The human in the integrated design process Guido Sluijsmans, TNO May 25 th  2011 The human in the integrated design process
Content <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>External developments </li></ul><ul><li>How we can support the driver </li>...
Cause of fatal accidents
The outer world changes <ul><li>Traffic environment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more traffic management systems </li></ul></ul>...
The outer world changes <ul><li>Traffic environment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more traffic management systems </li></ul></ul>...
ICT helps! <ul><li>Many new ICT systems, with positive effects on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
ICT helps! <ul><li>Many new ICT systems,  with positive effects on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
DAF cockpit evolution DAF 1600 (1960) DAF XF105 (2005) DAF 95 ATI (1987) DAF XF 95 (1996)
Cultural preferences Kenworth W900 DAF XF105
But where is the driver? <ul><li>What are the real benefits of advanced driver assistant systems if drivers don’t use it o...
But where is the driver? <ul><li>What are the real benefits of advanced driver assistant systems if drivers don’t use it o...
May 19, 2011 Crash phase Pre-crash phase Driving phase The driver needs support? Intervene Assist Warn Inform Pre - crash ...
How can we support? <ul><li>Taking the human state into account of safety systems by  real-time personal intuitive feedbac...
State Characteristic Task demand
High Workload Normal Workload  Low Workload Workload real-time personal intuitive feedback
Workload <ul><li>We need to know more about:  </li></ul><ul><li>Primary task demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. highways vs...
Workload  [de Waard, 1996] real-time personal intuitive feedback
Validation of workload <ul><li>Secondary task </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous Memory Task </li></ul><ul><li>Numerical ‘99’ ta...
Guidelines    standards <ul><li>European Statements of Principles on Human Machine Interface (2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Architecture of Interaction and communication Assistant Nomadic  devices In-vehicle  information  systems (IVIS) Advanced ...
Example 1. Changing the driver behaviour
How can we support? <ul><li>Taking the human state into account of safety systems by real-time personal intuitive feedback...
Human factors in the design loop Develop according to V-cycle
Important requirements on system level <ul><li>Allows a large number of functions </li></ul><ul><li>Maximises benefits of ...
TNO facilities for HMI Human factors in the design loop
TNO facilities for HMI Human factors in the design loop
Example 2. Modelling for Blind spot Detection and Warning Systems  <ul><li>The main purpose: to gather knowledge about the...
Example 2. Modelling for Blind spot Detection and Warning Systems
Conclusions <ul><li>Everything is changing: environment, vehicles, technology, drivers (expectations) </li></ul><ul><li>Hu...
Thank you! <ul><li>Guido Sluijsmans </li></ul><ul><li>Researchmanager </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic Behaviour </li></ul><ul><l...
AOS project <ul><li>2402  trucks </li></ul><ul><li>>180 GB data </li></ul><ul><li>77 milion vehicle kilometres </li></ul>
euroFOT <ul><li>Perform multiple coordinated tests of Intelligent Vehicle Systems with  ordinary drivers in real traffic <...
Implementation in SPITS project
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Human in automotive safety design

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This presentation starts with the current developments from the perspective of the driver. It gives more details ons how the human can be integrated in the automotive design process

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  • Titel van de presentatie 16-06-11 05:55
  • Titel van de presentatie 16-06-11 05:55
  • Titel van de presentatie 16-06-11 05:55
  • Multi-modal transportation Titel van de presentatie 16-06-11 05:55
  • Multi-modal transportation Titel van de presentatie 16-06-11 05:55
  • Titel van de presentatie 16-06-11 05:55
  • Titel van de presentatie 16-06-11 05:55
  • Increase of information displays and controls. More complex cockpit  looking more similar to an airplane cockpit. Navigation display with entertainment system, controls at the steering wheel, Board computer with vehicle information, lots of controls in the midconsole for suspension settings, climate controlm entertainment etc. Titel van de presentatie 16-06-11
  • It’s about increasing the potential benefits of ADAS Titel van de presentatie 16-06-11 05:55
  • It’s about increasing the potential benefits of ADAS Titel van de presentatie 16-06-11 05:55
  • Driving phase stelt andere eisen dan pre-crash phase. Titel van de presentatie 16-06-11 05:55
  • Ook opleiding speelt een rol Titel van de presentatie 16-06-11 05:55
  • Driver observation needed to provide the best support for each individual driver at the right time It’s challenging because of the amount of characteristics and environments, so start easily
  • Workload Estimator output.
  • The work load experiences affect the task performance of the road user. In general it is assumed that an optimum work load exists that enable a road user to perform optimally (see De Waard, 1996).   The level of the work load of a task is determined by the following factors: The environment. A certain manoeuvre in a busy environment (urban with a lot of other traffic) leads to a higher work load than the same manoeuvre in a quieter environment. The normative task . What does a situation demand of a driver to perform a task correctly and safely? The normative task as presented in chapter 5 makes a distinction by perceptual, cognitive and motoric elements of the sub-tasks and is an extension of the task analysis of Richard, Campbell, and Brown, (2006). Normative means the desired behaviour. Secondary tasks. Secondary tasks are not directly related to the driving task (e.g., phoning or searching for a radio channel when driving). Performing a secondary task can increase the work load of the driver and systems related to driving (such as in-vehicle systems) may also require attention from a driver and thus raise the work load. Stable road user characteristics . General driving experience and experience of certain situations enable certain actions to be automated, therefore demanding less work load. The work load is also affected if the subjectively experienced task competence is considered insufficient for the task requirements (Fuller, 2008). Temporary road user characteristics . Also variable characteristics like tiredness and stress affect the work load experienced. Stress caused by lack of time may reduce information processing capacity (Ozel, 2001). Titel van de presentatie 16-06-11 05:55
  • The work load experiences affect the task performance of the road user. In general it is assumed that an optimum work load exists that enable a road user to perform optimally (see De Waard, 1996).   The level of the work load of a task is determined by the following factors: The environment. A certain manoeuvre in a busy environment (urban with a lot of other traffic) leads to a higher work load than the same manoeuvre in a quieter environment. The normative task . What does a situation demand of a driver to perform a task correctly and safely? The normative task as presented in chapter 5 makes a distinction by perceptual, cognitive and motoric elements of the sub-tasks and is an extension of the task analysis of Richard, Campbell, and Brown, (2006). Normative means the desired behaviour. Secondary tasks. Secondary tasks are not directly related to the driving task (e.g., phoning or searching for a radio channel when driving). Performing a secondary task can increase the work load of the driver and systems related to driving (such as in-vehicle systems) may also require attention from a driver and thus raise the work load. Stable road user characteristics . General driving experience and experience of certain situations enable certain actions to be automated, therefore demanding less work load. The work load is also affected if the subjectively experienced task competence is considered insufficient for the task requirements (Fuller, 2008). Temporary road user characteristics . Also variable characteristics like tiredness and stress affect the work load experienced. Stress caused by lack of time may reduce information processing capacity (Ozel, 2001). Titel van de presentatie 16-06-11 05:55
  • Continuous Memory Task (mental workload) Heart rate frequency (overall level of activation) Heart rate variability (cognitive or mental workload) EEG (Electro Encephalo Gram) (P300 measure for attention) RSME (Rating Scale Mental Effort) One-dimensional. For driving as sensitive as multi-dimensional scales (e.g. NASA-TLX) Titel van de presentatie 16-06-11 05:55
  • Titel van de presentatie 16-06-11 05:55
  • Rapid Prototyping enables fast iterations of multiple design solutions, constantly improving on the product before or during technical implementation.
  • Ook opleiding speelt een rol Titel van de presentatie 16-06-11 05:55
  • Titel van de presentatie 16-06-11 05:55
  • Generic for all type of systems and applications Low processing time Prevent information overload Rank messages on priority Taking traffic situation into account – context awareness Generic – so no complex interfaces and protocols Low processig time – no complex algorithms Main goal is to prevent information overload that prevents the driver from reaction correctly to the situation. Prio ordering Traffic situation – the workload of the driver. With the HMI manager also overload situations will be prevented More participants preferred the AIDE condition to the Non-AIDE condition Titel van de presentatie 16-06-11
  • Titel van de presentatie 16-06-11 05:55
  • Titel van de presentatie 16-06-11 05:55
  • Titel van de presentatie 16-06-11 05:55
  • Demonstrator Titel van de presentatie 16-06-11
  • Human in automotive safety design

    1. 1. The human in the integrated design process Guido Sluijsmans, TNO May 25 th 2011 The human in the integrated design process
    2. 2. Content <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>External developments </li></ul><ul><li>How we can support the driver </li></ul><ul><li>Real-time personal intuitive feedback - workload </li></ul><ul><li>Human factors in the design loop </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Wrap up </li></ul>
    3. 3. Cause of fatal accidents
    4. 4. The outer world changes <ul><li>Traffic environment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more traffic management systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>complex situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>traffic volume increases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More complex in-car technology </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental issues more important </li></ul>
    5. 5. The outer world changes <ul><li>Traffic environment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more traffic management systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>complex situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>traffic volume increases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More (complex) in-car technology </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental issues more important </li></ul><ul><li>Driver is changing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>getting older </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>concerning the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wants to be connected to social networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expects location based services </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. ICT helps! <ul><li>Many new ICT systems, with positive effects on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic throughput </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comfort </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. ICT helps! <ul><li>Many new ICT systems, with positive effects on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic throughput </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comfort </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New technologies to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe vehicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe environment </li></ul></ul>Vehicle Observation Environmental Observation
    8. 8. DAF cockpit evolution DAF 1600 (1960) DAF XF105 (2005) DAF 95 ATI (1987) DAF XF 95 (1996)
    9. 9. Cultural preferences Kenworth W900 DAF XF105
    10. 10. But where is the driver? <ul><li>What are the real benefits of advanced driver assistant systems if drivers don’t use it or don’t use it properly? </li></ul><ul><li>Driver workload / distraction problems and risks </li></ul><ul><li>Physical integration problem </li></ul>[vd Meijs, 2006]
    11. 11. But where is the driver? <ul><li>What are the real benefits of advanced driver assistant systems if drivers don’t use it or don’t use it properly? </li></ul><ul><li>Driver workload / distraction problems and risks </li></ul><ul><li>Physical integration problem </li></ul>
    12. 12. May 19, 2011 Crash phase Pre-crash phase Driving phase The driver needs support? Intervene Assist Warn Inform Pre - crash system ABS/ESP LKA Brake assist LDW Collision Warning Navigation ALC/ Night vision Probability accident
    13. 13. How can we support? <ul><li>Taking the human state into account of safety systems by real-time personal intuitive feedback </li></ul><ul><li>More attention on human factors in the design loop </li></ul>
    14. 14. State Characteristic Task demand
    15. 15. High Workload Normal Workload Low Workload Workload real-time personal intuitive feedback
    16. 16. Workload <ul><li>We need to know more about: </li></ul><ul><li>Primary task demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. highways vs roundabout </li></ul></ul>real-time personal intuitive feedback <ul><li>Secondary task demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. phoning, watching around </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Driver trait </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gender, age and experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environment demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. traffic density, rain/snow, cab temperature, noise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Driver state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fatigue, drowsiness and stress </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Workload [de Waard, 1996] real-time personal intuitive feedback
    18. 18. Validation of workload <ul><li>Secondary task </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous Memory Task </li></ul><ul><li>Numerical ‘99’ task </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Detection Task </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological measures </li></ul><ul><li>Heart rate frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Heart rate variability </li></ul><ul><li>EEG </li></ul><ul><li>Rating Scale Mental Effort </li></ul><ul><li>One-dimensional </li></ul>real-time personal intuitive feedback
    19. 19. Guidelines  standards <ul><li>European Statements of Principles on Human Machine Interface (2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>overall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>installation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>information presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interface, displays & control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>system behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>system information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>eSafety working group HMI (2010) </li></ul><ul><li>ISO working group on HMI in Vehicle </li></ul>real-time personal intuitive feedback
    20. 20. Architecture of Interaction and communication Assistant Nomadic devices In-vehicle information systems (IVIS) Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) Driver real-time personal intuitive feedback Interaction and Communication Assistant (ICA) visual haptic auditory Driver/vehicle/ environment Monitoring (DVE) IN-VEHICLE SENSORS
    21. 21. Example 1. Changing the driver behaviour
    22. 22. How can we support? <ul><li>Taking the human state into account of safety systems by real-time personal intuitive feedback </li></ul><ul><li>More attention on human factors in the design loop </li></ul>Human factors in the design loop
    23. 23. Human factors in the design loop Develop according to V-cycle
    24. 24. Important requirements on system level <ul><li>Allows a large number of functions </li></ul><ul><li>Maximises benefits of individual functions </li></ul><ul><li>Is safe and easy to use </li></ul><ul><li>Shares input/output controls </li></ul><ul><li>Centrally coordinates the information flow </li></ul><ul><li>Adapts information flow to driver’s situation </li></ul><ul><li>Robustness / reliability / conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Speed (realtime) </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptable cost </li></ul>Human factors in the design loop
    25. 25. TNO facilities for HMI Human factors in the design loop
    26. 26. TNO facilities for HMI Human factors in the design loop
    27. 27. Example 2. Modelling for Blind spot Detection and Warning Systems <ul><li>The main purpose: to gather knowledge about the behavioural component of both the driver and the vulnerable road users in this situation as well as innovative detection and warning systems, interaction between systems and the driver environment </li></ul>
    28. 28. Example 2. Modelling for Blind spot Detection and Warning Systems
    29. 29. Conclusions <ul><li>Everything is changing: environment, vehicles, technology, drivers (expectations) </li></ul><ul><li>Human still in the loop for the next decades but human information processing capacity is limited </li></ul><ul><li>Optimising interaction driver– vehicle – environment </li></ul><ul><li>User centred design is possible by sophisticated simulations and driving simulators </li></ul><ul><li>Next step needed in international in-vehicle HMI design & validation standards </li></ul>
    30. 30. Thank you! <ul><li>Guido Sluijsmans </li></ul><ul><li>Researchmanager </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>TNO </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
    31. 31. AOS project <ul><li>2402 trucks </li></ul><ul><li>>180 GB data </li></ul><ul><li>77 milion vehicle kilometres </li></ul>
    32. 32. euroFOT <ul><li>Perform multiple coordinated tests of Intelligent Vehicle Systems with ordinary drivers in real traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate performance, driving behaviour and user acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the impacts on safety, efficiency and the environment, based on road data </li></ul>
    33. 33. Implementation in SPITS project

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