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A long time ago, in a country far,
far away…
Brief History of Atlantic Salmon
Aquaculture
• The aquaculture of Atlantic Salmon
originally started in the late 1800s-190...
• Wild populations breed with escaped farm
populations which leads to less genetic
diversity
• Atlantic salmon populations...
Threats of farming in the Pacific and Atlantic
• In the early 2000’s there was quite a bit of public
concern regarding esc...
Genetic Diversity

Farmed Atlantic Salmon have the
greatest negative impacts on their
own home range.
Farmed Atlantic Salm...
Disease Outbreak
• As mentioned before, sea lice
can possibly have detrimental
effects on both wild and farmed
fish.
• Dis...
Dead Zones
• Still a threat but
not as much
anymore.
• Moveable cages
greatly help keep
dead zones from
occurring
• Pollut...
Will Atlantic Salmon Farming Kill Pacific Salmon?

Maybe

…Probably not
•
•

Very rarely hybridize
with pacific salmon
Maj...
Surprising Findings…
• Atlantic Salmon farming
more detrimental to wild
Atlantic Salmon than
Pacific Northwest systems
• H...
How do we restore Pacific
fisheries?
• Banned fish farming in
1989
• Has a sustainable
fisheries (Bristol bay)
• Still has problems with
aquacultured pacific
s...
Problems with
aquaculture
• More than 20% of all salmon
returning to spawning grounds are
aquacultured
• Low genetic diver...
Different ways to aquaculture Pacific
Salmon
• New methods collect
salmon from staging
areas and help increase
diversity
•...
Other threats (and possible solutions)
Problems
• Hydro-electric
dams
• Development
• Pollution
(Pebble Mine)

Solutions
•...
• Atlantic Salmon may
not impact Pacific
Northwest Salmon as
much as we thought
• Human users must be
considered
• People ...
A combination of research,
public interest and
participation, combined
with making the necessary
sacrifices and willingnes...
FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture Salmo salar. (n.d.). FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture Salmo salar. Retrieved November 20, 2013, fro...
Salmon
Salmon
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Salmon

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Transcript of "Salmon"

  1. 1. A long time ago, in a country far, far away…
  2. 2. Brief History of Atlantic Salmon Aquaculture • The aquaculture of Atlantic Salmon originally started in the late 1800s-1900s as a means to increase returning wild salmon yields to fishermen(“Cultured Aquatic Species”2013). • Eggs were fertilized and then released into riverine systems • In the 1970s, the first sea cage aquaculture began off the shores of Norway(“Cultured Aquatic Species”2013) • Presently, Atlantic Salmon are reared all over the world. In the U.S., Atlantic Salmon are raised in Maine and Washington. • Around 20,000 tons ($130,000,000.00) of Atlantic Salmon are farmed in the U.S. every year(“Fishwatch”2012).
  3. 3. • Wild populations breed with escaped farm populations which leads to less genetic diversity • Atlantic salmon populations are now extinct in 42 U.S. rivers and are endangered in the remaining eight. These eight rivers – located in Maine – saw a combined total of just 72 salmon returning from the ocean in 2003(“Atlantic Salmon”2013). • Habitat loss due to dams, past overfishing, and pollution are contributors to declining numbers of these salmon.
  4. 4. Threats of farming in the Pacific and Atlantic • In the early 2000’s there was quite a bit of public concern regarding escaped Atlantic Salmon in the Pacific Northwest. • There is no evidence that Atlantic Salmon have established populations in the Pacific Northwest even after effort to establish populations in the 80’s and 90’s(McKinnel, S 1997). • There is disputing research about salmon farming causing sea louse blooms which may cause wild populations of salmon to decline or go extinct(Krkosec, 2007). • Dead zones are areas under cages that create low oxygen and nutrient rich environments that cannot support life(Leahy, 2008). • Farmed Atlantic Salmon have low genetic diversity, which is hurting wild populations of Atlantic and Pacific salmon.
  5. 5. Genetic Diversity Farmed Atlantic Salmon have the greatest negative impacts on their own home range. Farmed Atlantic Salmon are very different from their wild conterparts.
  6. 6. Disease Outbreak • As mentioned before, sea lice can possibly have detrimental effects on both wild and farmed fish. • Diseases outbreaks occur quite a bit in farmed salmon but historically haven’t spread to wild salmon. • Salmon anemia is a new exception to this rule(Dean,C.,&Nuwer,R, 2013).
  7. 7. Dead Zones • Still a threat but not as much anymore. • Moveable cages greatly help keep dead zones from occurring • Pollution still a problem
  8. 8. Will Atlantic Salmon Farming Kill Pacific Salmon? Maybe …Probably not • • Very rarely hybridize with pacific salmon Majority of fishes can’t compete with pacific salmon
  9. 9. Surprising Findings… • Atlantic Salmon farming more detrimental to wild Atlantic Salmon than Pacific Northwest systems • Habitat loss, lack of genetic diversity, overfishing by far the largest threat to Pacific Salmon
  10. 10. How do we restore Pacific fisheries?
  11. 11. • Banned fish farming in 1989 • Has a sustainable fisheries (Bristol bay) • Still has problems with aquacultured pacific salmon
  12. 12. Problems with aquaculture • More than 20% of all salmon returning to spawning grounds are aquacultured • Low genetic diversity • Large numbers of fingerlings released into systems breaches carrying capacity • Dams confuse fish and prolongs migrations
  13. 13. Different ways to aquaculture Pacific Salmon • New methods collect salmon from staging areas and help increase diversity • Lower number of raised fish • Tear down dams (yeah, right)
  14. 14. Other threats (and possible solutions) Problems • Hydro-electric dams • Development • Pollution (Pebble Mine) Solutions • Tear down old dams/ more research into fish passages • Set aside systems as notouch • Just say no to mines
  15. 15. • Atlantic Salmon may not impact Pacific Northwest Salmon as much as we thought • Human users must be considered • People eat seafood more than everaquaculture is still the best answer
  16. 16. A combination of research, public interest and participation, combined with making the necessary sacrifices and willingness to commit (restrictions on fishing, no development etc.) is what is required for all salmon populations to be able to recover.
  17. 17. FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture Salmo salar. (n.d.). FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture Salmo salar. Retrieved November 20, 2013, from http://www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Salmo_salar/en FishWatch. (n.d.). NOAA. Retrieved November 19, 2013, from http://www.fishwatch.gov/seafood_profiles/species/salmon/species_pages/atlantic_salmon_farmed.htm SeaWeb - Ocean Briefing Book. (n.d.). SeaWeb - Ocean Briefing Book. Retrieved November 21, 2013, from http://www.seaweb.org/resources/briefings/atsalmon.php McKinnell, S. (1997). Recent Events Concerning Atlantic Salmon Escapees In The Pacific. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 54(6), 1221-1225. Krkosek, M., Ford, J. S., Morton, A., Lele, S., Myers, R. A., & Lewis, M. A. (2007). Declining Wild Salmon Populations In Relation To Parasites From Farm Salmon. Science, 318(5857), 1772-1775. Leahy, S. (n.d.). BIODIVERSITY: The Real Price of Farmed Salmon>. BIODIVERSITY: The Real Price of Farmed Salmon>. Retrieved November 21, 2013, from http://ipsnorthamerica.net/print.php?idnews=1833 Dean, C., & Nuwer, R. (n.d.). Salmon-Killing Virus Seen for First Time in the Wild on the Pacific Coast. www.nytimes.com. Retrieved November 21, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/18/science/18salmon.html?_r=0 Gable, D. (n.d.). ENN: Environmental News Network -- Know Your Environment. : Hatchery-Raised Salmon Threatening Wild Salmon in the Pacific Northwest. Retrieved November 21, 2013, from http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/41956
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