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SmartCityStudio organized a pressure cooker session with various public departments of the city of Sao Pauo and Urbanism offices from Brazil and the Netherlands in order to develop cross sectoral ...

SmartCityStudio organized a pressure cooker session with various public departments of the city of Sao Pauo and Urbanism offices from Brazil and the Netherlands in order to develop cross sectoral urban plans for three sites in Sao Paulo. This booklet illustrates the proces and gives an overview of the experiences.

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Studio são paulo magazine eng hq Document Transcript

  • 1. Studio São PauloProjects and reflections of a 5-daypressure cooker design studio
  • 2. Studio São Paulo2The proverbial egg for Studio SãoPaulo was laid in the Netherlands,amongst five offices in strategicurban planning and design.In the Netherlands they oftenmeet eachother in competitionentries where they dispute eachother for projects. The peopleknow eachother a bit and in factadmire eachother often for theirinventivenes. Although fromdifferent sizes and ages, the officesshare the ability to think thoughthe scales in strategic plans. Theneutral context of São Pauloprovided a great opportunity to getto know eachother better.All participatingoffices had somelinks to Braziland São Pauloespecially. Be itprofessionally,academically orpersonally. Withthis idea of closecollaboration andopen exchange of thoughts StudioSão Paulo started. We agreed thatthe best way to really understandthe contemporary challenges forany city is in a hands-on way. Inother words: collaborating to workon actual questions.Studio São Pauloby Jaap KlaarenbeekJaap Klaarenbeek and Rogier vanden Berg visited São Paulo inMay 2011 to meet people fromvarious governmental institutions,ministeries, universities,developers and urban designoffices. Ultimately, three cases wereset up in collaboration with four ofSão Paulo’s municipal departments:SEHAB/COHAB, SP Urbanismo,SMDU and the Secretario de Verdee Meio Ambiente. Together thecases on the historical center,brownfields and peripheral ‘fundosde vale’ give a broad insight inthe urban dynamics of Sao Paulotoday. Studio São Paulo worked onall three cases with the ambitionto think together about integratedplanning strategies. For each of thethree typical cases Studio Sao Paulosearched for specific solutions thatcan be exemplary for approchesin other parts of the city, andhopefully, maybe even translated toenrich the Dutch practice.Three formidable Paulistan officesjoined Studio São Paulo to completethe team. With a high spirit ofcollaboration and exchange StudioSão Paulo took off.Early October 2011 five Dutch and three Paulistan urbanism officesparticipated in Studio São Paulo. In a pressure cooker design studioStudio São Paulo combined experience and creative urban thinkingof both sides of the Atlantic to generate inventive concepts forseveral contemporary urban challenges in São Paulo in which social,economical and ecological issues converge in spatial cases.This booklet presents a concise report of Studio São Paulo, with anintroduction, presentations of the cases and personal reflections.We agreed that the best wayto really understand thecontemporary challengesfor any city is in a hands-on way. In other words: bycollaborative work on actualquestions.
  • 3. Studio São Paulo3ContentStudio Sao Paulo 2by Jaap KlaarenbeekHow to read (Summary) 4by Jaap KlaarenbeekNL meets São Paulo 6Two changing urban planning paradigmsThree Cases for Studio São Paulo 8Center, Brownfields, PeripheryCase 1: Innercity Rejuvenation 10From individual buildings to urban thinkingCase 2: Brownfields; Heliopolis & Vila Carioca 14From Housing to CityCase 3: Periphery and ‘fundos de vale’ 18Pro-flowSao Paulo moving in the right direction 22by Gert UrhahnMaking cities for people 24by Ricardo Correa Sticky as a Brigadeiro 25By Kria DjoyoadhiningratOrdem e progresso 26by Matthijs Bouw, Han Dijk, Bart AptrootSão Paulo complete, sometimes forgotten 30by Heidi KleinSão Paulo Downtown Re-occupation 32by Renata SeminOn public value 34by Bernardina Borra, Gert Urhahn,Luis Pompeo, Tiago OakleyHousing as a driver for good public space 38by Rogier van den BergScreaming vacancy 40by Bart AptrootA permananent Studio São Paulo? 42by Jaap Klaarenbeek & Kria Djoyoadhiningrat Colophon 46
  • 4. Studio São Paulo4Studio São Paulo magazine introducesthe main drives and ideas behind StudioSão Paulo, presents the cases, drawsreflections and makes a proposition for acontinuous Studio São Paulo.In a first article Jaap Klaarenbeek discusseswhat we embarked for to learn fromSão Paulo. This is followed by a shortintroduction of the three cases and thedescriptions of the projects developedduring the five-day workshop.The team for case 1 – the city centre -proposes a placemaking strategy forrehabilitationg of the city center, and advisesSEHAB/COHAB to use their powerfull tool ofbuying and refurbishing houses, not on thecurrently used basis of costs-effectivenessof the individual refurbishments, but ‘thinkmore urban’ in the selection of where torefurbish.Working on the Petrobras site near favelaHeliopolis, the team for the second proposesto preserve large part of the still emptysite as a park and to ‘make city, instead ofhousing’. This way valorizing the green anddesifying the nearby Vila Carioca with socialhousing integrate in the neigborhood.The team working on case 3, the Jaçu-RioVerde valley, noticed that the Secretario’sstrategy to transform some of the clogged upwaterways into linear parks is very difficultto execute. They are planned as a masterplanbut not phased in such a way. In their viewfocus should be on the linear and not onthe parks, making networks. They proposeto create a planning logic that is phased ininterconnected sections. The surroundingcity adopts and creates these sections. Thenetwork combines it.The second part of the booklet complementsthe projects with personal reflections andexperiences. First, Renata Semin presentsthe ideas of her office Piratininga arquitetoson how to apply the thoughts/strategiesgenerated during Studio São Paulo for theentire central region. Gert Urhahn (UrhahnUrban Design) reflects on being back in SãoPaulo after 15 years, and makes a hopefulcomparison between positive urban changein Amsterdam and São Paulo. Matthijs Bouw(One Architecture) and Han Dijk (POSAD)reflect on how current local, opportunisticand short term projects can be thought suchthat they will contribute to the long termplanning goals for the city. In a joint articleUrhahn Urban Design and 23sul arquitetosdwell on how to create public value using‘open development’ working cooperative anduser oriented.Heidi Klein urban culture around theAnhangabau valley. Rogier van den Bergexplains how housing guidelines can lead tobetter and more accessible and secure publicspace.Kria Djoijoadhiningrat (Studio ROSA) takesa lesson to the Netherlands from the ‘upsidedown’ planning of the Paulistan byciclenetwork. How ‘just doing’ can generatea culture shift, responsibility and publicparticipation.Ricardo Correa, director of TC Urbes,makes a case for more international designcollaboration, as well as a general call to hisBrazilian colleagues for more collaborativedesign that included users in the designphase so as to get more consensus, mutualunderstanding and better plans. Finally, BartAptroot calls for crowd-sourcing and ideacompetitions to generate good examples andset positive change in motion.The report concludes with a joint call forBrazilian ‘makers of the city’. A call for acontinuous Studio São Paulo.How to read (Summary)by Jaap Klaarenbeek
  • 5. Studio São Paulo5
  • 6. Studio São Paulo6The Dutch have a long historyof urban planning and design.Brazilians in turn do not have atypical urban planning or urbandesign culture. Yet, they do havea lot of urban. Most of Brazilscity’s –and São Paulo expecially -have gone though such an urbanexplosion that the city continouslysuperceded almost every attemptto planning or design. But timesare changing...In the Netherlands the planningfrenzy of the 90’s and begin of the21st century has come to a hold as acombined result of a cultural shift inthinking about planning and financialdownturn. VINEX-neighborhoods, thelarge scale urban expansions of the90’s, are receiving critiques for beingmuch too focussed on residentialpurposes only. Post-war housingneighborhoods, on their turn, areasking for attention due to currentsocial problems. Their mono-functionalplanning attracted a thin socio-economical layer of society. Dutchurban planners and designers aresearching how to create more diversityand freedom of private companies andindividuals to build and use their plotas they wish. To build more socially,economically andecologically resilient cities.At the same time budgets aretightening and government iswithdrawing as the one and onlystrongest agent in urban planning.With smaller budgets the Dutchplanning practice is searching how togenerate wished effects with cheaperand more focussed interventions.Illustrative is the renaming ofthe former ‘Ministry of Housing,Spatial Planning and Environment’.With its new name as ‘Ministry ofInfrastructure & Environment’ theministry has lost its direct reference tothe spatial dimension and will in thefuture only focus on those spatial plansessential to sustain the economicalcarriers of the Netherlands (and thosethemes that are considered as nationalinterest). A radical paradigm shift.While the Dutch planning pratice isweakening urban planning and designin Brazil are on the rise.NL meets São Paulo: two changingurban planning paradigmsby Jaap KlaarenbeekWhile the Dutch planningpratice is weakening urbanplanning and design inBrazil are on the rise.
  • 7. Studio São Paulo7Blessed with an economical tailwindand a flattening populational growth,popular and political conviction todiminish the dire social differences inSão Paulo seem to have grown strongerthan ever in recent years. This hasn’tresulted in the instant disappearanceof problems. Off course not. Challengesremain big. But the current situationat least allows the possibility totake a breath and think. For the firsttime in decades, maybe even sincea century, there are possiblities toplan improvements instead of ad hocproblem solving urban ‘planning’.For whoever visits the cityconcequences of the convitions toimprove the city are visible everywhere;in- and outside of the planning offices.The new Rodoanel, brand new metrostations, a new centre in the east aroundthe new World Cup stadium, SEHAB’simpressive urbanization and socialhousing efforts, innercity rejuvenationplans, participative planningexperiments, new bus corridors,ambitious plans for parks and cyclingroutes.The ‘Plano Estrategico Director’,the strategic masterplan of the citybinds together the most importantplans for the city’s future. Duringthe conversations in our preparationvisit we found that from the Dutchperspective it was difficult to see thecity’s strategical masterplan as an‘integrated plan’. Essentially, the plan isa collection of juxtaposed partialplans. The one plan laid over the other.In practice – we understood – theplan sometimes becomes a virtualdeclaration of war between municipaldepartments as social housing,mobility and environmental projectsare planned on the same spot. Withouta matched/balanced vision. Result?The bulldozer of the one departmentliterally driving into the bulldozer of theother department. ‘São Paulo has a lot ofplans, but no vision’ weheard from others.During the variouspreparationalconversations, wewere in fact slightlyrequested to forcecollaboration betweenthe departments duringthe workshop to see ifwe could make smallattempts to reach ‘real’integrated plans. All in all, the call tofocus the Studio São Paulo workshopon integrated planning essentially waspushed forward during the meetingswith the Brazilians we spoke duringour preparation visit.So, while Dutch are trying to escapetheir self-created stranglehold of publicplanning in seach for more freedomof private initiatives and São Paulo isalingning fragmented dreams, plans andhard political targets to reach a moreeffective and balanced urban planningframework, we met in Studio São Pauloto see what these worlds could learnfrom each other.During the variouspreparational conversations,we were slightly requested toforce collaboration betweendepartments during theworkshop to see if we couldmake an attempt to make‘real’ integrated plans.
  • 8. 12Studio São Paulo8Case 1Innercity RejuvenationThe historical Center, focusses on new strategieshow to redifine Sao Paulo’s historical city center.Although many subcenters have popped up duringrecent decades, the historical center still is a verystrong centrality. It remains the strongest polefor commerce and business. It is the cities majortransport hub and location of governmentaldepartments and institutes.Yet, by many Paulistans the center is seen as adangerous place which is desolate at night. Thecenter hosts thousands of derilict and emptybuildings. Although it is well connected, it hasto cope with enormous problems of congestion.There is a strong informal trade, while large scalespeculations impede large scale refurbishment andfacelift of the center. What is the ambition? What arethe currently applied projects and strategies? Arethey able to start the process of regeneration? Whoare the actors and what can be their role and benefit?How can we bring back an all day accessible centerfor all Paulistans?Three cases for Studio São Pauloby Jaap KlaarenbeekStudio São Paulo selected three cases to work on during theOctober 2011 workshop. Together the cases on the historical center,brownfields and periphery give a broad insight in the urban dynamicsof Sao Paulo today. Studio São Paulo worked on all three cases withthe ambition to think together about integrated planning strategies.For each of the three typical cases Studio Sao Paulo aimed to come tospecific spatial solutions that can be exemplary.Case 2:Brownfields – New CenterLarge tracts of industrial zones that arelocated strategically along the north-south railway lines are coming availablefor development. São Paulo has theambition to intensify these areas forthousands of Paulistans to live. But howto steer and stimulate this process? Howcan this barrier sew the central and eastSão Paulo together and can the areabecome more than just a ‘collection ofprofitable lots along the railway’. Thebrownfields along the railway lines nowoccupy strategic positions within theurban field. They are potential
  • 9. 3Studio São Paulo9Case 3:Periphery - Fundos de ValeThe third case focusses on the integrateddevelopment of a linear park in the vasteastern periphery of São Paulo. The socalled ‘fundo de vales’, or translatedin English, the lower valleys, areomnipresent in Sao Paulo. The valleyspose important challenges all overSao Paulo. As the lowest points in thelandscape, they are the natural locationsfor streams and rivers. Due to intensiveurbanization, many of these streamshave become the locations for (largescale) infrastructure. At some placesthe ‘fundos’ are not yet canalized andbeautifull nature is still to be found there,but most other stretches are occupied bydwellers that live in precarious housingalong polluted streams. This leads toenormous problems during rainfallwhen the water rises and the city’smain infrastructure becomes clogged.The ‘fundos’ could be attractive publiclinear parks within the dense urbanpattern of São Paulo as the municipalityenvisions them. But how to get there?Rethinking their potential as integratedarteries for green space, leisure and as apublic central area is central in this case.Especially the definition of a strategyon ‘how to get there’ seems important,as making green seems largely a socialchallenge.subcentres between the innercity andthe periphery. We focus on the Petrobrassite. Located about eight kilometersfrom the city center and close to SaoPaulo’s biggest slum Heliopolis. Whatwill be the urban mix that could beboth be attractive for new investmentsand citizens as well as provide anadditional urban quality and services toneighbourhoods surrounding the site.The brownfield condition could be atestbed to test scale, connectivity andnew typologies as an example for otherbrownfield operations.
  • 10. Studio São Paulo10While São Paulo’s historical citycentre currently is predominantlya CBD, it is still in the historical,geographical and cultural heart of thecity. There are many public projects inthe city dealing with crime or vacantbuildings or heritage protectionor the quality of the public space,showing a direct implementation ofpolitical goals: less vacancy, moresocial housing, safer public space.In our workshop the focus was on aproject run by COHAB, whose aimwas to transform vacant buildingsinto social housing. To be successfulin a relatively short time COHABaimed at those buildings that allowedfor the fastest and best manageabletransformation.The pace and quantitative successof COHAB deserve encouragement.But it appears to be just that, animmediate and concrete translationof a political goal to the smallestscale of a single building, without aconnection with the overall agenda:to make the centre an inclusive city.What the city centre needs is urbanthinking. An interaction betweenstructural, infrastructural, social andeconomical issues which works on anintermediate level, between politicsand concrete projects.During the workshop we analyzedthe city centre to find possible sitesfor a strategy that works on theintermediate scale: a place makingstrategy. After some data crunching(building vacancy, networks,employment, education facilities anda fear map) we found two possibleareas that have the right mix: AvenidaSao Joao and Praca da Sé. Given thelimited time we focused on the first.In a process of exchanging local andinternational examples, fact findingand critical interrogation we definedthe following ingredients:Add a serious amount of housing. TheCOHAB program for transformingvacant buildings into social housingcould be used as a tool for that.But also use the opportunities thatFrom individualbuildings tourban thinkingCase 1: InnercityRejuvenationProject groupMatthijs BouwBart AptrootRenata SeminJosé Armenio Brito CruzMarlon Longo,Heidi KleinAssistanceRodrigo TanakaAline Friguereido
  • 11. Studio São Paulo11Studio  SPSurvey: fear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`9/&#W"####GQ:#K:Q:#a#>+/%&9<&#&@*_!6W6A6J6FHZ7666!6P!O6O !J!L=P!!!=!6!PO6LLJFBA=!A!B!F6=6B=!Studio  SPMapping: important places in off-hoursStudio  SPTwo systems8¥ Walking through the city, the rate of underutilized buildings (also ofÞces) seems extreme: is there not simply toomuch building mass (in relation to accessibility, parking, infrastructure, quality, etc.)?¥ Can the CBD support mix?
  • 12. Studio São Paulo12existing buildings offer. Loft spaces, roofterraces, and mixed use buildings cancreate a rich mix of housing to attractthe young professionals. More parkingwill be required to facilitate the newresidents. Because even while publictransport in the centre is good, to reachthe rest of the city the car is still thepreferred way to go.Make safe areas of manageable size andshape and make a safe connection tothe nearby metro station. Improve thesquare by linking it better with the plinthprogram. Program the pedestrian areawith smaller and larger activities, forexample terraces on the pedestrian areasduring lunch and dinner time, festivals inthe connecting Parque Anhangabaú.Introduce street management to getthe property and store owners activelyinvolved, sharing the responsibilityof a safe and lively street, getting theright mix of program. Coalitions shouldbe built, for example between thebusinesses in Sé and the stores, bars anddining places along rua Sao Joao.Finally, spread the word. Brand thesucces, let it expand to neighbouringstreets or leapfrog to other new hotspotsin the centre.Studio  SP30
  • 13. Studio São Paulo13The current strategyappear to be animmediate andconcrete translationof a political goalto the smallestscale of a singlebuilding. without aconnection with theoverall agenda: tomake the centre aninclusive city. Whatthe city centre needsis urban thinking.
  • 14. Studio São Paulo14Knowing that the destiny of the Petrobrasarea is on its way to implementation, weused it as an inspiration to think about anew piece of the city. We looked at the areaas an experimental field for how to tacklethe urban fabric in Sao Paulo to become amore sustainable “part” of the city that canbe stronger and more self-reliant based onits inner structure and existing qualities.The un-built space of Petrobras, clampedin between Heliopolis and Vila Carioca– a poor neighbourhood and a mixedindustrial and housing area- is includedwithin two apparently different UrbanPlans. On the one hand, the housing planof Heliopolis is in dire need to deliver5000 new housing units as soon aspossible. And on the other hand the UrbanOperation Mooca-Vila Carioca that foreseesinfrastructural improvements, programmemix, densification, and an increase of publictransport along a commercial corridor.Walking through the area we could feel howHeliopolis is an improving neighbourhood,with lively streets and a strong sense ofcommunity. Awareness of people is rising,and most probably their demands anddesires in a few generations will be farevolved.On the other side, Vila Carioca is already amixed use neighbourhood well connectedto the new metro station of Tamanduatei.Its fabric is quite structured in a wellfunctioning grid of streets, with buildingsfrom one to a maximum of four storeys.There are schools, some shops, communityfacilities, several working places. The areastill has plenty of room to increase densityand optimize land use within the existingstructure. The common point between thetwo areas – Heliopolis and Vila Carioca- isthe lack of urban spaces. The street is theunique means of connection for cars, buses,and people, as if they were of the samenature. Collective space is sacrificed withrefuge only found in the accidental left overplaces. Yet, the site of Petrobras concealsbehind its walls a valuable hilly green area.All local evidences points towards apotential osmosis of urban demand andsupply between the Urban Operation andHeliopolis. After a quick sketch calculationwe figured out that filling out the gaps andvacancies of Vila Carioca, the housing needsof Helipolis could be accommodated withinits existing fabric.When these ambitions are put within amore integrated relationship - to create themaximum of high quality spatial coherence,public value, housing, working, recreation,and other functions and you’ll get a fullyfledged piece of city.As a starting point the public value ofPetrobas’ hill as a park connecting Helipolis,Vila Carioca and the metro is of criticalimportance for the future of both areas.From Housing to CityCase study 2 brownfields: PetrobrasPetrobras´ hill is ofcritical importance as apark and connectionCase 2: BrownfieldsProject groupGert UrhahnBernardina BorraDaniela GetlingerRogier van den BergJaap KlaarenbeekLuis Pompeo MartinsTiago OakleyAssistanceAndre KwakVanessa PadiaMarcelo RebeloFernando Gasperini
  • 15. Studio São Paulo15
  • 16. Studio São Paulo16Opening up a park and enhancing small interventionsin the adjacent areas would foster a social mix, createa clear routing towards the metro, provide a mix ofhousing on the edges and allocate public services.Following this path could also help job creation in VilaCarioca, as well as allow differentiation in housingtypologies along the edges of the park, or into emptyplots to be implemented in Vila Carioca. Eventuallythis would increase the financial and urban value forthe land and of all the activities in the surroundingsareas.The actions to be taken in Heliopolis are -of course torelocate unsafe and unhealthy housing units, improveinfrastructure and open spaces, to then legalizeground and housing properties.Contemporary to this in Vila Carioca the task wouldbe to increase the density of working places andwarehouses - freeing up plots to build small services,pocket spaces, new social and private housing whilefitting the existing into a maximum of four/five floorsalong the streets, and ten in the interiors of the block.Around the station a pole with a privately developedmix of housing and offices could also help financingthe plan. The strip along the railway for industry couldbe densified in use, and adapted as a flood barrier.Additional room for housing could perhaps also befound in the areas south-east of Petrobras. This couldlead to a diversified neighbourhood, not alienatedin condensed social housing monolithically built atonce, but grown in a more organic process taking thepositive aspects of how Heliopolis and Vila Cariocadid in their turn. It could further help to avoid futuresocial discontent -the likes of which have been seenin the peripheries of European cities, see for instancethe ravages of the Banlieus in Paris, or the famousno-go areas in cities like Naples. Socially mixed andqualitative neighbourhoods as Cuidade Tiradentesin Sao Paulo, or Jordans in Amsterdam should beconsidered as paradigms to achieve.This procedure would imply an open process in phaseswere SP Municipality plays the initiator role for:- establishing the park, perhaps in collaboration withthe private sector e.g SESC- delineating its edges for social housing, and privatedevelopers under certain conditions- stimulate and guide land use optimization of VillaCarioca.The municipality - sehab- cohab- town planning-should be the moderator between social interests,the legal and still illegal owners of the land, privatedevelopers, the local inhabitants and workers.Fostering Public Valuecollective green+servicesfinancial valueclear routingjobs creationdifferentiation in housingtypologiessocial mixthe motor
  • 17. Studio São Paulo17HeliopolisRelocate unsafe and unealthy housing unitsImprove open spacesLegalize ground and housing propertiesfrom HousingtoCityVila CariocaDensify working and warehousesSocial housing capacity c.a. 2000 units:4floors along the streets10 floors in the interior of the plotcreate a pole around the station with private developmentsuse the strip along the railway for industry adapted as flood barrieropen up for small pocket spacesParkAttractive urban collective green + facilitiesConnection from Heliopolis to the hub across Vila CariocaHousing capacity on the edges:c.a. 500 social housing unitsc.a. 1000 middle class private developmentsAdditional social housing capacity for c.a. 2500 units
  • 18. Studio São Paulo18Parque Linear Rio Verde: Thetransformation of a valley in the denslypopulated Eastern part of the Metropolis.This project is directly related to the largerchallenges regarding the water problemsof Sao Paulo. In the rapid development ofthe city, the most crucial infrastructuralconnections are located directly next to orright on top of the streams and rivers in thelowest levels of the valleys. At these pointslots of informal housing is built, in the formof favelas and structures, realised withouta building permit inside the flood areas.The Secretario de Verde e Meio Ambienteuses the strategy of so-called linear parks inthese areas. The goal is to thereby controlthe water issues while creating valuablepublic space at the same time.Because the area is divided in many smallerplots with complex situations ofownership, the project is cut into segmentsthat are being realised one by one. Thissegmentation could be an opportunity fordevelopment, rather than an obstruction.The project proposal of studio Sao Paulocombines three strategies.The first is to implement the linearconnection at the start of the project. Thisarea should serve as a connection for localtraffic of pedestrians and cyclist, separatedfrom the car infrastructure. A bicycle pathcan be realised along the stream wherepossible and if the area along the streamis not accessible yet, the path shouldhave a temporary place along the road oneither side of the stream. This gives theinhabitants a fast connection to the publictransport and the larger park and it makesthe vacant areas of the riverside accessible.Obviously this leads to confrontation withthe pollution found there, but we believePro-flowCase study 3 periphery: ItaqueraCase 3: Periphery &Fundos de ValeProject groupHan DijkEmile RevierKria DjoyoadhiningratDaan ZandbeltLaetitia LemosRicardo CorreaTaissa CruzAssistanceAna BádueRamiro Levy
  • 19. Studio São Paulo19123The first step is toimplement the linearconnection at the start ofthe project. This shouldserve as a connectionfor local traffic ofpedestrians and cyclists.
  • 20. Studio São Paulo20that it could have the same effect as thephrase “Tiraro o bode da sala”. Makingpeople aware of the situation is the firststep towards a change.The second step is to create a sense ofownership of the public space. Connectionsfrom public facilities towards the river aretaken into account, embedding the linearconnection in the surrounding urban tissue.In this way segments of the valley are linkedto public program surrounding it. Schoolscould profit from playgrounds along theriver, hospitals and elderly housing will finda pleasant outdoor space nearby. In this waythe local population will feel connected tothe scarce public space and the value will berecognised by all, avoiding the risk of illegaloccupation.In the actual transformation of the areasthat are occupied with buildings the thirdstrategy is applied. The aim is to turn thebuildings with their front towards theriver. The program that can remain in thiszone should be flood-proof and all terrainsshould be laid out with soft permeablesurface. The implementation of a watercollector that follows the linear path of theriver can stop the pollution of the river andeventually turn the area along the streaminto a sequence of strong public spaces.“Tiraro o bode da sala”.Making people aware ofthe situation is the firststep towards a change.The second step is to create asense of ownership of the publicspace. Connections from publicfacilities towards the river aretaken into account, embeddingthe linear connection in thesurrounding urban tissue.
  • 21. Studio São Paulo21Connect the differentsections like a necklace
  • 22. Studio São Paulo22Being in Sao Paulo what strikes methe most is to witness how Paulistanoshave begun to succeed in developing anintense, positive energy for their citywithin a quite short time frame. Ten yearsafter my first visit to Sao Paulo, the moodand atmosphere seem to be completelygeared up, something I didn’t expect to seeso radically or so soon. There is optimismand openness in this city and a clear willto act and change.To give just one example, the impressivescale and quality jump in public resources isfor me one of the most relevant signs of thecity’s latest developments and endeavours.It is clearly visible – the breaking downof traffic congestion is something allPaulistanos will be thankful for, but aboveall it improves social integration andaccessibility for everybody.Nevertheless, the change I have witnessedwith the biggest impact has been twofold.Firstly the shift in attitude by theMunicipality towards the reality of thepoorer neighbourhoods, and secondly theacceptance of uneasy realities as a startingpoint for improvement guided by a strongparticipatory processes.Reality as a starting point sounds quiteobvious, but it is not. It is often ignoredbecause it takes time needs politicalMoving in the right directionby Gert Urhahncourage to overcome. Take Amsterdam forinstance, the city where I live and work asurban designer.In 1973, the municipality of Amsterdamhad drawn up demolition lists for entireneighbourhoods based upon the researchof the Town Planning Department, theDepartment for Social Housing and theBuilding Department. At the time thetypical working mode was based onseparation with little cooperation betweendepartments. Yet the general idea amongthese experts was to knock down most ofthe 19th century labour housing districts–considered obsolete and inappropriate.In its place they would have built brandnew housing blocks as they were alreadydoing in the new extended areas of thecity, designed according to the modernisticphilosophy and planning standards of thetime.As soon as the first of the old quartershad been broken down, students andentrepreneurs began a strong resistance.Eventually only one man - Jan Schaefer, thealderman of the Municipality- stood againstthe extensive demolitions: he dared to sayNO. Perhaps more surprisingly, he was ableto turn the perfectly organized machine forredevelopment in a different direction.Before starting as politician, he was a
  • 23. Studio São Paulo23baker in one of the areas planned forredevelopment. He understood, as fewother people did, what kind of ravage itmeant for the local residents and businesspeople of these communities. He had theexperience, the power and the will tochange, and the audacity to do it.Nowadays, most of those areas are the bestbeloved places to live and work in the city.Looking back I am surprised that thishappened in a city like Amsterdam and sorecently as well. Now it seems to me like abad dream that ended happily, and I see asimilar a transition moment for Sao Paulotoo.Parallel to the acceptance of reality assuch and the wish to operate within it, Irecognized the wake of another remarkableturn: the positive tendency to start thinkingnot only of city extensions but towardstransformation of the existing urban fabric.Sao Paulo is a fast growing metropolis. Aftera period of never ending extensions, theneed and consciousness for transformationof the existing fabric is rising. It concerns atthe same time the consolidated centre andnew sub-centres, as well as favelas and theindustrial areas that have been metabolizedby the city.Transformation of these existing structuresis by definition more complex, but asa counterpart is more urban, moredifferentiated and dense. Lastly but by nomeans least the city becomes more deeplysustainable - socially, economically, andwith regards to infrastructure.The right direction is already very presentin the paulistan planning departments,though the move from extension totransformation is notinstrumentally ripe yet. Thepotential to critically reversethe balance lies under theburden of bureaucratic andtechnocratic constraints.These constraints are onlystrengthened by time pressuresto complete what are oftencomplex yet urgent demands.Such required shifts implyother ways of operating; notonly dealing with people-inhabitants and entrepreneursbut also the existing physicaland social structures.Above all however it requires a more inter-disciplinary approach. Little by little thesituation can be freed up for reflection. Ifeel this closely as it is not so very longago that similar changes were needed thatprovoked a radical turn to a new set ofpriorities also in Amsterdam.“Before starting aspolitician, Jan Schaefferwas a baker in one ofthe areas planned forredevelopment. Heunderstood, as few otherpeople did, what kindof ravage it meant forthe local residents andbusiness people of thesecommunities.”
  • 24. Studio São Paulo24Through the debate of concrete problems inthe city of São Paulo, Studio São Paulo madeit possible not only to come up with richersolutions by combining different points ofview. The collaborative design and debat alsoled to the understanding of the differencesof urban planning and public policies in bothcountries.A focus on the project is one of the mainBrazilian obstacles, where the legislationtreats in a general way and without a specificplan for the real problematic situationspresented in each locality. There is an abysmbetween the legislation and the project, whichprovokes a difficult relationship leading tomany barriers towards realisation. It makesevident that there is a lack of planning withpublic participation in order to establish ahealthy relationship between legislation,planning and project, and a lack of projectreflecting the needs of the local population.Long term planning and the discussionabout public participation were pointed outas two of the most prevalent difficulties ofelaborating projects with greater dynamismin Holland. On the other hand, the closerrelation between project and plan allowsa greater dynamic in the improvementof the laws concerning public space. As aconsequence, the projects have less legalobstacles, allowing for greater agility inthe public discussion and therefore betterrepresenting the needs of the population.Case StudyThe lower valley, is a problem treated in ageneric way by the municipal planning office,without the specification of the diversedifficulties of each locality and the relationwith its surroundings. We noticed that therichness of the characteristics of our studiedsite allows the city to return the water and toits inhabitants, providing the relation with ahealthy public place for its local populationand not only a crossing point. The plan givestrust to, and requires responsibility of, thelocal residents and users, This way publicparticipation becomes concrete andhelpsto answer each section of the valley with aspecific and pracmatic solution. The projectis a wonderful example of how São Paulo’slower valleys can be tranformed to valueableplaces in the city putting the local place andplace central.Making cities for peopleby Ricardo Correa
  • 25. Studio São Paulo25Sao Paulo is the roaring engine of abooming country. At the same time the carsin the streets of Sao Paulo don’t get a lotof chances to roar, especially during rushhour. Sao Paulo traffic is as sticky as thelocal chocolate speciality: the brigadeiro.Our hostel was not so far from the Studio SaoPaulo workshop at the Martinelli buildingin the center and we also had the choicebetween taxi and metro. So we were blessedin two ways: we slept nearby and we couldavoid the road. As many Paulistans arestuck choosing between their car and the(relatively well organized) bus system, whichboth have to stand in the same bee line.As Dutch natives, we wondered what the citywould be like with bikes instead of cars. ThatSunday we got served already. The Brazilianoffice TC Urbes is a pioneer at the front ofurban cycling and took us for a ride. Becausethe workers stay at home or escape the city,the streets are freed from traffic. Main roadsare partially closed off to created temporarydedicated bike lanes. Getting on however,meant not being able to get off for some time.Those lanes were located at the middle ofthe road, locked between the remaining cars.A claustrophobic experience for the Dutchcyclist. This seems to be typical, as the fewSticky as a BrigadeiroBy Kria Djoyoadhiningratpermanent bike paths resemble highways,instead of the small scale bike paths we’reused to. Where the Dutch system has smallscale, bottom up properties, the Braziliansstarted thinking upside down.Going along one of the nicer bike highwaysalong the river Pinheiros an intense odourfilled our lungs. We were unpleasantlysurprised. Why would anyone build sucha nice bike path along such a foul place?We would certainly first have cleaned theplace out before exposing anyone to thisenvironmental disaster. Did they make amistake here? During the workshop we weremaking the plans for the linear parks, thatalways follow a river or stream. We foundout that this upside down planning may notalways be intentional, it has a unique positiveside effect. A sublime motivation to action istriggered by the exposure to the evident openquality of the river and the foul smell at thesame time. Many of the visitors of the parkand cyclists and runners using the bike pathrallied local politicians to address the varioussources of pollution around the city. Cleaningis becoming an undeniable item on theagenda. Hopefully the traffic will soon stopbeing as sticky as a brigadeiro, and Paulistanswill only eat brigadeiros to fuel theirhuman powered vehicles.Going along one of thenicer bike highwaysalong the river Pinheirosan intense odour filledour lungs. We wereunpleasantly surprised.Why would anyone buildsuch a nice bike pathalong such a foul place?
  • 26. Studio São Paulo26Ordem e progresso, it says on theBrazilian flag. Order and progress. Brazilis a proud democracy, where progress isdefined not only in technical developmentand economic growth. It is clear that realprogress would be to fulfil the dream ofan egalitarian society. The fulfilment stillfaces big challenges both in racial terms,and in ownership terms.It is exciting to see the political imperativein much of the planning. Planning is aninstrument to create this equality, whichis one of the reasons so much is investedin low-income housing. Shaping the livingenvironment of the city is the major focus ofthe social agenda of politicians.The reason for this focus on housing is alogical one. It is in the house, and in theregeneration of the street, that progressbecomespalpable. Thehouse and thestreet form thecommunity,and thecommunityelects thepolitician. That is the second reason that itis so exciting to work within this democraticpolitical context. In Brazil, it is therelationship between the politician and hisor her constituency (and not the relationshipwith Goldman Sachs, as, one might say, inthe rest of the world) that drive projects andprograms.Politicians are ‘of the people’, povao. Lula, theprevious president, a prime example, basedhis mandate exactly on his promise to strivefor equality. So does the current president,Roussef. And on a smaller scale, as we saw inHeliopolis, it was the local MP who was thedriving force behind the housing and slumclearance projects.We were excited to discover again the powerof this democratic imperative. We talked tocandidates for political office who wantedus to help them with a planning strategy. Wewere happy to see that when we discussedthe political dimension of other long termplanning interventions, such as the need forinclusiveness in the downtown area, thesewere met with approval. It was striking,however, and that is the trap of this politicallymotivated planning, that long term planningissues where not foremost in the mind ofthe politicians we met. Projects needed tobe concrete, involve the local community,and focus on housing. The four year span ofelections was dominant in their thinking.How, we asked ourselves, can concrete andmanageable projects be combined with longterm perspectives?Two casesCOHAB/SEHAB is the secretary of housingand has defined a strategy of creating socialhousing in some of the many empty buildingsin the centre to draw new inhabitants intothis underoccupied part of the city.At this moment the city centre is not aninclusive city where people live in, workin and visit, it is only a CBD. The context ofthe projectcase is that the centre needs toposition itself in a city that is becoming poly-Ordem e progressoby One Architecture & POSADBrazil’s bureaucracy, aswe have discovered inthe Martinelli building,likes to keep thingsmanageable.
  • 27. Studio São Paulo27centric. It should generate the investment ofsocial and financial capital in the centre.Within the case we stated that it is notabout filling the buildings, quantitativelyhardly effective in relation to the scale of thecentre, but about place making. By focussingon core-areas in the centre the COHAB/SEHAB initiative becomes part of a strategyto build- up inner- city identity. These areasneed (besides residents) parking, safety,links to public transport and a local streetmanagement. With smaller defined urbangeneration projects we can focus on cityareas instead of buildings.For the other case, the Linear Park, thesecretary of green space and environmentwas the main driver and client. They have todeal with a number of problems.Their first problem is that the infrastructureof Sao Paulo is built over or on top ofthe rivers in the city. This means that incase of flooding the traffic is completelydysfunctional.The second problem is that the hair veinsof the water system are clogged by piecesof city, like cholesterol and fat in an obeseperson. Illegal housing is built on, in and overthe riverbeds. This illegal city pollutes theriver from the source on.Third is the lack of green spaces in the citythat can help to cool the urban fabric, but alsoas a green space for people. We noticed thatthe Secretarios strategy to transform someof the clogged up waterways into linear parksis very difficult to execute. They are plannedas a masterplan but not phased in such a way.The created public spaces lack meaning orusers and get either undesirably fenced orvandalized.Instead, the focus should be on the linearand not on the parks, making networks. Theneighbourhoodsshould be connectedin a better way toadopt a part of itas their backyard.Ownership shouldbe created. Thishelps creating aplanning logic thatis phased in a lot of interconnected sections.The surrounding city adopts and createsthese sections. The network combines it.Progress: Integrate long term vision inpolitical vocabularyFollowing Auguste Comte, the positivistphilosopher who was responsible for theslogan on the flag, progress needs order. Nextto the democratic imperative stands a well-organized, too organized, bureaucracy.Brazil’s bureaucracy, as we have discoveredin the Martinelli building, likes to keepthings manageable. It needs to, because ofthe bureaucratic complexity and because ofthe political demands for concrete resultswithin the term. And maybe it wants to, to behonest, for opportunities for fast and easyresults. This reduction of scope, complexityand timescale results, as it does anywhere, insuboptimal project definitions. Opportunityreigns supreme.How, we askedourselves, can concreteand manageable projectsbe combined with longterm perspectives?
  • 28. Studio São Paulo28be integrated in political terms and inpolitical vocabulary. This way the long termand the big scale can be safeguarded by aSecretario. Most of the goals set are veryone-dimensional, and by overlooking theconnecting issues the cure can be worse thanthe disease.In the case of the Linear Parks for example,when solving the water problem one shouldbe aware of building strong networks insteadof unused, fenced ‘public space’.Likewise, in the case of the inner-city,bringing and maintaining life to the cityrequires complementary and necessarycentre facilities.And in the case of the Petrobras, whenbuilding social housing for favela’s oneshould be aware of not destroying futuregreen places that form the last gold (orbreathing space) of the city.Order: Integral needs localThe scale at which Sao Paulo is developing isnothing less than awesome.The city has, as has been shown earlier, done200 years in 70. And the end of developmentis not in sight, not demographically, butalso socially, culturally and economically.With the biggest mineral reserves in theThe housing program for Centro of SEHAB/COHAB, the introduction of more than 2000new units in ‘underused’ properties, wasnot linked to the development of the areaas a whole. The linear parks in the eastwere not related to the urban developmentaround them. The slum clearance andplanned housing near Heliopolis of SEHAB/COHAB was not linked to transit- and greendevelopment by the urbanism and greendepartments.Progress is accommodated by order, wefound, but also hindered. The ‘Plano Director’is an example of a plan that lacks a clearvision on ‘progresso’ but mainly consists of‘ordem’: the recording of a series of separateprojects.There is a gap between the large scale levelof the governance in Sao Paulo and theshort term of the vision making. The scale ismassive: the whole German Sheppard (likethe Paulistans use to refer to the shape of themunicipal boundary on the map, resemblingthe head of a dog) is their territory, but theshort timeframe of a political four years is thebasis for most visions.The secretaries have to deal with a layercake of integrated problems (like water andinfrastructure and green) and these problemshave to be treated in a quick and dirty, hands-on manner that fits in four years of politics.The logical result is a planning policy basedon opportunism.We feel that the long term vision shouldMost of the goals set are veryone-dimensional, and byoverlooking the connectingissues the cure can be worsethan the disease.
  • 29. Studio São Paulo29world, including the offshore oil, and thetrue ambition to let the entire (growing)population actively participate in the country,Brazil just might be the richest country in theworld in the (not so far) future.This will mean that Sao Paulo will not justdouble, but grow by a factor 10 in termsof Gross Regional Product. Already theinvestment programs are massive but, as canbe seen in the graph, mostly focused on the‘four year projects’, dominated by housing.The real question for Studio Sao Paulo,therefore, is how local, opportunistic andshort term projects can be thought such thatthey will contribute to the long term planninggoals for the city? And, maybe before that,how can we help translate the democraticgoals strategically into long term planninggoals, into more than just the availability andaccessibility of housing?There is a chance to use that opportunism,that fast metabolism of the city and toconnect it not only to a larger agenda butalso to connect it to local stakeholders.Opportunistic driven projects can be carriedout by a local organ like a neighbourhood, aschool or a church community. The peoplein Sao Paulo can take responsibility to shapetheir own living environment.In the example of the Linear parks we showthat this helps to form better networksand also to create ownership; feelingresponsibility and ‘at home’ in public space.To ensure public space can perform better, itare not the safety issues that matter most butthe connection of alocal heart to it.In the case of theinner-city localentrepreneurs,inhabitants and cultural institutions make orbreak city life. Some is guidable top down byregulation or for instance creation of parkingfacilities, but most is powered locally andneeds local governance.Operate on an intermediate scale levelBrazil knows, like in the Netherlands,different authorities on different levels. Allhave their separate responsibilities. Webelieve that Sao Paulo should operate onan intermediate scale. The large scale is notan executable. It is the scale of directingthe market and organising structures andnetworks.On the scale of making projects the cityis king; it can move fast and steady. Thisintermediate scale could help to organisethe more local parties to be the ‘client’, thegovernment restricts to the networks andthe market helps to facilitate the making of it,only if the ‘client’ accepts a sort of ownership.Large scale, short term and making projectscan become very closely related. Herebyskipping the ownership and integrality ofthe built projects. The use and developmentof the public realm can take shape byintroducing the intermediate scale, localintegration of opportunism driven projectsand a guiding government.We believe that Sao Pauloshould operate on anintermediate scale. The largescale is not an executable.It is the scale of directingthe market and organisingstructures and networks.
  • 30. Studio São Paulo30São Paulo is complete in every spot, eventhough sometimes left out. At least for meas a stranger, born in Suriname, raised inthe western Netherlands.I will illustrate this completeness, andin the same time ‘forgottenness’, by thecrossing of avenida São João with valedo Anhagabaú, a central spot in thehistorical city center of São Paulo, wherethe old and new town, Sé and Repúblicaare separated. A place that did somethingto my heart maybe in the way CaetanoVeloso was moved by the crossing a littlefurther on avenida São João, crossingIpiranga.A place where I maybe look unto like ‘thegiant stranger’ from the twins, overlookingthe valley from my working spot, on topof the Martinelli building. I perceive themovement from above, the way I believemost Paulistans do.A little anxious I take the elevator to theground level. Stepping out of the Martinellibuilding, looking from behind the trees,seeing first the police, standing next totheir truck, facing me. Facing only thisside, the side where most of the offices arein function. The side with filled buildingsall day, until the afternoon, maybe 5-, 6- or7pm. The time after which every street,building and corner becomes empty,abandoned, like the rest of the old (Sé)en even the new town (República). Butaside from that, it’s around noon now,when I cross the valley of Angabaú. Thevalley is empty already, like an urban void,even though planned, designed and built.Behind the police truck there is a littlevalley, better called a lower square, a placepeople have to walk around, which forms abarrier in the street. Something that stopsmost Paulistans from taking this route.São Paulo complete,sometimes forgotten.by Heidi KleinIn the song ‘Sampa’ Caetano Veloso sings thatsomething happens in his heart only when itcrosses Ipiranga and avenida São João.‘The stranger’, ‘O estrangeiro’, was a street art projectbetween SESC, Prefeitura de São Paulo, PlasticienVolant and Os Gêmeos, realized in 2009 for the ‘year ofFrance in Brazil’. It was recently painted over, 30 daysbefore demolishing of the building it was painted on.
  • 31. Studio São Paulo31Behind the lower square, across from thebeautiful monumental ‘Prédio do Correio’,a spot that the stranger cannot over look,a place that the police is not facing. Thereare the girls, soliciting. Just in front of ‘BomPastor’, the evangelical bookshop, in themouth of avenida São João.Across the street, across from the girls,next to the ‘Prédio do Correio’ I changemy money in a lanchonete, to buy somehandmade earrings in the center ofavenida São João. Every day beforenoon travelers from Peru, Colombiaand elsewhere spread their cloth to sellhandcrafts, made from forest seeds, pitsfrom acai, and other natural materials.The lanchonete is regularly busy, selling‘sucos, pão do queso and coxinha defrango’, while the lady at the magazinekiosk sells the daily news and somehomeless simply wander around. This isthe part of avenida São João were Googlestreet view leaves you behind. Where thecars and busses have already bent away.It is still tranquil, even though it is lunchtime. Some buildings are empty, alsoduring daytime. Even though it is justacross from galleria do Rock, and not toofar from the Martinelli building. Maybe notin a big amount, but all comes togetherin that little corner, or actually quite bigcorner: the crossing of avenida São Joãowith vale do Anhagabaú, with on one sitethe police, on the other side the girls,the eating and drinking, the handcraftsand all, with the disconnection in themiddle, in the shape of a little valley, orbetter called lower square. Like I saidSão Paulo is complete in every spot, eventhough sometimes left out, or better saiddisconnected.I went away, just like ‘the stranger’ did,maybe back to France. His building will bedemolished within this month, to makeplace for something new, a bit more classy,cultural maybe. One day this left out piece,the crossing of avenida São João with valedo Anhagabaú, will be reconnecting thecity parts, the old and new town, Sé andRepública, in the way that viaduto do Cháalready does.
  • 32. Ndt.os-s-ntnPROPOSED INTERVENTIONS01 Promoting interventions in large lots in order to create conditions forlocal neighborhood units, by encouraging mixed use, associated withthe provision of open spaces connected to pedestrian lanes. Thoseinterventions have the potential of recovering the industrial architecturalheritage and of generating large-scale social housing, as well as for thereal estate market.02 Encouraging old buildings remodeling; existing structures retrofit;creating new network of pedestrian connections with visual permeabil-ity - those actions shall generate alternative uses at the ground floorof the buildings and the use of the internal areas of the blocks, whichprovide effective strategies to take advantage of the great number ofvacant buildings in the downtown area.03 Creating situations that increase housing density in these areas,increasing the number of public spaces, areas for services and trade atthe lower floors and visual permeability of pedestrian mobility; creatingpoints of implementation in non-motorized transport in order to recon-nect the social relationship of formerly separate districts by the roadsystem interventions.RESULTSThe result of those interventions shall possibly start the redevelopmentof the downtown area. Not as an isolated intervention, but committedwith other public policies for renewal, as the offer of employment forincome increasing, mobility improvement, qualification of water re-sources and infrastructure, among others. The interventions focused inhousing, however, must content and integrate all the other prospectsfor renewal, proposing:• People occupation and buidings renovation in downtown Sao Paulo,with the proposition of, at least, 30 000 new housing units, whethersocial housing or real estate market.• Creation of more economical opportunities for 100,000 people in theregion• Rehabilitation of public open spaces• Improvement of the mobility system for public transport and non-mo-torized vehiclesschoolscentral areahealth & caresocial housing areassubwaypublic spacesurban trainhighways & aveneusbus stationsrailroaddistricts01020303 HIGHWAY SYSTEMStudio São Paulo32We aim to demonstrate the key issues about thetransformation of São Paulo central region, withthe comprehension of the urban relations thatled to its degradation and of the opportunitiesfor intervention generated by this decline. Theproposal is shown in a diagram of sequent events,seeking to clarify the generation of opportunitieswithin the central territory and the respectiverequired interventions. The goal is to recover thisimportant and dense area of the city, with regardto people resettlement and to the most effectiveuse of the existing infrastructure, through asystem of interconnected interventions. Dealingwith the central area recovery as a strategy ofcreating a place that people want to live in, workin and visit. The territorial limits of the centralregion in study considers the 12 main districts ofSão Paulo city center, surrounding Republica andSé districts which are in the geographical center ofthis region.Urban relationship in transformation01 The change of uses generated theabandonment of the industrial activities and theneglect of the high potentialland system already consolidated.02 The economic centrality of this territoryshifted towards other regions resulted in thediscontinuation of investment in maintenanceand infrastructure expansion, which weremandatory to urban development.03 The build-up of sequent road systeminterventions during the second half of the 20thcentury, regardless the contemporary approachto this system and the lack of alternatives of landuse, exhausted the possibilities of expansion andrenovation of the area, causing its decline.São Paulo’s downtown re-occupationby Renata Semin, José Armênio de Brito Cruz, Rafael Costa, Marlon Longo, GustavoPartezani and Ingrid Ori (Piratininga Arquitetos )The goal should be to recoverthe center as a place thatpeople want to live in, workin and visit.DOWNTOWN RE-OCCUPATIONto demonstrate the key issues about the transformationentral region, with the comprehension of the urban rela-its degradation and of the opportunities of interventionis decline.posal is shown in a diagram of sequent events, seekingeneration of opportunities within the central territory andequired interventions. The goal is to recover this impor-area of the city, with regard to people resettlement and tove use of the existing infrastructure, through a system ofinterventions. Dealing with the central area recovery aseating a place where people want to live, work and visit.mits of the central region in study considers the 12 mainPaulo city center, surrounding Republica and Sé districtse geographical center of this region.URBAN RELATIONSHIP IN TRANSFORMATION01 The change of uses generated the abandonment of the industrialactivities and the neglect of the high potentialland system already consolidated.02 The economic centrality of this territory shifted towards other re-gions resulted in the discontinuation of investment in maintenance andinfrastructure expansion, which were mandatory to urban development.03 The build-up of sequent road system interventions during the sec-ond half of the XX century, regardless the contemporary approach tothis system and the lack of alternatives of land use, exhausted the pos-sibilities of expansion and renovation of the area, causing its decline.GENERATION OF OPPORTUNITIES01The industrial activity was designed with large lots and extensiveroad system that are nowadays underused due to the shift of the indus-trial activities and some services.02 The low investment in maintenance and expansion of urban infra-structure in this region resulted in a large vacant group of buildingsand sites, either of residential or commercial use, due to the movementtowards new centers created in the city.03 The border lots, overlapped by the highway system, became urbanscars and were depreciated as real estate assets due to the urbanfabric disruption.ARQUITETOS ASSOCIADOSup: José Armênio de Brito Cruz, Rafael Costa, Marlonata Semin.uction: Gustavo Partezani, Rafael Costa and Ingrid Orischoolscentral areahealth & caresocial housing areassubwaypublic spacesurban trainhighways & aveneusbus stationsrailroaddistricts0203STRIAL02 OLD CENTER 03 HIGHWAY SYSTEMSÃO PAULODOWNTOWN RE-OCCUPATIONWe aim to demonstrate the key issues about the transformationof São Paulo central region, with the comprehension of the urban rela-tions that led to its degradation and of the opportunities of interventiongenerated by this decline.The proposal is shown in a diagram of sequent events, seekingto clarify the generation of opportunities within the central territory andthe respective required interventions. The goal is to recover this impor-tant and dense area of the city, with regard to people resettlement and tothe most effective use of the existing infrastructure, through a system ofinterconnected interventions. Dealing with the central area recovery asa strategy of creating a place where people want to live, work and visit.The territorial limits of the central region in study considers the 12 maindistricts of São Paulo city center, surrounding Republica and Sé districtswhich are in the geographical center of this region.URBAN RELATIONSHIP IN TRANSFORMATION01 The change of uses generated the abandonment of the industrialactivities and the neglect of the high potentialland system already consolidated.02 The economic centrality of this territory shifted towards other re-gions resulted in the discontinuation of investment in maintenance andinfrastructure expansion, which were mandatory to urban development.03 The build-up of sequent road system interventions during the sec-ond half of the XX century, regardless the contemporary approach tothis system and the lack of alternatives of land use, exhausted the pos-sibilities of expansion and renovation of the area, causing its decline.GENERATION OF OPPORTUNITIES01The industrial activity was designed with large lots and extensiveroad system that are nowadays underused due to the shift of the indus-trial activities and some services.02 The low investment in maintenance and expansion of urban infra-structure in this region resulted in a large vacant group of buildingsand sites, either of residential or commercial use, due to the movementtowards new centers created in the city.03 The border lots, overlapped by the highway system, became urbanscars and were depreciated as real estate assets due to the urbanfabric disruption.PIRATINNGA ARQUITETOS ASSOCIADOSJanuary, 2012Workshop group: José Armênio de Brito Cruz, Rafael Costa, MarlonLongo and Renata Semin.Text and production: Gustavo Partezani, Rafael Costa and Ingrid Orischoolshealth & caresubwayurban trainbus stations01 INDUSTRIAL02 OLD CENTER 03 HIGHWAY SYSTEM
  • 33. Studio São Paulo33Generation of opportunities01The industrial activity was designed with largelots and extensive road system that are nowadaysunderused due to the shift of the industrial activitiesand some services.02 The low investment in maintenance and expansionof urban infrastructure in this region resulted in a largevacant group of buildings and sites, either of residentialor commercial use, due to the movement towards newcenters created in the city.03 The border lots, overlapped by the highway system,became urban scars and were depreciated as real estateassets due to the urban fabric disruption.Proposed interventions01 Promoting interventions in large lots in order tocreate conditions for local neighbourhood units, byencouraging mixed use, associated with the provisionof open spaces connected to pedestrian lanes. Thoseinterventions have the potential of recovering theindustrial architectural heritage and of generatinglarge-scale social housing, as well as for the real estatemarket.02 Encouraging old buildings remodelling; existingstructures retrofit; creating new network of pedestrianconnections with visual permeability - those actionsshall generate alternative uses at the ground floor of thebuildings and the use of the internal areas of the blocks,which provide effective strategies to take advantage ofthe great number of vacant buildings in the downtownarea.03 Creating situations that increase housing densityin these areas, increasing the number of public spaces,areas for services and trade at the lower floors andvisual permeability of pedestrian mobility; creatingpoints of implementation in non-motorized transportin order to reconnect the social relationship of formerlyseparate districts by the road system interventions.ResultsThe result of those interventions shall possibly startthe redevelopment of the downtown area. Not as anisolated intervention, but committed with other publicpolicies for renewal, as the offer of employment forincome increasing, mobility improvement, qualificationof water resources and infrastructure, among others.The interventions focused in housing, however, mustcontain and integrate all the other prospects forrenewal, proposing:• People occupation and buildings renovation indowntown Sao Paulo, with the proposition of, at least,30 000 new housing units, whether social housing orreal estate market.• Creation of more economical opportunitiies for100,000 people in the region• Rehabilitation of public open spaces• Improvement of the mobility system for publictransport and non-motorized vehicles• Improvement of the urban landscape
  • 34. Studio São Paulo34and here I begin I spin here the beguine Irespin and begin to release and realize lifebegins not arrives at the end of a trip whichis why I begin to respin [...]Haroldo de Campos, Galaxias 1984, andhere I beginA fast growing metropolis as Sao Paulois hardly graspable, it is impossible toget under total control. That is its raisond’être, what makes it alive and vibrantby getting written and rewritten everyday by its planners, its architects, themunicipality, its citizens, its visitors.Acknowledging that not everything can-and has to- be under control, is not adefeat: it is an objective strategy to dealwith the actual complexity and break itdown in time and place in order to handleit. Not all questions can be answered atthe same time, but they should be lookedat in an integral way, with open andlong term visions, and a clear hierarchyof which are the real public values, atneighborhood as well as at city scale.Public value is a sustainable answer tourban pressure, it is what is important forus all on long term, and is specific to eachcontext and scale.After many decades of expansion andgrowth, the city of Sao Paulo is changingattitude and tries to consolidate withinits boundaries. Besides all the positiveaspects of this, the only disadvantageousconsequence is that urban pressure isthreatening all remaining vacant spacesestablishing no solution of continuity inthe city. Urban vacancies -especially inthe case of Sao Paulo- are an asset to letpublic value increase and develop. Oneof the keys to fullfill growing pressureand consolidate the city without forcedlyexploiting all remaining available land, isworking with density within the alreadybuilt fabric. An important detail of this isOn public value: towards a coherentand more livable São Pauloby Bernardina Borra, Gert Urhahn, Luis Pompeo and Tiago Oakley
  • 35. Studio São Paulo35that Sao Paulo has the capacity to increaseits density within its inner structure, andalso to reach a balance between urbanopen spaces and building matter, causepeople are craving not only for houses andfacilities, but for lively and safe collectivespaces, parks, and streets as well.The spatial conditions that can endorsepublic value to unfold in Sao Paulo, arequite different from what is happeningin many western cities, and demandfor a specific approach. It has to takeinto consideration long-term and morecomplex and integrated urban strategies,looking for continous flexibility to changein time.On the one hand the meaning of Paulistanpublic values should be set under localculture understanding, and how thistwo can take place for the benefit ofthe many, co-existing and collaboratingbetween municipality, private ownersand individuals mindset. However, onthe other hand, in order to create them,some basic frameworks could be setto tackle the complex specificity of SaoPaulo’s metropolis: scale switch, opendevelopments and typologies, cooperationand radical user-oriented procedures.Scale switchZooming in and alternately zoomingout, so to say switching scale –desingand thinking wise-, means embracing adevelopment process simultaneously atthe disposal of many initiators in variouslocations and densify locally and regionallythe metropolitan context, includingneighbour cities in every sense. In SaoPaulo the three scales of neighbourhood,meso and regional are of crucial importanceto mediate the Metropolis vastness. It isessential to map out local needs, relevantplayers in renovation districts and theprospects — or rather obstructions — theyface. A thorough examination of both socialconditions and urban context is a necessarystrategy for the urban planner and thisdemands a sharp eye for detail.Open developments and typologiesDensity in building, urban functions, andlifestyle are constantly changing factors,especially in a fast growing economy likethe Paulistan one. That means that a citydistrict or quarter must be able to adaptaccording to changes. The non-linear designof a city ensures its vitality. SimultaneousZooming in and alternatelyzooming out, so to sayswitching scale, meansembracing a developmentprocess simultaneously at thedisposal of many initiators invarious locations.
  • 36. Studio São Paulo36supervision of project initiators, in varyingfrequencies and directions, is of paramountimportance, it must be absolutely getconstantly tuned with the map indicatinga wide range of possibilities and specificopportunities that come along with timespeed. To benefit from those changes isimportant for informal settlements as wellas for established ones, making room fororganic growth, sustainability and collectiveacceptance.Specifically facing roaring growth and urgentproblematics two different kind of typolgicalapproach can play a crucial support in opendevelopments in Sao Palo.On the one hand high speed housing andindustrial sector in Sao Paulo is the startingpoint and require specific fast and affordableconstruction technics, suitable fordifferent contexts within differentfabric. Namely prefab, cascos, lighturbanisme could be among themost used solutions for buildingtypologies.On the other –even previousto building ones- urban fabrictypologies can act as an urban methodologyto distill a grammar of the composition ofdifferent parts of the city.The latter one investigates qualities ofexisting urban fabric and indicates thequalitative integration of built an openspace, indicating as well the possibility forwhich bulding typologies are most suitablelocally. By building into a consolidatedurban fabric, you’re already building in thecity in a seamless system.If actual laws might make it more difficult,especially to implement mixed usebuildings, merging public and private use,such as a housing block with a school inthe ground floor, this should perhaphsbe reconsidered within the open processdevelopment.In the end open development fordensification strategies has not onlypure social and spatial public valueimprovements, but consequently it alsogenerates real estate value of the land andits surroundings.Cooperation and user orientedDefining and shared ambitions is a politicaland practically efficient integrationprocess at all levels – between differentmunicipalities, within municipalitydepartments themselves, and between alllocal stake holders- that must be developedboth publicly and expertly. It involvescollective investment, for example ininnovative energy infrastructure or waterquality, in order to conserve a city’s heritageand ultimately it enhance its public values.Acknowledgement of separate entities andfuture values is a component of a producer’santicipatory and imaginative power.Nature, water, landscape, accessibility,heritage, architecture and all peculiarfeatures of Sao Paulo might combine tocreate public values and inspire new formsof utilisation. In anticipation of this futurevision, the planner works on developingan area’s quality, unique character andcoherence, confident of the city user’sresilience and conflict-resolving nature.This can be either latent or new potentials,up to the urban planner to find them outwith the help of the participants involved.By building into aconsolidated urbanfabric, you’re alreadybuilding in the city ina seamless system.
  • 37. Studio São Paulo37Indeed in order to create public concernand social responsibility to foster publiclife –and safety for it- , participatorystructures must surpass participation itself,and achieve social reliability. Sao Paulo isalready far ahead in citizens’ participationthan many other countries. Their energy,creativity and investment capacity is bredand consciously considered, consciousthat an individual owner will not succeedon his own upgrading a certain area, butcollective efforts of several neighbours wellorchestrated can become critically effectiveand structurally help changing.Maybe other levels can be added on topof the existing partcipatory procedures,not only micro-financing or civic economysolutions, but plenty of innovations canalready be among the people in place, fromtop businesses through to deprived urbandistricts. Long term planning could helpgoing deeper in the positive groove setyears ago by the Estatudo da Cuidade. Itcould release official zoning and land uselaws, favouring a more flexible control,could be one of the msot crucial factors toinvolve active participation.A more radical participation is in thegenealogy of history and develoment ofBrazilian citizenship, and the integration ofhuman experiences in transforming theirown neigbourhoods, is common acting.Residents, associations, companies andco-operatives should be given an activerole in urban renewal initiatives. Boostingof endogenous investment capacity playsa central role for integrated processes tofoster public value.
  • 38. Studio São Paulo38In interviews on urbanism in São Paulo withvarious people preparing Studio São Paulo inApril 2011 one main critique on the city wasprominent in every discussion: the lack ofgood public space.São Paulo is often being stigmatized forbeing a ‘selva de concreto’, a concrete jungle.When overlooking the city from the top of theMartinelli building you would agree with thismetaphor, but as soon as you experiencethe city at eye level in the streets youbecome aware of a city full of public life.Although the metropolis of São Paulo ismainly car driven each Vila in the cityhas a central area or prominent streetswhere public life is present. Obviousexamples are the Rua Augusta in thecentre, the Rua Fidalga in Vila Madalenabut also Estrada das Lágrimas betweenHeliopólis and Vila Bandeirantes is alively street, at least during a weekday. Thesestreets all have beside their central position inthe network of the city another essential basisfor their livelyness: a human scale, shops andbars which are oriented towards the streetand a differentiated pattern of buildings alongit. The section of these streets allow cars, butalso pedestrians and bikers to make use ofthis space.One of the big assignments for the city in thenext decades is to house the rising middleclass. Exactly this could be a driving force forthe improvement of public space in the city.Therefore urban design and patience shouldbecome part of the planningproces.The ambition to overcome the slums in SãoPaulo within the next six political terms putspressure on the execution of housing plans.Although often made with good intentions thenew housing typologies tend to be focussedon the architecture which comprises mainlyapartment blocks. These blocks are infills of asite rather than parts of a street or a pattern ofpublic spaces.Although the wish for safety comes togetherwhich each step on the social-economicladder, the isolation of housing projectsfrom their urban context will be a missedopportunity for creating good public space.Good public space itself will in the end be thebest way to guarantee safety to a certain level.This short reflection is not necessarily a pleafor a ‘fenceless’ city but a plea to start thinkingabout the (re)housing assignment in São Pauloas a driver for making good public space atleast there where opportunities to add to alogical pattern of public spaces are there. Tomake this work the concept of the street isessential.A good street requires a human scale, moreentrances apart from only one and attractivefunctions along it. The Avenida Paulista is agood example how a street with large ‘gated’buildings becomes attractive because of theplinth of functions that it generates along thesidewalk. Half a floor up and half a floor downthere are functions which have a performanceat the street.In Vila Carioca where we had a short lookat during Studio São Paulo there is a greatpotential to create attractive streets withnew housing typologies. In Vila Carioca therelocation of large industrial sites createsspace for this strategy. But only when urbandesign and patience will be incorporatedin the planning proces. Urban design todistinguish the primairy routes from thesecondary ones and to offer new typologieswhich create a front at the street. Patienceto give time to the industries to relocate andto have different projects add up to the ideaof the street. The new metrostation in theneighbourhood could be an attractive additionto the public space of the neighbourhood aslong as there will be a proper urban designwhich connects the station naturally to theprimairy routes within Vila Carioca. This is noteasy and requires trial and error in the designproces. Urban design could not only improvethe pattern of streets and public spaces.Urban design could also improve the way anensemble of housing in the second line, notdirectly related to the street is configured.To create a good street local authoritiesshould formulate some simple guidelines fordevelopment just the way it has been donein the sixties when the Avenida Paulista tookoff. Guidelines which address attention toHousing as a driverfor good public spaceby Rogier van den BergSão Paulo is oftenbeing stigmatizedfor being a concretejungle, but as soonas you experiencethe city at eye levelin the streets youbecome aware of acity full of public life.
  • 39. Studio São Paulo39alignment, height and the perfomance of theplinth or the walls along the street. With addingto this the housing projects which are initiatedand constructed by SEHAB and COHAB a strongbasis for good public space is already there.Not necessarely everywhere but at least at themain routes of the neighbourhood. To makethese streets really attractive the design of thepublic space itself and the way it is materialisedcan only add to this. But the basis for goodpublic space primarely is the way architecturerelates to it and the way a pattern of publicspace is constructed and maintained in theneighbourhood.You will not do this overnight. But there is agreat advantage in São Paulo. The city alreadyhas a lot of potential good public space whichis naturally embedded in its context. An extraimpuls could be generated by having thehousing operation work in favour of this. I donot believe that one could change the idea ofdanger immediately. Fear has a ground in thiscity. That’s clear.That’s why a regulated ‘collective’ spacewhich has certain ‘opening hours’ should beconsidered as a first step of place making.Having these collective spaces connected toshops and to public program like daycare,schools and healthcare the space can graduallygrow into its role as being public and safe. Theway the ‘park’ at the Petrobras site has beenproposed in Studio São Paulo is making use ofthis strategy over time.To make new housing work in favor of a publicspace strategy requires a slightly differentmindset in the great housing ambition of SEHABand COHAB. Without this there is a potentialdanger that ambitious housing projects will beresponsible for a new generation of livabilityproblems within the city within twenty years.In the Netherlands we have experienced thisourselves with the postwar social housingoperation which only had good intentions too.So far I am optimistic if that what is therealready will be cherised and if there will be amore urbanistic approach to large scale housingprojects. In the end the Paulistans still love tostroll on the streets and will keep demandinggood public space ever more.A good street requires ahuman scale, more entrancesapart from only one andattractive functions along it.To use housing as part of an publicspace strategy requires a slightlydifferent mindset, but without thisthere is a potential danger thatambitious housing projects will beresponsible for a new generationof livability problems within thecity within twenty years.
  • 40. Studio São Paulo40Anyone who takes a walk through SaoPaulo’s oldest neighbourhoud Sé on aweekday during daytime will experiencea city that probably resembles somethingbetween Lisbon and New York. Crowdedstreets lined by European style monumentalbuildings and skyscrapers. After closingtime of the shops and offices the streets aredead. Nobody lives in Sé. At the same timethere are many empty buildings in Sé andplenty of people who would want to livecloser to their jobs and shopsand even have the moneyfor it.Bad city planning and clearcutting facilities followed byhyper inflation killed life inthe city center. The loss ofreal estate value made theold buildings too expensiveto maintain. Many tallbuildings became useless atonce when elevators failed,leaving only the ground floorin use. With the economic growth of thelast decade it appeared more attractive toinvest in new areas and ask the governmentfor new infrastructure than to do relativelyexpensive refurbishing of outdatedbuildings. Rumours of possible upgradingprojects, currently there are about 50running in the city centre, put the brakeson private investments. Property ownersprefer to wait and see if these upgradingsbring back some of the value lost in thepast decades. Moreover, there is a lot offragmented ownership.A few years ago COHAB started a programfor transforming vacant buildings in thecentre into social housing. Transformingold buildings is expensive but calculationspointed out that it’s still 15% to 30%cheaper than expanding the infrastructureand facilities in new residential areas.COHAB inventorised the vacant buildingsand made a selection based on simplerules. Small is expensive, big createsuncontrollable communities and tall makesdependent on elevators. COHAB found54 buildings, mostly hotels and offices,together suitable for about 2500 residentialunits for lower incomes.The combination of Sao Paulo’s sizeand congestion creates particularcircumstances. The clogged up transportScreaming Vacancyby Bart Aptoot (One Architecture)After closing timethe streets are dead.Nobody lives in Séwhile there are manyempty buildings andplenty of people whowould want to livecloser to their jobs andshops and even havethe money for it.
  • 41. Studio São Paulo41network has resulted in extremespecialization of businesses withinreasonable traveling time from theirsuppliers or clients. The massive scale ofthe city makes each of these specializationsgrow out to neighbourhoods. The seeminglyendless series of wedding dress shopsin Brás is followed by an almost equallyimpressive row of mannequin stores and asewing machine street. Even the improbablecombination of parking garage and interiorlight store is repeated numerous timeswithin the street Consolaçao.Entrepreneurs know the local conditions.When these change their businesses areadapted swiftly, inventively and initiallywith low investments. The neighbourhoodnetwork and the flexibility of theentrepreneurs are valuable ingredients toachieve fast changes in neighbourhoods.Their limited investment capacity is adrawback. Not every function and not everyintervention in existing buildings is possiblewithout considerable investments.Vacancy in the heart of such a crowdedmetropolis, which so much ingenuity andflexibility and a fast growing economy, itexcites. A large group of Paulistans, themany employees of the offices in Sé aswell as the well payed middle class andparticularly the youngest amongst themwouldn’t want anything more than to giveup their daily two to three hour commutetime to live closer to their jobs, shops andnightlife. There areabout 150 unusedbuildings left on theCOHAB list, of whichone can only hopethat COHAB sharesit with investorsto address thismarket of youngprofessionals. Add tothis the empty lots inneighbouring districtBrás, on which more integral developmentis possible. Living, working and leisure inone neighborhood. That makes one longimmensely for crowd sourcing for ideas,competitions for plans, setting a few goodexamples in motion, connecting them andputting the new spots in the spotlights. Therest follows automatically.The neighbourhood networkand the flexibility of theentrepreneurs are valuableingredients to achieve fastchanges in neighbourhoods.... it makes one longimmensely for crowdsourcing for ideas andcompetitions for plans. Seta few good examples inmotion and put them in thespotlights. The rest followsautomatically.
  • 42. Studio São Paulo42Studio São Paulo has been a mutualinitiation into each other’s world of urbanplanning and design. Brazilian urbanistssat down with their Dutch colleaguesand government officials from severaldepartments. This unusual setting allowedto put up a proverbial ladder up against thetrees of São Paulos concrete jungle and so asto take a little distance from their usual joband look at their project assignments fromthe angle of their colleagues on the differentdepartments or from the internationalperspective. Working together on the threecases the Dutchwidened anddeepened theirunderstandingof São Paulo’sconcretejungle and the challenges it faces for bothits inhabitants as well as its planningprofessionals. During the five days ofdiscussions and design, the Paulistansin turn got a feel of both the qualitiesand pitfalls of our integrated and urbanplanning tradition.Besides fun and friendships, several resultswill remain from the first session of StudioSao Paulo for its participants. First, valuableinsights have been translated into threeaccessible projects. Second, the participantstake the experience into their professionallives. Third, after the workshop some of theparticipants recognized the mutual benefitof knowledge from both sides of the oceanand have started to explore the possibilitiesof further collaboration. That’s all very nice,but how does the city of São Paulo benefitfrom this?Creating ‘public value’Although all three areas Studio São Pauloworked on have their big issues to solve,we found in each of them specific hiddenpotentials and existing qualities whichwe as urban designers can improve andamplify. The main difficulty of all of thethree areas we worked on is that theexisting quality is under pressure.The city of São Paulo is in the lift. That isgreat. For every citizen in this city there ispotential to grow with this.Therefore there is a large quest for newhousing. Bigger and better houses for a newmiddle class in the city. But we should notforget that with this growing prosperitythere will be an ever bigger demand onquality. That quality is not only the qualityof the house, but also the quality of theA continuous Studio São Paulo?By Kria Djoyoadhiningrat and Jaap KlaarenbeekThe main difficulty is tocreate integrated plans forpublic value under pressureof the need for speed,
  • 43. Studio São Paulo43city. That means to create good housing,but also good parks, nice streets, places tomeet and accessibility to various modesof transport. This is what we have definedas the public value. The main difficultyis to create integrated plans public valueunder pressure of the need for speed,quantities and short term interests in urbandevelopment.São Paulo is built by urban planners,infrastructural engineers, architects andits residents. Urban planners make zoningand allotment plans, while architectsand inhabitants are typically inwardlyfocussing on the architecture of the plot.Big infrastructure bind the two togetherand commonly create little urban value. Itis exactly on this in-between scale, the scalebetween urban planning and architecture,where ‘urban design’ can make a differenceto create public value.If everybody is working in his own domainit is impossible to create quality. Then thetransport hubs are on the wrong places,potential green areas are destroyed,while next to it there is enough space todensify, etcetera. The Petrobras site next toHeliopolis is a typical example. We foundout that by creating housing at the edgestogether with a densification of Vila Cariocait is absolutely not necessary destroy thebeautiful, hilly greenery. This could be apark which will be of great public value forthe next decades to come.As SEHABsecretaryRicardoPerreira Leitetold in hiswelcome about his recent visit to Paris:‘Brazilians would be shocked by the smallsize of the Parisian appartments. But if youlive in Paris, everything you need is veryclose; supermarkets, cinema’s, museumsand parks to stroll, cycle of to have a‘churrasco’. We have to create that sameurban quality in our cities’.If you want to create quality, create goodpublic space and create public value, it isnecessary that various public institutionswork together to make integrated plans.The resulting synergy of new partnershipsmakes the project more effective and mayeven be realised faster and cheaper.As a result of our design thinking wedefined points of advice for making qualityIf everybody is workingon his own domain it isimpossible to create quality.
  • 44. Studio São Paulo44in the city of São Paulo:1. Use the existing quality of a place. There isa lot. Do not throw it away. You cannot find itfrom behind a desk. Get there, research andtake this as a point of departure for a plan.2. Create a complete life in theneighbourhood. Each neightbourhoodshould have good housing, schools, a park,nice streets and access to public transport.There is a lot of problems the metropolisof São Paulo has to solve. But you can startin the neighbourhood. One good street canmean a lot!3. Create public value. Places for everybodythat are attractive to all citizens to go to andenjoy. It takes an effort in the beginning butin the end will also has it’s economic spinoff.4. Work together. Only with integratedplanning you can create quality public spacein a dense city of São Paulo.5. Have a Permanent Studio São Paulo tocreate a culture of integrated and innovativeurban design for the São Paulo.A permanent Studio São PauloThe first Studio São Paulo was a studiowhere Dutch offices, Paulistan offices,SEHAB, COHAB, Secretaria de Verde e MeioAmbiente, SP Urbanismo and SMDU cametogether to think and design together. Withonly one Studio São Paulo you will notchange the city and therefore we proposedto create a permanent Studio São Paulo.We imagine a permanent Studio São Pauloas an open platform that - in changingcompositions with both Brazilian as well asforeign ‘makers of the city’ - organizes shortpressure cooker workshops that uses theurban design project as a tool for discussionand the discovery of new synergies andpublic value. Studio São Paulo would be:- A testbed where new ideas can be tested;and, where both public- and private-sectorparties can address the subjects they thinkthat need to be put forward on a wideplatform;A place where innovative ideas for makingquality in the city are developed togetherwith all responsible departments.;- A place quick dry-run to discover andWe imagine a permanent StudioSão Paulo as an open platformthat organizes short pressurecooker workshops withBrazilian and foreign ‘makers ofthe city’ while using the urbandesign project as a tool fordiscussion and the discovery ofnew synergies and public value.
  • 45. Studio São Paulo45gain mutual understading of the positionsof involved stakeholders and find possibleshared objectives and synergies;- A place where municipal employees fromdifferent departments are able to take alittle distance from their own projects, andthink out of the box about subjects that donot directly make part of their daily work;- A place where international professionalscan learn from São Paulo in a hands-on way,while the city in its turn can tap into allinternational expertise visiting the city soas to even further expand and improve thecities’ programs;- A multidisciplinary machine forconstructive and fresh ideas about SãoPaulo’s future;- A place to develop thoughts and ideasfurther to visions and plans.As an independent platform a PermanentStudio São Paulo can start putting synergiesand possible solutions on the agenda.Who takes the lead?As an independent platforma Permanent Studio SãoPaulo can start puttingsynergies and possiblesolutions on the agenda.Who takes the lead?
  • 46. Studio São Paulo46impresso em renova soft damd Papéis 240g/m2 e 90g/m2pela rr donnelley moore emoutubro de 2010.a bicicleta e as cidades: como inserir a bicicleta na políticade mobilidade urbana / organização renato Boareto;textos ricardo corrêa, Kamyla Borges da cunha,renato Boareto – 2. ed. – são Paulo: instituto deenergia e meio ambiente, 2010.83 p.: il. color.; 21 cm + cd-rOmversão em português e inglês.Publicado também em meio eletrônico.inclui referências bibliográficas.isBn 978-85-63187-02-41. Bicicletas - aspectos ambientais - Brasil.2. ciclovias. 3. mobilidade urbana. i. Boareto, renato.ii. corrêa, ricardo. iii. cunha, Kamyla Borges da. iv. título:como inserir a bicicleta na política de mobilidade urbana.cdU 656.18(81)ParticipantsSão PauloRamiro Levy Secr. Verde e Meio AmbienteAna Laura Badue Secr. Verde e Meio AmbienteRoselia Ikeda Secr. Verde e Meio AmbienteSun Alex Secr. Verde e Meio AmbienteTiago Oakley 23 sul arquitetosLuis Pompeo 23 sul arquitetosRicardo Correa TC UrbesLeticia Lemos TC UrbesTaissa Cruz TC UrbesRenata Semin Piratininga arquitetosJose Armenio de Brito Cruz Piratininga arquitetosMarlon Longo Piratininga arquitetosRafael Giorgi Costa Piratininga arquitetosVanessa Padia SEHAB/CohabAline Frigueiredo SEHAB/CohabRodrigo Tanaka SEHAB/CohabNathassia Salgado Arra SEHAB/CohabMarcelo Rebelo SEHAB/CohabAndre Kwak SP UrbanismoMaria Teresa Grillo SMDUFernando Gasperini SMDUDaniela Gerlinger independentNetherlandsGert Urhahn Urhahn Urban DesignBernardina Borra Urhahn Urban DesignRogier van den Berg Zandbelt & van den BergHeidi Klein Zandbelt & van den BergDaan Zandbelt Zandbelt & van den BergMatthijs Bouw One ArchitectureBart Aptroot One ArchitectureHan Dijk POSADEmile Revier POSADJaap Klaarenbeek Studio ROSAKria Djoijoadhiningrat Studio ROSA
  • 47. Studio São Paulo47ColophonInitiativeJaap KlaarenbeekOrganisationJaap Klaarenbeek, Rogier van den BergParticipating offices:Piratininga Arquitetos, 23 Sul arquitetos, TC Urbes (BR),Studio ROSA, POSAD, Urhahn Urban Design,Zandbelt & van den Berg, One Architecture (NL)Participating departments São Paulo municipalitySecretaria Municipal de Desenvolvimento Urbano (SMDU)Secretaria de Verde e Meio AmbienteSecretaria de Habitação (SEHAB/COHAB)São Paulo UrbanismoMany thanks for their great organizational efforts:Andre Kwak, Ramiro Levy, Ana Laura Badue, Aline Friguereido, Rodrigo TanakaWe owe special gratitude to:Mr .Ricardo Perreira Leite, Mr. Eduardo Jorge Martins Alves Sobrinho, Mr. HélioNeves, Mrs. Roselia Ikeda, Mrs. Heliana Comin Vargas.More information:Jaap Klaarenbeek / jaap@studiorosa.eu / +31(0)6-43757089 (NL) / +55-11-81471309 (BR)Translation:Maria Isabel Oschery (NL)Publication date:21-03-2012
  • 48. Studio São PauloBegin October 2011 five Dutch and three Paulistan urbanism officesparticipated in Studio São Paulo. In a pressure cooker design studioStudio São Paulo combined experience and creative urban thinkingof both sides of the Atlantic to generate inventive concepts forseveral contemporary urban challenges in São Paulo in which social,economical and ecological issues converge in spatial cases.This booklet presents a concise report of Studio São Paulo, with anintroduction, presentations of the cases, reflections and a call for apermanent Studio São Paulo.