Shaping the Way We Teach English at the Lebanese University

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A Training Workshop given to Lebanese University undergraduates based on the Shaping We Teach English material during the months of November-December, 2010

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  • Premise: effective professional development, according to experts, relies not only on reading materials but also on observing experienced teachers in the classrooms; view primary, secondary, and post-secondary classes in Costa Rica, Egypt, Thailand, & USA
  • Viewers use a constructivist approach as they adapt materials to their own context – meant for trainers
  • After this task, participants will be divided into 6 groups of 6-7 members each.
  • Metacognition: the knowledge and awareness of one’s own language learning process
  • Teachers need to identify things from learners' lives to build a meaningful context for any new concept because then learners can’t rely on background knowledge.
  • Multimedia
  • Divide the group working on “Managing Large Classes” into 2.
  • Remember: You are invited to select the teaching ideas that could be adapted to your local setting!
  • A WebQuest is defined, by Bernie Dodge at San Diego State University, as "an inquiry-oriented activity in which some or all of the information that learners interact with comes from resources on the Internet."
  • Divide the group working on “Managing Large Classes” into 2.
  • Note on acknowledging sources when posting on the wiki and at all times.
  • How do you know? Relationships between ideas (cause-effect or compare-contrast)Think-aloud / fix-up strategies
  • How do you know? Relationships between ideas (cause-effect or compare-contrast)Think-aloud / fix-up strategiesSchemas are interpretive frames that help individuals make sense of information by relating it to previous experiences (Schank & Abelson, 1977). Providing students with a graphic organizer—a visual aid that displays the chunks of information to be studied—gives them an interpretive frame from which to approach the information. A story map is one example of a graphic organizer (see Figure 1). A story map breaks down the components of a story—characters, setting, and dialogue in a series of events or conflicts leading to a resolution—into chunks of text that can help students organize and comprehend the events of the story.
  • Note on acknowledging sources when posting on the wiki and at all times.
  • Note on acknowledging sources when posting on the wiki and at all times.
  • Shaping the Way We Teach English at the Lebanese University

    1. 1. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Welcome to the "Shaping the Way We Teach English" Workshop <br />as adapted for the English Language & Literature undergraduates at the <br />Lebanese University - Branch II, Fanar<br />
    2. 2. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Modules to be Covered:<br />Session 1: Monday, November 15<br />Contextualizing the Language<br />Building Language Awareness <br />Using Authentic Materials<br /> <br />Session 2: Wednesday, November 24<br />Integrating Skills<br />Pair and Group Work<br /> <br />Session 3: Monday, November 29<br />Critical and Creative Thinking<br />Learning Strategies<br />Session 4: Wednesday, December 1<br />Individual Learner Differences<br />Session 5: Monday, December 6<br />Learner Feedback<br /> <br />Session 6: Wednesday, December 8<br /> Managing Large Classes<br />
    3. 3. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Outline for Session 1:<br />Introduction of the material<br />Modules and expectations<br />Task in preparation for presentations<br />Contextualizing the Language<br /> A. Introduction<br /> B. Video<br /> C. Debriefing<br />V. Building Language Awareness<br /> A. Introduction<br /> B. Video<br /> C. Debriefing<br />VI. Authentic Materials<br />VII. In preparation for session 2<br />
    4. 4. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Shaping the Way we Teach English: Successful Practices Around the World <br />is a Video-based teacher training product for English language educators. <br />Authors: Leslie Opp-Beckman & Sarah J. Klinghammer – University of Oregon<br />Produced & Distributed by the Office of English Language Programs, US Department of State<br />This training product is designed for English as a Foreign Language educators who share the following two goals:<br />1. Building an academic or “pedagogical” foundation, and<br />2. Improving classroom practices.<br />
    5. 5. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Factors for Success:<br /><ul><li>Your own personal reasons and motivation for using these materials
    6. 6. your willingness to experiment with and seriously</li></ul>try to use different ideas and techniques in your classroom<br />THINK OUTSIDE THE BOX <br />to creatively <br />“SHAPE THE WAY YOU TEACH ENGLISH”<br />
    7. 7. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />What’s the deal?<br /><ul><li>Read at least one article regarding each module before the session (check www.efleducators.wikispaces.com for more details on the workshop or http://oelp.uoregon.edu/shaping.htmlfor more details on the material )
    8. 8. Attend regularly
    9. 9. Work actively and purposefully during each session to prepare with other group members for a lesson plan – or action plan – where you integrate the strategies and practices you have learned
    10. 10. Present your action plans during the last 2 sessions – Dec. 13 & 15
    11. 11. Receive your certificate along with the manual & the DVD, courtesy of the US Embassy</li></li></ul><li>Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />TASK:<br />Imagine you and a partner from this course or from your<br />school are working together to "shape" the classrooms in<br />which you work in order to introduce innovativeprocesses<br />and activities to language learning.What are your hopes? What would you like to achieve? What more do you need to know? What modules (topics) from "Shaping the Way We Teach English" seem most likely to offer you ideas or solutions to help bring those dreams alive?Write these hopes, questions, and concerns, on the cardboard of your choice. You could start with:<br />I would like… How could I…? When…? Why….? I hope to…Students should…<br />
    12. 12. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Contextualizing the language: learning language in real communicative situations<br />Building language awareness: becoming aware of not only the grammar rules and the vocabulary but how the language is constructed in a specific context<br />Using authentic materials: real objects used in the target culture for actual communicative purposes<br />
    13. 13. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Integrating Skills: the ability to communicate meaningfully in TL requires the use of language skills together in social interaction<br />Group and pair work: what are the benefits? What about assessment? Class management?<br />Critical and creative thinking: guiding students to think “analytically” so that they question and evaluate and create new concepts based on previously learned ones<br />Learning Strategies: the strategies – cognitive and metacognitive – that learners develop to become independent and more involved in their own learning process<br />
    14. 14. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Individual learner differences: different learning styles; multiple intelligences; different backgrounds; a variety of personality traits; etc.<br />Learner feedback: giving efficient feedback to learners and promoting the concept of mistakes as learning opportunities<br />Managing large classes: how do large classes affect the quality of learning? What kind of planning is required? What about individual attention and effective feedback?<br />
    15. 15. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Contextualizing the Language<br />the meaningful use of language for real communicative purposes to help students understand how language users construct language in a given context<br />
    16. 16. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Contextualizing the Language<br />Additional Reasons:<br /><ul><li>Language is constructed through a blend of purpose, situation, and social needs. Classroom learning experiences that incorporate these dimensions are more likely to lead to better learning outcomes.
    17. 17. A contextualized approach to instruction also supports the use of integrated skills, and pair and group work.
    18. 18. And, it can foster a deeper level of use of the language, especially when the themes and topics are high-interest and motivate students. </li></li></ul><li>Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />
    19. 19. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Contextualizing the Language<br />SEE or DON’T SEE?<br />Checklist: Language in Context<br />What classroom practices or items of interest caught your eye as you watched the video?<br />Give one or more specific examples, and connect them to changes you would like to try in your own setting. Explain how those changes might benefit you and your students.<br />
    20. 20. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Building Language Awareness<br />the need to be aware of the specific language within that context i.e. the awareness, of the particular features of language that add to learning for example:<br /><ul><li>grammar,
    21. 21. vocabulary,
    22. 22. and pronunciation  </li></ul>However, teaching these formal aspects of language through rules, exercises, memorization, and drills does not appear to be entirely effective. Research shows that:<br />SELECTIVELY FOCUSING ON ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE USE WITHIN A GIVEN CONTEXT CAN BE EVEN MORE EFFECTIVE.  LANGUAGE AWARENESS IS THE NAME FOR THIS KIND OF FOCUS. <br />
    23. 23. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Building Language Awareness<br />Two additional requirements of language awareness are that:<br /><ul><li>The context should reflect language that learners are most likely to use.
    24. 24. And, language practice in context should be accompanied by conscious effort and reflection on that practice. </li></li></ul><li>Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Building Language Awareness<br />Some characteristics of language awareness include….<br /><ul><li>The use of meta-language to talk about language and language forms.
    25. 25. Training of learners to become better, more conscious participants in their own learning. They do the work.
    26. 26. A balance of inductive and deductive techniques to focus on specific aspects of language.
    27. 27. Focus on appropriateness of language used, both situational and cultural.
    28. 28. And, the use of comprehensible input, in the form of materials from authentic sources, from the local environment, and from the Internet, for example. </li></li></ul><li>Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />
    29. 29. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Using Authentic Materials<br />Authentic materials are used by speakers of a language for actual communication. <br />Authentic materials are good tools for language teaching and learning because they:<br /><ul><li>Are interesting: chosen based on individual interests
    30. 30. Are appropriate for age and level – they are adaptable – could be simplified
    31. 31. Use real language.
    32. 32. Contain examples of the point of the lesson
    33. 33. Help students learn how to get as much information as they can
    34. 34. Are available locally – not necessarily purchased or costly</li></li></ul><li>Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Authentic Materials<br />Printed Text: Magazines<br />
    35. 35. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Authentic Materials<br />Printed Text: Tourism Album<br />
    36. 36. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Authentic Materials<br />Realia:<br />Dolls in real clothes<br />
    37. 37. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Authentic Materials<br />Realia:<br />Models<br />
    38. 38. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Authentic Materials<br />Realia:<br />Students bring their own realia.<br />
    39. 39. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Authentic Materials<br />Book Cart to create a literacy rich environment<br />Or subject corners to expose learners to targeted content<br />
    40. 40. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Authentic Materials<br />Images: Posters<br />
    41. 41. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Authentic Materials<br />Images: Posters <br /><ul><li>Our Hometowns
    42. 42. The Places that We Visited</li></li></ul><li>Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Authentic Materials<br />Images: Posters – class planning a trip to Washington<br />
    43. 43. In preparation for session 2 on:Integrating SkillsPair & Group Work<br /><ul><li>Pick up your set of articles on your way out
    44. 44. Concerned groups prepare a brief presentation on your initial plan concerning the implementation of session 1 modules</li></ul>Thank you  See you next week!<br />
    45. 45. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Outline for Session 2:<br />Sitting in groups & checking out list of names<br />www.efleducators.wikispaces.com Readings, PPT, Updates, & Presentations<br />What to look for<br />Action Plan + Aids / poster<br />Update Group Session 1 + briefing<br />Integrating Skills<br /> A. Introduction<br /> B. Video<br /> C. Debriefing<br />V. Group & Pair Work<br /> A. Introduction<br /> B. Video<br /> C. Debriefing<br />VI. Group work<br />VII. In preparation for session 3 & 4<br />
    46. 46. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />What to look for in preparation for updates and final presentation?<br /><ul><li>Reflection on reading material
    47. 47. Reflection on videos and ensuing discussions: differences and/or similarities; what I would like to try in my classroom & why
    48. 48. Link to poster’s questions & to action plan
    49. 49. Identify a class technique or resource that you would like to try in your own classroom
    50. 50. Highlight expected benefit
    51. 51. Explain how you would evaluate its success</li></ul>Share & receive feedback from your peers!<br />
    52. 52. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Action Plan for Final Presentations<br />In this workshop, we are focusing on new teaching techniques<br />and resources. Choose one technique or classroom innovation<br />that you would like to incorporate into your class, and develop<br />an action plan (below) for accomplishing this.<br />My class Now vs. My Class in the Future (My Vision)<br />The benefits I predict from this change:<br />Challenges I expect:<br />How I will address those challenges:<br />Steps and timeline (schedule) for completing the change:<br />How I will assess the degree of success of the change:<br />
    53. 53. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Session 1 Group <br />Update on:<br />Contextualizing the Language<br />Building Language Awareness <br />Using Authentic Materials<br />
    54. 54. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Integrating Skills<br />The ability to communicate meaningfully &<br />effectively in TL requires the use of language skills<br />together in social interaction.<br />Recall a successful or effectively transmitted message – a movie scene, a talk show, or a real life situation: <br />* Use of receptive & productive language skills<br />* Non-verbal skills<br />* Aids <br />
    55. 55. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Integrating Skills: <br />View the Video<br />SEE or DON’T SEE?<br />Checklist: Language in Context<br />
    56. 56. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Integrating Skills<br />Sample Activities:<br />Oral / Reading Activity: <br /><ul><li>Poster giving information about a reading/book club
    57. 57. A dialogue between the club secretary and a student who wants to join the club.</li></ul>Writing Activity:<br />Students complete a membership application form for the reading club based on their partners’ information<br />
    58. 58. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Integrating Skills: Project Based Learning (PBL) WEBQUEST<br /><ul><li>A mime
    59. 59. a slideshow
    60. 60. A discussion
    61. 61. Diary entries
    62. 62. A comic strip</li></li></ul><li>Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Integrating Skills: Project Based Learning (PBL)<br />"An Important Warning"<br />The crew of the Seahawk will set sail across the Atlantic from Liverpool…..<br />You have been chosen to take the journey alongside Charlotte and the Seahawk brazen1 sailors and refined captain. The journey is sure to involve many unpredictable turns, and in order to make it, you have to know more about the setting, show the true character of many on the ship and understand what conflicts they go through and record important lessons for future brave sailors. Buckle up for the journey!<br />Godspeed!! Remember the journey is the reward, so give it your best!<br />
    63. 63. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Group and Pair Work: <br />What are the benefits? What about assessment? Class management?<br />
    64. 64. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Group and Pair Work: View Video<br />SEE or DON’T SEE?<br />Checklist: Language in Context<br />Video Segment # 1<br /><ul><li>Group formation:
    65. 65. Game rules:
    66. 66. Interaction (student-student; student-teacher)</li></ul>Video Segment # 2<br /><ul><li>Teacher Instructions:
    67. 67. Lesson Plan:
    68. 68. Student behavior:
    69. 69. Evaluation: </li></li></ul><li>Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Integrating Skills & Group Work<br />What other teaching techniques are involved?<br />
    70. 70. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Important!<br /><ul><li>Task-based learning / Problem-based learning (PBL)
    71. 71. Deductive vs. Inductive Reasoning
    72. 72. Jigsaw activity
    73. 73. Rubric</li></li></ul><li>In preparation for session 3 on:Critical and Creative ThinkingLearning Strategies<br />as well as all the other sessions:<br /><ul><li>Pick up your set of articles from the Students’ Body on Thursday
    74. 74. Concerned group(s) prepare a brief presentation / update on your initial plan concerning the implementation of session 2 modules</li></ul>Thank you  See you next week!<br />
    75. 75. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Outline for Session 3:<br />Sitting in groups & checking out list of names<br />www.efleducators.wikispaces.com Readings, PPT, Updates, & Presentations <br />Update Groups Session 2 + briefing<br />Material Distribution<br />Critical & Creative Thinking<br /> A. Discussion <br /> B. Video<br /> C. Debriefing<br /> D. Group Work Activity<br />VI. Presentations<br />
    76. 76. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Session 2 Group I <br />Update on:<br />Integrating Skills<br />Session 2 Group II <br />Update on:<br />Pair & Group Work<br />
    77. 77. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Critical & Creative Thinking<br />What is the definition of critical thinking? What does it look like in the EFL classroom i.e. how do you know it’s part of the learning experience? <br />“The disposition to provide evidence in support of one’s conclusion and to request evidence from others before accepting their conclusion.” (Hudgins & Edelman 1986)<br />Low Level Thinking skills (LOTs) and High Level Thinking skills (HOTs)<br />
    78. 78. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Bloom’s Taxonomy<br />
    79. 79. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Critical & Creative Thinking<br />Students should be given opportunities to question /<br />evaluate knowledge / facts presented especially in<br />today’s global society. EXPLAIN.<br />How does it affect traditional teachers’ and<br />learners’ roles?<br />What about assessment?<br />
    80. 80. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />In addition to cognitive abilities, what affective areas are involved?<br />Critical & Creative Thinking Video<br />SEE or DON’T SEE?<br />Checklist: Language in Context<br />
    81. 81. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Critical & Creative Thinking<br />Group Work Activity:<br /><ul><li>Pick an article of your choice.
    82. 82. Detect the theme, the content/objectives that could be taught</li></ul>using the material chosen.<br /><ul><li>Devise an activity that could engage your students in critical and creative thinking. Highlight any other teaching technique that your activity makes use of.</li></li></ul><li>Thank you  See you on Wednesday!<br />Remember:<br />The sky is the limit!<br />
    83. 83. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Outline for Session 4:<br />Sitting in groups; checking out list of names; reminder about the “deal”<br />www.efleducators.wikispaces.com Readings, PPT (action plan), Updates, Presentations, & Photos<br />Presentations of Critical Thinking activities: Group Session 3 + briefing<br />Learning Strategies & Individual Learner Differences<br /> A. Discussion<br /> B. Activity<br />
    84. 84. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Session 3 Group <br />Update on:<br />Critical & Creative Thinking<br />
    85. 85. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Any other group interested in sharing their activity on<br />Critical & Creative Thinking<br />
    86. 86. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Learning Strategies<br />Which strategies do you use as learners? <br />Which strategies would you encourage your students to use? Why? What’s the purpose? <br />Are you ready to model the use of these strategies in class to guide your students?<br /><ul><li>Which strategies do you use as learners?
    87. 87. Which strategies would you encourage your students to use? Why? What’s the purpose?
    88. 88. Are you ready to model the use of these strategies in class to guide your students?
    89. 89. How else can you help your students become strategic? </li></li></ul><li>Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Learning Strategies<br />Read the following excerpts from The Interlopers, a short story by Saki. <br />Focusing on the scene chosen, discuss how you can guide students to use reading strategies in a way that guarantees comprehension and activates critical thinking.<br />
    90. 90. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />[…] The neighbour feud had grown into a personal one since Ulrich<br />had come to be head of his family; if there was a man in the world<br />whom he detested and wished ill to it was GeorgZnaeym, the<br />inheritor of the quarrel and the tireless game-snatcher and raider of <br />the disputed border-forest. The feud might, perhaps, have died<br />down or been compromised if the personal ill-will of the two men<br />had not stood in the way; […] If only on this wild night, in this dark,<br />lone spot, he might come across Georg Znaeym, man to man, with<br />none to witness--that was the wish that was uppermost in his<br />thoughts. And as he stepped round the trunk of a huge beech he<br />came face to face with the man he sought. […]<br />
    91. 91. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />The two enemies stood glaring at one another for a long silent<br />moment. Each had a rifle in his hand, each had hate in his heart and<br />murder uppermost in his mind. The chance had come to give full<br />play to the passions of a lifetime. But a man who has been brought<br />up under the code of a restraining civilisation cannot easily nerve<br />himself to shoot down his neighbour in cold blood and without<br />word spoken, except for an offence against his hearth and honour.<br />And before the moment of hesitation had given way to action a<br />deed of Nature's own violence overwhelmed them both. A fierce<br />shriek of the storm had been answered by a splitting crash over<br />their heads, and ere they could leap aside a mass of falling beech<br />tree had thundered down on them. […]<br />
    92. 92. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />"Could you reach this flask if I threw it over to you?" asked Ulrich suddenly; "there is good wine in it, and one may as well be as comfortable as one can. Let us drink, even if to-night one of us dies." <br />"No, I can scarcely see anything; there is so much blood caked round my eyes," said Georg, "and in any case I don't drink wine with an enemy." <br />
    93. 93. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Individual Learner Differences<br /><ul><li>Age; gender; socioeconomic conditions; level of education
    94. 94. Cognitive ability or “intelligence”
    95. 95. Cognitive development in young learners
    96. 96. Language proficiency
    97. 97. Motivation
    98. 98. Personality traits
    99. 99. Learning strengths, style, and preferences</li></li></ul><li>Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Individual Learner Differences<br /><ul><li>Temperament sorter to identify personality type: idealists; guardians; rationals; artisans
    100. 100. Learning styles questionnaire: active & reflective learners; sensing & intuitive learners; visual & verbal learners; sequencing & global learners
    101. 101. Seven intelligences checklist: linguistic; logical; spatial; musical; bodily; naturalistic; interpersonal; intrapersonal</li></ul>& accordingly identify learning strengths!<br />
    102. 102. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Individual Learner Differences<br />How does all this knowledge affect the way we teach?<br />Differentiated instruction: learning stations<br />+ variety varietyvariety<br /><ul><li>Tasks
    103. 103. Content & medium of delivery
    104. 104. Learning strategies
    105. 105. Responsibility
    106. 106. Group work</li></li></ul><li>In preparation for session 5 & 6 on:Learner FeedbackManaging Large Classes<br /><ul><li>Read at least one article for each module
    107. 107. Concerned group prepare a brief presentation / update on learning strategies & individual learner differences + post on wiki
    108. 108. Check the www.efleducators.wikispaces.com for an activity regarding learning styles and multiple intelligences
    109. 109. Check the wiki for the presentations schedule and guidelines</li></ul>Thank you  See you next week!<br />
    110. 110. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Outline for Session 5:<br />Group work: articles vs. questions<br />Attendance / material / wiki membership / action plan / schedule<br />Presentations that answer the questions + note taking by relevant groups to post on www.efleducators.wikispaces.com<br />Preparation for final presentations<br />
    111. 111. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Session 3 Group <br />Update on:<br />Learning Strategies<br />Elias Haddad <br />Jessica Bechara <br />Leonie El Khoury <br />Liliane Geara <br />Pierre Awaida <br />Rabih Bou Jaoudeh <br />Sabine Abi Saber <br />Sandra Tawk<br />ElianorKhoury<br />
    112. 112. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Learning Strategies: Wrap-up<br /><ul><li>An “autonomous learner”
    113. 113. uses a variety of strategies to learn independently
    114. 114. monitors his/her own learning process
    115. 115. explains what strategies s/he uses and why</li></ul>“Metacognition” is the process of thinking about one’s thinking / learning.<br />
    116. 116. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Learning Strategies: Wrap-up<br />A “self-directed learner”<br /><ul><li>is willing to take risks and make mistakes
    117. 117. recognizes language and communication patterns
    118. 118. has a strong motivation to communicate</li></ul>A “strategy” is a tool, method, or plan for accomplishing a task.<br />Successful language learners tend to select strategies that work well together in a highly organized way, and that are a good fit for the requirements of the language task. <br />
    119. 119. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Group Work<br />Go through the article you are responsible for, and<br />then pick one of the questions listed on the poster<br />to answer in a quick presentation. Make sure your<br />presentations include at least one example, tip, or<br />strategy from the classroom that support your<br />point. You could also refer to the manual & the<br />video segments.<br />
    120. 120. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Group Work<br />The groups responsible for “Individual Learner<br />Differences” and “Learner Feedback” record the<br />answers to the questions relevant to their content<br />areas and post these answers to the wiki as<br />update. Any use of references should be cited.<br />
    121. 121. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Group Work: Articles<br />Evaluating Student Work I: Philosophy of Grading (II)<br />Methodology: feedback in communicative classrooms (I)<br />Student Correction During Class – How and When? (II)<br />Responding to student papers (III)<br />Learning Styles and Strategies (VI)<br />Differentiation of Instruction in the Elementary Grades (IV)<br />Teaching Multilevel Adult ESL Classes (VI)<br />Emotional Intelligence and ELT (V)<br />
    122. 122. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Session 4 Group <br />Update on:<br />Individual Learner Sentences<br />Session 5 Group <br />Update on:<br />Learner Feedback<br />
    123. 123. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />QUESTIONS<br />How can you help students self-correct and why is it important?<br />What does formative assessment mean and why is it important?<br />Which of these strategies is an effective feedback strategies? Describe and justify: giving incentives; using checklists; facial expressions; on-the-spot correction<br />When is it appropriate to delay feedback?<br />Is it important for students to have consistent feedback? What kind of feedback should it be?<br />How would you deal with students who correct each other spontaneously?<br />Describe 4 best practices concerning feedback on students’ written work.<br />
    124. 124. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />QUESTIONS<br />8. Why is it important to be open-minded while correcting students’ work?<br />9. What is the link between emotional intelligence and learner feedback?<br />10. Is fluency more important than accuracy or the other way around?<br />11.What should you do if all students have the same mistake?<br />12. “Selective correction” means that the teacher decides to correct only certain errors. On what is the choice of errors to be corrected based on?<br />13. The module advocates listening to students’ feedback. What could students contribute? Why is it important to listen to them?<br />
    125. 125. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />QUESTIONS<br />Do learning styles affect the choice of learning strategies? Elaborate.<br />How can language educators individualize learning?<br />What are the benefits of learning stations or self-access areas or rooms? What are the challenges? How can the concept be adapted to our setting?<br />Does “differentiated instruction” mean special education as instruction for special groups of very advanced language learners? Explain. <br />Which learners are active and which are reflective? Are learners either active or reflective?<br />
    126. 126. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Some Answers<br />When is it appropriate to delay feedback?<br />It is better to delay feedback if it affects learners’ fluency and self-<br />confidence. It is then suggested to find alternative ways to comment and<br />correct errors. These ways could include jotting down remarks and asking<br />other learners to do so and then have a class discussion. In this case, the<br />teacher should guarantee a positive and constructive class atmosphere.<br />Is it important for students to have consistent feedback? What<br />Kind of feedback should it be?<br />Learners should receive consistent feedback to guide them in the learning<br />process but also to give value to their work and effort. Feedback should<br />consistently be specific and objective.<br />
    127. 127. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Some Answers<br />Describe 4 best practices concerning feedback on students’<br />written work.<br /><ul><li>Sharing clear criteria with the students before they do their written task and making sure they understand the requirements
    128. 128. Write comments instead of just administering a grade; comments should guide students in their revision of their writing ; comments should also exclude vague expressions and focus on the positive aspect of the student’s work
    129. 129. Resort to face-to-face conferencing to give the student a chance to explain his way of thinking and to be able to offer the appropriate guidance
    130. 130. Never compare students’ work to one exemplary model you have in mind to allow an objective appreciation of students’ experiences</li></li></ul><li>In preparation for sessions 7 & 8 on:<br />Check the wiki for the presentations’ schedule and guidelines<br />Remember the activity regarding <br />learning styles and multiple intelligences<br />Thank you  See you on Wednesday!<br />
    131. 131. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Outline for Session 6:<br />Congratulations!<br />Previous modules: wrap-up<br />Managing large classes<br />Preparation for final presentations<br />
    132. 132. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />EFL Educators<br />Bravo for all those who signed in to the wiki and all those who met the challenge and started exploring and posting! <br />MOST of ALL<br />Remember to cite your sources!!!!<br />
    133. 133. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Emotional Intelligence: Wrap-up<br /><ul><li>Educational success = academic ability + social skills
    134. 134. Teachers’ role is to reduce anxiety and negative feelings during the learning process, in short to create an environment able to develop students’ EQ
    135. 135. This is especially important in these days when communicative and collaborative learning techniques prevail over rote-learning and teacher-center classrooms</li></ul>Source: Emotional Intelligence and ELT by Steve Darn<br />http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/articles/emotional-intelligence-elt<br />
    136. 136. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Emotional Intelligence: Wrap-up<br /><ul><li>Examples of activities which promote sharing and communication in the classroom:
    137. 137. Ice breakers & warmers (raising personal interest & connecting to personal experience)
    138. 138. Brainstorming & discussions (sharing of knowledge & opinions)
    139. 139. Drama and simulation linked to real life
    140. 140. Most of all, group work tasks should be based on clear instructions and fair assessment to both group and group members to encourage students’ contribution</li></li></ul><li>Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Emotional Intelligence and Feedback<br /><ul><li>To develop students’ EI, it is imperative to resort to techniques that:
    141. 141. Build confidence
    142. 142. Create a positive classroom atmosphere
    143. 143. Encourage cooperation</li></ul>This is not done automatically, but through patience and consistence. Regular feedback is essential to this end. It depends on:<br /><ul><li>Clear criteria that focus on an aspect of the performance that students are able to change
    144. 144. Give specific feedback rather than vague comments
    145. 145. Listen to students’ own comments: what they felt during the task for example
    146. 146. Make sure assessment is continuous</li></li></ul><li>Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Some Answers<br />When is it appropriate to delay feedback?<br />It is better to delay feedback if it affects learners’ fluency and self-<br />confidence. It is then suggested to find alternative ways to comment and<br />correct errors. These ways could include jotting down remarks and asking<br />other learners to do so and then have a class discussion. In this case, the<br />teacher should guarantee a positive and constructive class atmosphere.<br />Is it important for students to have consistent feedback? What<br />Kind of feedback should it be?<br />Learners should receive consistent feedback to guide them in the learning<br />process but also to give value to their work and effort. Feedback should<br />consistently be specific and objective.<br />
    147. 147. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Some Answers<br />Describe 4 best practices concerning feedback on students’<br />written work.<br /><ul><li>Sharing clear criteria with the students before they do their written task and making sure they understand the requirements
    148. 148. Write comments instead of just administering a grade; comments should guide students in their revision of their writing ; comments should also exclude vague expressions and focus on the positive aspect of the student’s work
    149. 149. Resort to face-to-face conferencing to give the student a chance to explain his way of thinking and to be able to offer the appropriate guidance
    150. 150. Never compare students’ work to one exemplary model you have in mind to allow an objective appreciation of students’ experiences</li></li></ul><li>Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Learner Feedback: Wrap up (Group Update)<br />Introduction: Learner feedback plays an essential role in the process of teaching as well as of learning. It enables the teacher to provide adequate guidance to students in order to highlight their mistakes in oral or written performances so that they would be able to correct them. It serves as a mirror in which learners can see what they do well and what they need to improve. It benefits not only the students but also the teacher who can judge the efficiency of his/her method of teaching through the students' feedback. The teacher should be fully aware of what type of feedback he/she needs to give his/her students so that the feedback will be instructive and not destructive.<br />…and more on EFL EDUCATORS+ a Feedback Page: Post your comments with the same objectivity & clarity you promote in your classroom!<br />
    151. 151. Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Managing Large Classes: Class Routines<br /><ul><li>Teachers train their students to follow certain classroom routines so that students can “self-manage” and thus help “prevent” discipline problems before they occur.
    152. 152. Teachers are to be proactive and try to anticipate students’ behavior or misbehavior and plan accordingly; a teacher reflects on his/her strategies, and then either improves them or replaces them.
    153. 153. Keep in mind the following: planning & consistency; keeping your plan flexible; accounting for several learning styles and personality traits</li></li></ul><li>Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Managing Large Classes: Class Routines / Tips<br /><ul><li>Teachers should check themselves against bias and expectations.
    154. 154. Teachers should also carefully separate behavior rewards from grading assessment.
    155. 155. Don’t put yourself as a teacher in a personal confrontation with a student; make sure the established rules are clear from day one in the way they identify the behavior / misbehavior and the way it is treated. That way, students face the system rather than the teacher.
    156. 156. Students’ sense of responsibility and dignity is enhanced when they know that they have every right to claim a chance provided they give guarantees in return. These chances are recorded.
    157. 157. Students are confronted with their own choices rather than with the teacher.</li></li></ul><li>Shaping the Way We Teach English<br />Managing Large Classes: Class Routines<br />Negotiating solutions or measures<br />Teacher talk: positive but consistent<br />“Check yourself” (e.g. seating arrangement)<br />“Next time…” / “Don’t …”<br />“Please make a different choice”<br />“You decide”<br />“Help me solve my problem”<br />“I feel surprised”<br />To enhance responsibility and autonomy<br />Source: “Teacher Talk” by Chick Moorman<br />
    158. 158. In preparation for sessions 7 & 8 on:<br />Check the wiki for the presentations’ schedule and guidelines<br />Starting 4.10 p.m.<br />Remember the activity regarding <br />learning styles and multiple intelligences<br />Thank you  See you on Wednesday!<br />
    159. 159. In preparation for sessions 7 & 8 on:<br />PresentationsWith regard to your presentations, please keep the following issues in mind:<br />Your presentation should not be a lecture. Please plan on presenting an activity that engages the audience. Then share the techniques used, the benefits, the challenges, and the assessment methods most preferably in a discussion. Your presentation should take around 20 minutes including the time you dedicate to questions.<br />Your presentation should be connected to “Shaping the Way We Teach English” and is not necessarily restricted to the content area of your group.<br />Feel free to use all the aids available. Be as creative as you need to be.<br />You could check Project Showcase, Fall 2006 for examples of action plans.<br />

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