论文范本

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论文范本

  1. 1. THE TRANSLATION OF TERMINOLOGY AND LONG SENTENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH (Times New Roman 小 2 号, 大写,加粗) A Thesis Submitted to The College of Distance Education of Shanghai International Studies University In Partial Fulfillment of The Requirement for The Degree of Bachelor of Arts (Times New Roman 三号) By Xxx Xxx Under the Supervision of Professor Xxx Xxx April 2008 (Times New Roman 三号) I
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT (Times New Roman 三号,大写,加粗) (空 1 行, 即按 1 次回车键) I would like to thank the many people whose inspiration, contribution and support have been very important over the period when this study has been emerging. First of all, I would like to extend my deep-felt gratitude to my supervisor, Professor Chen Long, who has been encouraging me to devote to the study of teacher development and whose enlightening and invaluable advice has guided me through the writing of this thesis. My thanks are also due to all the teachers at SISU who have imparted me the wealth of linguistic knowledge. And I also want to express my gratitude towards my dearest parents, who brought me to this wonderful world and are supportive all the time. Last but not least, my special gratitude goes to wife and my parents-in-law, who shared most of the housework and whose encouragement was supporting me all along through the birth of the thesis. (Times New Roman 小四号) i
  3. 3. ABSTRACT (Times New Roman 三号,大写,加粗) (空 1 行, 即按 1 次回车键) As science and technology dramatically develop in the past decades and will continually skyrocket in the new century, translation of scientific English is badly needed. However, it is, by no means, an easy job. It is especially puzzling in translation of the terminology and long sentences. With the beginning of principle of translation and characteristics of scientific English, this thesis makes an initial exploration in Chinese translation of terminology and long sentences. Generally, the translation techniques in terminology are mainly composed of connotation translation, sound translation and morphology translation, whereas those in long sentences consist of “sequence”, “reverse”, “division” and “combination”. (Times New Roman 小四号) (空一行) Key words:(粗体) translation, techniques, terminology, long sentences (Times New Roman 小四号)(各关键词之间用逗号分开,最后一个关 键词后面无标点符号。) 摘要(宋体小三) 在世界各国科技交流不断加强的今天,科技英语的翻译也显得尤为重 要起来。而其中的难点莫过于科技术语与长句的翻译。本文就科技英语翻 译的标准及特点出发,对其中的难点科技术语、长句的翻译方法作了初步 的研究,科技术语的翻译方法一般为意译、音译及形译等,长句的翻译方 法一般为顺译、倒译、分译和合译等。(宋体小四) 关键字:(加粗)翻译方法,科技术语,长句(宋体小四) (中英文摘要如果一张纸打不下,中文摘要放到下一张纸上) ii
  4. 4. CONTENTS (Times New Roman 三号,大写,加粗) (空 1 行, 即按 1 次回车键) Acknowledgement (小 4 加 粗) ....................................... 错误!未定义书签。 Abstract .................................................................................. 错误!未定义书签。 Introduction ............................................................................ 错误!未定义书签。 Charpter 1 Understanding of student-centered teaching and teacher’s role错误!未定义书签。 1.1 Student-centered teaching (小 4) ............................ 错误!未定义书签。 1.1.1 Definition of student-centered teaching .............. 错误!未定义书签。 1.1.2 A comparison between traditional teaching and student-centered teaching ...................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。 1.2 Teacher’s role .............................................................. 错误!未定义书签。 1.2.1 Definition of role ................................................ 错误!未定义书签。 1.2.2 Teacher’s role in traditional teaching .................. 错误!未定义书签。 1.3 Requirements of student-centered teaching .................. 错误!未定义书签。 1.3.1 Promoting of student autonomy .......................... 错误!未定义书签。 1.3.2 Shifting of teacher’s role .................................... 错误!未定义书签。 Chapter 2 Theoretical bases for the study ............................. 错误!未定义书签。 2.1 Constructivism ............................................................. 错误!未定义书签。 2.2 Humanism ................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。 2.3 Affective Factors.......................................................... 错误!未定义书签。 Chapter 3 A study of ZWU freshmen in English major ........ 错误!未定义书签。 3.1 Introduction ................................................................. 错误!未定义书签。 3.2 Research ...................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。 3.2.1 Purpose of the study ........................................... 错误!未定义书签。 3.2.2 Participants of the study ..................................... 错误!未定义书签。 Chapter 4 Research and discussion ....................................... 错误!未定义书签。 4.1 Stage one: pre-test and questionnaire ........................... 错误!未定义书签。
  5. 5. 4.2 Stage two: post-test and questionnaire .......................... 错误!未定义书签。 Chapter 5 Conclusion ............................................................. 错误!未定义书签。 References ............................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。
  6. 6. 上海外国语大学网络教育学院学位论文 (小 5,右对齐) Introduction (3 号粗体,居中,空 1 行, 即按 1 次回车键,下同) In the course of foreign language teaching (FFT), almost every practitioner in the field has noticed the essential role language learner’ motivation plays. Despite the prevalent awareness of the importance of motivation among FL teachers, the research into motivation in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) has been far from enough. The last four decades have witnessed the amount of research that investigates the nature and role of motivation in foreign language learning process. Gardener and Lambert (1959) pioneered on motivation, proposing an integrative-instrumental duality which became widely accepted and conformed by numbers of studies. In the 1980s, some research has attempted to extend Gardner’s construct by adding new components, such as intrinsic/ extrinsic motivation, attribution about past success/failures, need for achievement, self-confidence and other situation-specific variables such as classroom events and tasks, classroom climate and group cohesion, course content and teaching materials, teacher feedback, and grades and rewards. Meanwhile, the cognitive psychological perspective, is reasonable in focusing on individuals themselves while on the other hand, some external factors, such as teachers, parents, classroom even textbooks may exert a profound impact on them. In 1990s, Dornyei proposed his three-level framework of motivation in FL learning and a few years later, Williams and Burden (1990) also put forward their framework of motivation in such field. In these two frameworks, the influence of FL teachers on learners’ motivation is taken into consideration. More recently, Tremblay and Gardner (1995), Crookes and Schmidt (1991) and Dornyei (1994) have expanded the theories of motivation from wider aspects. However, these researchers do not go further and they fail to construct empirical studies to specify in which aspect -1-
  7. 7. 上海外国语大学网络教育学院学位论文 (小 5,右对齐) FL teachers exert the most influence on their students’ learning motivation. Chapter 1 Literature Review on Motivation Theories (3号粗体,实义词大写) In this chapter some basic information about motivation, such as the definition of it, along with a number of relevant theories in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) will be reviewed. (小四号字体) 1.1 Motivation study in SLA (4号字体,除专有名词外均小写) This section begins with the definition of motivation, and then addresses some distinctions concerning motivation. What follows are some historical reviews on psychological approaches to motivation research. 1.1.1 Definition of motivation (4号字体) Gardner states that motivation refers to the combination of effort plus desire to achieve the goal of learning, the language plus favorable attitudes toward learning that language. He further explains that motivation to learn a second language refers to “the extent to which and individual works or strives to learn the language because of a desire to do so and the satisfaction experienced in this activity” (Gardner, 1985,p.36), and “the desire to achieve a goal, effort extended in this direction and satisfaction with the task” (Gardner & Maclntyre, 1993, p.93). * 1)直接印文需用引号“”标出,且在引文结束后用括号()标明 作者、作品出版年份、引文所在页码,最后用句号 结束引文。 (Gardner & Maclntyre, “.” 如: 1993, p.93). 但如引文在同一章节属第二次引用、或引文选自你所评论的那部作品,则 需在第一次标明作者、作品年月和页码后,再次出现只标明页码即可。 2)直接印文如超过40字(含40字),则需重起段落,且用单倍行距、左右两端 均缩进一个Tab键的距离。印文结束用括号标明作者、作品出版年份、及印文所在页 码。(参见第4页例子) -2-
  8. 8. 上海外国语大学网络教育学院学位论文 (小 5,右对齐) Crookes and Schmidt (1991), view motivation as a much more complex construct that the one culturally related dichotomy, especially in different contexts of foreign language learning. They propose an expanded definition of language motivation by using Keller’s education-oriented theory of motivation as their base. Based on Keller’s view, Crookes and Schmidt (1991) add the external or behavioral characteristics of language learning. 1.1.2 Some distinctions (4号字体) Brown (1994) summarizes the “dictionary definition” from different sources as the extent to which you make choices about goals to pursue and the effort you will devote to that pursue. In Atkinson’s point of view, motivation is a term used to describe what energizes a person and what directs his activity, and energy and direction are at the center of motivation (Atkinson, 2000). In general terms, according to Ellis (2001), motivation refers to the effort which learners put into learning an L2 as a result of their need or desire to learn it. If the paper is about translation: “英雄所见略同”can be translated as “Great minds think alike”. In translating English color words into Chinese, some literal transition may be necessary. For Example, in “Her face turned purple.” (她的脸气的发青。), the color word “purple” is not translated as “紫” but as “青”because the former is usually associated with “coldness” or “ill health” (Zhang, 1997,p.6). -3-
  9. 9. 上海外国语大学网络教育学院学位论文 (小 5,右对齐) Chapter 2 Frameworks of Teachers’ Influence on Motivation In the previous chapter, relevant theories on motivation in the fields of SLA are presented, and in this chapter, some theories emphasizing on teachers’ role in generating students’ motivation in learning will be introduced. That is the scope of motivation study is to be broadened by integrating different perspectives. 2.1 Gardner’s Socio-educational Model (4号字体) From the perspective of educational psychology, the most powerful influence on learning process is the learner's emotions, among which motivation is one of the most important parts. Gardner (1984) and his associates proposed a model referred to as the Socio-Educational Model of Language Learning, endeavoring to explain the process of SLA: A number of interrelated factors in learning a second/foreign language: the social and cultural milieu, referring to the environment in which learners are situated; individual learner differences, which are believed to be the most influential in FLL, including the variables of intelligence, language aptitude, situational anxiety and motivation; the setting, or context, in which learning takes place; and learning outcomes, both linguistic and non-linguistic. Gardner found that integrative motivation correlated with higher achievement in language learning, thus concluding that integrative motivation may indeed be an important requirement for successful language learning and a superior form of motivation (p.47). 2.2 Williams and Burden’s framework of L2 motivation Williams and Burden adopt the social constructivist perspective of motivation, which is based on motivation differently. The differences are that each individual is from individual-specific factors, for example, the unique ways in which they make -4-
  10. 10. 上海外国语大学网络教育学院学位论文 (小 5,右对齐) Conclusion (3 号粗体) With the title “FL Teachers’ influence on learners’ motivation for different types of college students”, this thesis aims to focus on the researches of learning motivation, especially, in the way of how FL teachers impact their students’ English learning motivation, and carries the study both theoretically and empirically. For better research and more convincing results, the project designs a questionnaire based on the hot motivation theories, and carries the questionnaire in the categories of three different types of college students, namely, English majors, non-English majors and adult educational students in China Jiliang University, and they are divided into Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3 respectively for detailed data collection and analysis. This project research is of great importance to the FL teaching for college students in China, and it is also authentic and directory for the whole study with the theoretical rationale of the literature reviews on historical motivation theories, and with an empirical study in form of questionnaire distribution, collection and statistical analysis. In the 1990s, a number of frameworks were put forward, employing not only the traditional social psychological perspective. Some of these frameworks have taken FL teachers' influence into consideration, but they are deficient in some respects, such as neglecting the interrelationship between different perspectives. Thus, under such circumstances, the author of the thesis puts forward her own model on the basis of Williams and Burden's framework for the sake of researching how FL teachers’ exert an influence on learners’ motivation. -5-
  11. 11. 上海外国语大学网络教育学院学位论文 (小 5,右对齐) References (3 号粗体)  参考资料按英文作者在前、中文作者在后的排列顺序  英、中文作者的姓按英文字母表的顺序排列;同一作者的不同年份出版的作品 按出版年份的先后排列;先出版的排在先  中文作者在文章中之用汉语拼音标记  英文书名、期刊、杂志、报纸一律设置成斜体,且除第一个单词或专有名词外, 一律用小写。中文书名则用书名号《》标志。  只列出论文中引用过的文献  转贴论文动员报告中提及的引文格式供修改定稿时参照  Single author: Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. …inside the text (Brown, 2001). “…for writing purpose” (Brown, 2001, p.18).  Co- or Three-authors: Smith, D., Boyd, R., & Spoher, J. C. (1995). Virtues VRKL toolkit. Indianapolis: Hayden Books. …inside the text (Smith, Boyd & Spoher, 1995).  Multiple-authors: Ligon, M., Carpenter, K., Brown, W., & Milsop, A. (1983). Computers in the world of business communications. Hartford, CT: Capital Press. „inside the text: first time (Ligon, Carpenter, Brown & Milsop, 1983). …inside the text: 2nd time (Ligon, et al., 1983).  Editor: Benyon, J., & Mackay, H. (Eds.). (1993). Computer into classroom. London: The Falmer Press. Higgins, J. (Ed.). (1988). Psychology. New York: Norton. -6-
  12. 12. 上海外国语大学网络教育学院学位论文 (小 5,右对齐)  From Books or Journals: Cumming, A., & Sinclair, G. (1991). Conceptualizing hypermedia curricula for literary studies in schools. In G. Landow & P. Delaney (Eds.), Hypermedia and literary studies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Murzynski, J., & Degelman, D. (1996). Body language of women and judgments of vulnerability to sexual assault. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26(3), 1617-1626. - …inside the text (Murzynski & Degelman, 1996).  Online: Degelman, D., & Harris, M. L. (2000). APA style essentials. Retrieved May 18, 2007 from: http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddegelman/index.cfm?doc_id=796 Nielsen, M. E. (n.d.). Notable people in psychology of religion. Retrieved August 3, 2001 from: http://www.psywww.com/psyrelig/psyrelpr.htm  书籍 罗常培:《语言与文化》,北京:商务印书馆,1957。 - „论文中引用 (Luo, 1957). 南国农:《电化教育学》(第二版),北京:高等教育出版社,2000。 束定芳、庄智象:《现代外语教学-理论、实践与方法》, 上海:上海外语教育出版 社,1996。 - „论文中引用 (Shu & Zhuang, 1996). 王士元主编: 《语言与人类交际》,广西:广西教育出版社,1987。 [美] A. N. 乔姆斯基著,徐烈炯等译: 《乔姆斯基语言哲学文选》 ,北京:商务 印书馆,1992。  杂志 “如何理解和揭示对外汉语教学中的文化因素”, 语言教学与研究》 张占一、毕计万: 《 , 1991 第四期:27-35。 …论文中引用 (Zhang & Bi, 1991,p.28). -7-
  13. 13. 上海外国语大学网络教育学院学位论文 (小 5,右对齐) -8-

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