intellettuale Tra il 2003 e il 2011 le imprese industriali e delle costruzioni toscane hanno presentato 6.973 domande di registrazione di design presso l’UAMI, una media di circa 15,1 domande per 1.000 addetti. L’intensità di produzione è superiore sia alle re- gioni del Centro, sia a quella dell’intero paese (rispettivamente, 13,3 e 13,5). Le do- mande provengono per quasi l’85 per cento dall’industria tradizionale. Tavola 1.1 Scomposizione della differenza nell’intensità innovativa (1) (valori percentuali) AREA Differenza dalla media nazionale Effetto efficienza Effetto struttura Effetto allocativo Brevetti per migliaia di addetti Toscana -0,53 0,09 -0,48 -0,14 Centro -0,46 -0,10 -0,32 -0,04 Marchi per migliaia di addetti Toscana -0,25 -0,49 0,55 -0,31 Centro -0,56 0,46 -0,82 -0,20 Design per migliaia di addetti Toscana 1,52 -1,41 3,10 -0,17 Centro -0,25 -1,17 1,12 -0,20 Fonte: elaborazione su dati Istat, Patstat e Unioncamere – Dintec, Osservatorio brevetti, marchi e design. Cfr. la sezione: Note metodo- logiche. (1) La scomposizione effettuata sui brevetti include soltanto quelli depositati dalle imprese. L’intensità del ricorso a brevetti, marchi e design è fortemente influenzata dalla struttura settoriale. La tavola 1.1 riporta la differenza tra il dato regionale per addetto e quello nazionale scomposto in tre parti: l’effetto efficienza, che misura la capacità innovativa della regione assumendo la composizione settoriale dell’Italia, l’effetto struttura (industry mix), che è dovuto alla specifica composizione settoriale regionale, e quello allocativo, che misura la correlazione tra i primi due effetti. Nel caso dei bre-