An Expedition Primer:The Way To Mars

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A lovingly researched and presented document from an teacher of humanities on one very popular topic in the minds of students....Deep B has worked with students for 14 years to distil the very best of English grammar and he is available at the number +37190702922 to chat with anyone having problems with essays, writing report ,or grammar problems. All at nominal charges.

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An Expedition Primer:The Way To Mars

  1. 1. The Way To Mars:Can We Really MakeIt?
  2. 2. The reality and the dreamThis is the landscape which the human crewfirst to visit Mars will have to face thereAnd this is how they are preparing for it,atthe IBPat Moscow.The planet comes up at thousands of milesin our dreams ,its red horizons graduallytaking over the whole of ourmindspace,filling us with ideas of what an
  3. 3. ideal world can be found, or madeπππππππππππππππππππππππππππππππThe writer of thispresentation,Deep B.is a teacherof English at EliteAcademy,India,and is a keenresearcher into this and otherhumanities topics and mattersrelated to English as well. Forany inputs for assignment termpapers, he is available at thenumber:+355669177
  4. 4. 028 Ever ready to guide you. Pleasedont hesitate to dial. It will save yourassignments and even business reports oressays from going the way you DONT wantthem to .€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€from a barren,reddesert. We dont carewhether there is actuallylife on it . Its name occursat the end of every seriousdiscussion on how to manage theburgeoning population of our planet or studyright now what happens to a world where adrastic climate change has occured,fromStephen Hawkings recent utterances in his
  5. 5. Discovery Channel series to Carl Sagansthoughts in the blockbuster Cosmosthirtyyears back.Mars is not only humanitysfavourite society and teenage thrill junkiemusing but at the same time the seriousobjective of every presidentialannouncement on space. Is Marsomnipresentin our future? You bet! Are wereally there? This article is not so muchconcerned about the unmanned roboticexploration of Mars which has been on infull swing in the last decade and a half(recession be damned!),but what actually itwouldbe like for a human colony to be setup there and the strain and challenges ofgetting a human crew there first. I had afriend who had left school in standard eight,and did petty jobs the check for whichnever used to reach him. But give him a cooland still night on a lonely rooftop (with mebeside him )and a night sky full of stars and
  6. 6. even he ,one of this worlds cornered ones,would loudly start wondering whether therewas actually life elsewhere in the universeand ultimately where we might find the firstaliens(read:lifeforms), and the finger wouldpoint straight to the reddish , still ,brightpoint of light high in the sky named after theRoman god of war ,painted with the brush ofour own imaginations hungry to placeeverything bad (War of the Worlds,anyone?)and good (see Percival Lowell)on the thathigh dot so far and yet so earthlike tous.Even to answer my friends question,however , it would simply not do to keep onsending robots there (no, not even the MarsScience Laboratory in 2011)but only anactual human mission can answer thequestion,where a geologist can actually diginto the Martian soil and study it minutelywith the help of a hammer and a chisel(or avariation thereof).
  7. 7. See all 7 photosAt lower right in this picture is the kind ofvehicle we will be driving on MarsEven before we land on Mars, we might befried alive. There are high energy cosmicrays in space which might very well do thiswork. Our Sun is like a huge firestorm.....ofgamma and ultraviolet rays, there in themiddle of our solar system. So the first thingthat humans will have to face on a journeyto Mars is the issue of how not to getfried,not only when they are on the journeybut also when they are on the surface of
  8. 8. Mars. Of course spacesuits(some of themalready in development) like the one wornby the astronautin the picture above as partof the Mars500simulation currently underway ,will do a good job in this departmentBut even the walls of a spaceship carryingus there will have to be filled with somekind of effective coolant or thick lead orother buffering to protect us from the kind ofsolar bursts which disrupt communicationseven here in Earths atmosphere, not tomention Mars, where the force of this willbe thousands of times more .So the big question is ,even before we landthere ,should we terraform the planet, sothat its atmosphere and climate becomemore like Earths? We have to rememberthat due to really tiny problems relating tothe way astronauts spacesuits are designedand structural flaws in spaceships we havealready lost precious lives in our space
  9. 9. program ( Remember about the Apollo 1 fireof 1967 ,which nearly threatened to drag outthe moon program ,and the Columbiadisaster of 2003; then the tiles flaking off theDiscovery in July 2005?).A few more suchdisasters ,especially on a high-risk, high-costmultibillion dollar Mars mission and notonly the space program but actually theentire human exploration of the universe aswe have ever known it will be questionedand get over for ever. And lets not pretendthat after such a risky journey through spacewe are not going there to settle .Humanexploration to Mars will ever succeed onlywhen there is a commercial reason,anincentive, to go there ,which has to be theexploitation of minerals like silver. So itsnot just the exploration ,its the economy thatwill do it for us.Here, I am going to present a proposalwhich I am going to call the Bis-
  10. 10. Banproposal after the initials of my ownname ,although parts of it incorporate aRussian plan of the early 1970s: let there bea spaceship which actually flies aroundVenus and Mars with a human crew aboardwithout actually landing on the red planet atfirst. Let it be a one-off mission ,never to berepeated . Of course the spaceship willhave to be big ,in order to take intoaccount some of the resources andtechnology needed as well the radiationproblem. Seriously speaking, the more wecram the spaceship with loads and loads ofcool technology , especially the kind of stufflast seen aboard the H.M.S. Challenger inits voyage around the worlds oceans in1872( oh yes,1872! some of our firstvoyages were much more promising than thekind of things we do with the tin -cans inearth orbit these days),like alcohol flowingthrough the pipes all over one portion of that
  11. 11. vessel to preserve things the way we mightuse water as a coolant in long space voyagesin future, the better it will be. Theastronauts wont even be aboard thespaceship on its first pass over Mars .Theywould do well to board the spaceship onlywhen it has finished wringing around thesolar system for a dozen or less years likethe Galileo spacecraft did back in the mid-90s on its voyage to Jupiter and returned fora pass over low-earth orbit, and before theygo there the spaceship will have toterraform the planet,orwould have startedto do so a good eight or five years before byscattering the extra rain bearing silver iodideor other chemical components,followed bythe oxygen producing micro-organisms .Themission will be launched from Earth usingthe lower energy transfer from Earth to Marswhich opens up every 26 months or so.Thespaceship will be our permanent answer to
  12. 12. all our problems about the costs andtechnology and time and safety factorsinvolved in a Mars exploration program. Itwill be like a semi-permanent slingshotaround the inner solar system, somethinglike a huge object going AWOL,(although itreally wont go AWOL and wont really bepermanent,not even decadal,in fact). It willlook something like the Russian design(below) from the Early 1970s.
  13. 13. The tmk-mavr was actually designed to flyover Mars and Venus without the crewlanding there,back in 1971,but it never tookoff because the N1 rocket which was to haulthis gigantic ship to earth orbit failed tolaunch at the first attemptTHIS WORK IS ANORIGINAL COMPOSITIONBY DEEP B. ,WHO ISAVAILABLE AT THENUMBER +355669177028, TOGUIDE YOU REGARDINGPROBLEMS WITH ANY SIMILAR TOPICSAND ENGLISH AND HUMANITIESSUBJECTS.JUST DIAL HIM AT+37190702922 REGARDING ANYCOMPOSITIONAL OR ENGLISHGRAMMAR PROBLEMS. AT NORMALTELECOM CHARGES.
  14. 14. A martian habitat, which looks very muchlike what humans might build there on theirvery first stayOnce we are there on the surface of Mars thefollowing problems have to be dealt with:1.Once again, the high energy radiationsreaching the Mars surface will be aproblem.This will be a problem even if aspacecraft had gone there before the humancrew and started the process of terraforming,as the buildup of an artificial atmospherewill take time.Violent new climate patternsmight even erupt on a planet with a muchsmaller equatorial diameter than Earth.
  15. 15. 2.Any human crew will have to remain in alow gravity environment on the way toMars( something like a 250 day journey,notcounting the trip back and the time spentthere, which will make things even worse)and once there( the gravity of Mars is 0.38g,that is, much less than half that on thesurface of the Earth) . This may affecteverything ,from bone structure topsychological moods of the humans on thejourney.3. How to return after the initial activitythere will be a big problem. This can besolved by producing methane and oxygen inspecial tanks on the first few hubs(container shaped living spaces).,using theMartian H2O (water ice,thatis,like the typefound by the scoop of the Phoneixlander onthe surface in 2008-09)and the atmosphericCO2(Carbon Dioxide) which can also beused to grow plants in greenhouses
  16. 16. there.The initial set-up may look somethinglike below:the present and the futurePicture of the trenches containing traces ofwater ice dug by the Phoenixlander onMars in 2008A Mars orbit joining of the returningspacecraft from the surface ,arendezvous,which might be done using the
  17. 17. methane generated by the crew when theywould have been on the surface for a monthto six months previouslyThe biggest blow struck when the firsthuman spacecraft blasts off for Mars will,ofcourse ,be to the creationists andfundamentalists, who neither believe that theEarth originated much more than 6000 yearsago or that Neil Armstrong ever went to themoon.Once actual human crew start landingon a planet 119 million miles(58 millionkilometres) away and start digging the soilthere and relaying the finds all over the blueplanet through the medium of the internet,the last vestiges of the frog-ponders will beblown to bits. But will that day come before2037? Thats NASAs cut-off date forlanding humans on Mars.Yes, one can saywith certainty now that that day will comebefore 2037 because of a new engine thatNASA has already developed as a prototype
  18. 18. and the testing of which is currently underway. President BarackObamas spacepolicy formulated in April 2010 might havebeen criticised by those who were favouringan immediate return to the moon ,but look atthe new programme closely, and you willsee the seeds for some real change in ourapproach to deep space missions :it talksabout investing more on research instead ofgaz-guzzling tin-cans like the space shuttlewewereusingjustrecently,each mission ofwhich usedtocostsomething like 500 milliondollars.One of the first fruits of the newresearch oriented approach is the money thatis going to be spent on objects like theengine I referred to a little earlier above,which will at first be used to shore up thesagging International Space Station in low-earth orbit by 2013 and then used to reducethe journey time between Mars and Earthfrom eight to just three months by installing
  19. 19. it aboard future Mars bound spacecraft.Whatdoes the new engine fly on? Well, a streamof neutrons ,of all things.Earlier, suchprototypes never used to fly. Now, theymight. On the day it does, my friendspassionate question to me, "Is there lifeelsewhere in the universe?",will finallybegin to have been answered. Thats whatStephen Hawking also, I suspect,thinks. Justask him.

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