국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr)
Platform Leadership
• Cusumano, M. A. “Technology Strategy and
Management: The ...
국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr)
Contents
I. Web Science
II. The Puzzle of Apple
III. Platform Leaders
2015-01-3...
국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr)
I. Web Science
2015-01-30 3 / 20세미나
국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr)
1. Web Science
 James Hendler et al., “Web Science: An Interdisciplinary Appro...
국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr)
 World Wide Web
 사회적 상호작용(Social Interactions)
 Social Machine
 사용자도 컴퓨터 기술...
국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr)
II. The Puzzle of Apple
2015-01-30 6 / 20세미나
국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr)
1. Apple, Inc. and It’s products
 Cusumano, M., “Technology Strategy and Manag...
국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr)
2. Steve Jobs and Archrival
 Steve Jobs
 Co-founder of Apple, Inc.
 Absent f...
국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr)
3. What is Platform?
 Definition
 A foundation product or key technology in a...
국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr)
4. Platform Battle Grounds
Macintosh(Apple) IBM-compatible(IBM)
Monopolized Str...
국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr)
5. The iPod
 iPod features
 First hard drive MP3 Player(iPod Classic)
 Uniqu...
국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr)
6. The iPhone
 iPhone features
 A cell phone
 Digital media player
 Web-ena...
국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr)
7. Great Platform or Great Product
 “Great platforms” first and “great product...
국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr)
III.Platform Leaders
2015-01-30 14 / 20세미나
국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr)
1. Ecosystem and Platform-leader wannabes
 Gawer, A. and Cusumano, M. A., “How...
국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr)
2. Platform vs. Product
 Product
 largely proprietary and under one company’s...
국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr)
3. “Coring”
 Definition
 The set of activities a company can use to identify ...
국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr)
4. “Tipping”
 Definition
 the set of activities or strategic moves that compa...
국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr)
5. Platform Leadership and Company Size
 Linux: Tipping the Market for Web Ser...
국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr)
Fine. 
2015-01-30 20 / 20세미나
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Platform Leadership

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Cusumano, M., “Technology Strategy and Management: The Puzzle of Apple”, Communications of ACM, September 2008, Vol. 51, No. 9, pp. 22-24.
Gawer, A. and Cusumano, M. A., “How Companies Become Platform Leaders”, MITSloan Management Review, Winter 2008, Vol. 49, No. 2, pp.28-35.

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Platform Leadership

  1. 1. 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) Platform Leadership • Cusumano, M. A. “Technology Strategy and Management: The Puzzle of Apple” • Gawer, A. and Cusumano, M. A. “How Companies Become Platform Leaders” 2015-01-30 1 / 20세미나
  2. 2. 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) Contents I. Web Science II. The Puzzle of Apple III. Platform Leaders 2015-01-30 2 / 20세미나
  3. 3. 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) I. Web Science 2015-01-30 3 / 20세미나
  4. 4. 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 1. Web Science  James Hendler et al., “Web Science: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Understanding the Web”, Communications of the ACM, July 2008, Vol. 51, No. 7, pp.60-69.  Web을 연구 목적으로 하는 학제간 접근  웹을 연구 목적으로 하고, 웹을 통해 급격히 변화해온 사회와 기술 변화 전반에 대한 문제를 다루는 과학  Web의 중요성과 영향력을 인식할 필요성  World Wide Web  Berners-Lee, T. “Information Management: A Proposal”, March 1989.  Hypertext(Link), HTML  Browser 2015-01-30 4 / 20세미나
  5. 5. 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr)  World Wide Web  사회적 상호작용(Social Interactions)  Social Machine  사용자도 컴퓨터 기술을 이용하여 Social System 제작 가능  Tags: Social Context  Business 차원의 Web에 대한 연구가 필요  Platform Leadership  GeoPlanet Data, Placemaker(Yahoo) vs Google Maps Data API  Facebook connect vs Google Friend Connect  Apple’s Macintosh, iPod, iPhone, iTunes and App Store  Knowledge on the Web  Reliability of the knowledge  Vulnerability of using the knowledge 1. Web Science 2015-01-30 5 / 20세미나
  6. 6. 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) II. The Puzzle of Apple 2015-01-30 6 / 20세미나
  7. 7. 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 1. Apple, Inc. and It’s products  Cusumano, M., “Technology Strategy and Management: The Puzzle of Apple”, Communications of ACM, September 2008, Vol. 51, No. 9, pp. 22-24.  Apple, Inc.  Founded Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak in 1976.  Apple products(“truly great”)  Macintosh(1984): Graphic User Interface  PowerBook(1991): Design standard for laptops  iMac(1998): All-in-one designer PC  iPod(2001) and iPhone(2007): MP3 Player and Trendsetter  iTunes(2003): Media service and App Store  Mac OS X: Operating System 2015-01-30 7 / 20세미나
  8. 8. 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2. Steve Jobs and Archrival  Steve Jobs  Co-founder of Apple, Inc.  Absent from the company during 1985-1997  Returned with his other company acquisition  He created the design culture.  He hired and supervised the people most responsible.  His archrival, Bill Gates  Co-founder of Microsoft.  Microsoft products(“good enough”)  MS-DOS  Windows series  Office series  No. 1 billionaire 2015-01-30 8 / 20세미나
  9. 9. 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 3. What is Platform?  Definition  A foundation product or key technology in a system like the PC or a Web-enabled cell phone  It should have relatively open technical interfaces and easy licensing terms.  Complementary products and services  External innovations create an ecosystem around the platform.  Network externalities: The more external firms in the network, the more valuable the platform becomes.  This dynamic should cause more users to adopt the platform, more complementors to enter the ecosystem, ….  To tend to evolve into “winner takes all” or “winner takes most” businesses 2015-01-30 9 / 20세미나
  10. 10. 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 4. Platform Battle Grounds Macintosh(Apple) IBM-compatible(IBM) Monopolized Strategy Opened One(Apple) Producer Many High Price Low Low Diffusion High Few percentage Status Overwhelming Standard Betamax(Sony) VHS(JVC) Refuse Revision Incorporate Licensing Broadly Marketing Aggresively Disappeared Status Standard 2015-01-30 10 / 20세미나
  11. 11. 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 5. The iPod  iPod features  First hard drive MP3 Player(iPod Classic)  Unique “click wheel” interface  New touchscreen  Attracted complementary hardware  Done better in the market  A closed system that worked only with the Macintosh and iTunes music warehouse initially.  Opening up the iPod software to play some other music formats  Using proprietary digital rights management(DRM)  Introducing an iPod in 2002 compatible with Windows and then a Windows version of iTunes in 2003 2015-01-30 11 / 20세미나
  12. 12. 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 6. The iPhone  iPhone features  A cell phone  Digital media player  Web-enabled handheld computer  A remarkable user interface by touch and virtual keyboard  Done better in the market  Disabled to run applications not built by Apple originally  Disabled to operate on cell phone networks not approved  Hackers found the way to unlock the phone.  A black market pressure persuaded Apple to open iPod.  Enabled to connect to corporate email servers  Enabled to use it on any service network 2015-01-30 12 / 20세미나
  13. 13. 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 7. Great Platform or Great Product  “Great platforms” first and “great products” second  Makes the products are used most.  Fleeting nature  Apple won the battle for digital media players  But iPhone is likely to disappear in favor of smartphones.  iPhone still trails smartphones by a wide margin.  Platform leader  Must work with industry players  Must be willing to make technical and design compromises  Pursued product and platform leadership simultaneously 2015-01-30 13 / 20세미나
  14. 14. 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) III.Platform Leaders 2015-01-30 14 / 20세미나
  15. 15. 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 1. Ecosystem and Platform-leader wannabes  Gawer, A. and Cusumano, M. A., “How Companies Become Platform Leaders”, MITSloan Management Review, Winter 2008, Vol. 49, No. 2, pp.28-35.  “Ecosystem” of innovation  Platform leader and companies supplying complements  As more users adopt the platform and its complements, the value of their innovations are greatly increased.  “Platform-leader wannabes” problems  Their strategies fail to tackle adequately both the technology and business.  “Coring”  “Tipping” 2015-01-30 15 / 20세미나
  16. 16. 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2. Platform vs. Product  Product  largely proprietary and under one company’s control  Platform  a foundation technology or service that is essential for a broader, interdependent ecosystem of businesses  requires complementary innovations to be useful, and vice versa  no longer under the full control of the originator, even though it may contain certain proprietary elements  Microsoft(Example)  Apple(Example) 2015-01-30 16 / 20세미나
  17. 17. 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 3. “Coring”  Definition  The set of activities a company can use to identify or design an element  And make this element fundamental to a technological system as well as to a market  How to Create a New Industry Platform  Google: Coring in Internet Search  Qualcomm: Coring in Wireless Technology  EMC’s WideSky: Coring Challenges 2015-01-30 17 / 20세미나
  18. 18. 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 4. “Tipping”  Definition  the set of activities or strategic moves that companies can use to shape market dynamics  And win a platform war when at least two platform candidates compete  How to Win Platform Battles By Building Market Momentum  High-definition media storage  HD-DVD(Toshiba) vs. Blu-ray Disc(Sony)  Betamax(Sony) vs. VHS(JVC)  Windows(Microsoft) vs. Macintosh(Apple) 2015-01-30 18 / 20세미나
  19. 19. 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 5. Platform Leadership and Company Size  Linux: Tipping the Market for Web Server Operating Systems  Tipping in the Internet Browser Market  Microsoft Internet Explorer vs. Netscape Navigator  Platform Leadership and Company Size  Coring is a possible option for any company because technology and architectural leadership do not directly depend on the size of the company.  Platform Leader requires a compelling vision of the future as well as the ability to create a vibrant ecosystem 2015-01-30 19 / 20세미나
  20. 20. 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) Fine.  2015-01-30 20 / 20세미나
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