A Matrixed Approach to Designing IT Governance
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

A Matrixed Approach to Designing IT Governance

on

  • 3,436 views

A Matrixed Approach to Designing IT Governance를 읽고 발표합니다.

A Matrixed Approach to Designing IT Governance를 읽고 발표합니다.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,436
Views on SlideShare
3,420
Embed Views
16

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
121
Comments
0

5 Embeds 16

http://www.slideshare.net 10
http://www.lmodules.com 2
http://www.slashdocs.com 2
http://www.mefeedia.com 1
http://static.slidesharecdn.com 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    A Matrixed Approach to Designing IT Governance A Matrixed Approach to Designing IT Governance Presentation Transcript

    • IT Governance Weill, P. and Ross, J., (2005) ‘A Matrixed Approach to Designing IT Governance’, MITSloan Management Review, Vol. 46, No. 2, pp.26-34 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 1 / 43
    • About the Research (pp.28) This article is based on two studies.  전 세계 256개 영리 및 비영리 기업 설문조사 1. How large enterprises across a wide range of industries – both  for profit and not – govern IT? MIT Sloan’s center 개발 (2001)  Gartner Inc.의 EXP 그룹 회원과 CISR에 의하여 경영 프로그램  참가자들에게 조사를 실시 Gartner는 IT governance에 대한 10가지 사례연구를 통해 이 연구  에 공헌 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 2 / 43
    • About the Research (pp.28) This article is based on two studies. (continued)  대기업들에 대한 40개 면접 기반 사례연구 세트 2. IT Governance in the context of organizational changes  Enterprise Resource Planning implementations  e-Business initiatives  Enterprise Architecture development  IT-enabled organizational transformations  CISR 연구자들과 제휴사들에 의해 개발  To understand how top-performing enterprises governed IT  통계학적 방법과 정성적 방법을 이용하여 데이터를 분석  정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 3 / 43
    • Proposition Effective IT governance certainly doesn’t happen  accidentally. But companies that have followed the steps enumerated above have had demonstrable success designing, communicating and refining IT that creates real business value in their enterprises. 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 4 / 43
    • Without formal IT governance  Individual managers are left to resolve isolated issues.  Those individual actions can often be at odds with each other.  Proposition  IT governance is a mystery to key decision makers.  Senior managers  When senior managers take the time to design, implement, and  communicate IT governance processes, companies get more value from IT. Effective IT governance doesn’t happen by accident.  Senior management awareness of IT governance is the single  best indicator of its effectiveness. 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 5 / 43
    • IT 거버넌스의 기업 또는 사업별 효과 측정의 목표  Cost-effectiveness  Asset utilization  Business growth  Business flexibility  정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 6 / 43
    • 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 7 / 43
    • 측정 결과  상대적인 중요성에 따라 가중치를 주고 측정한 결과 종 모양 형태를  띄며 모두 다르게 나타남 High IT governance performance correlated with the achievement  of other desired measures of success. 효과적으로 정보 기술을 관리하는 기업은 유사한 전략을 추구하는  다른 기업에 비해 20% 높은 이익을 얻고 있으며, 자기자본수익 률, 시장자본총액도 높다. But, superior governance performance ≠ superior financial  performance The two measures correlate quite well.  정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 8 / 43
    • Effective governance  Alignment IT investments with overall business priorities  Determination who makes the IT decisions  Assignment accountability for the outcomes  IT is inextricable from other key enterprise assets.  Such as financial resources, human resources, intellectual  property, physical structure and organizational relationships IT governance overlaps with other enterprisewide  governance processes. 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 9 / 43
    • How Key IT Governance Decisions Are Made 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 10 / 43
    • 1. 5 decision domains for IT governance IT 거버넌스의 다섯 가지 주요 의사결정 영역  IT principles 1. IT architecture 2. IT infrastructure 3. Business application needs 4. Prioritization and investment decisions 5. 의사 결정 영역의 수준  기업차원  사업단위  기능적 수준  위 세 가지의 적절한 조합  정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 11 / 43
    • 1. 5 decision domains of IT governance (cont.) 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 12 / 43
    • 2. Six archetypal approaches Six archetypal approaches to IT decision making  Ranging from highly centralized to highly decentralized  Business monarchy – the most centralized approach 1. IT monarchy 2. Federal system 3. IT duopoly 4. Feudal system 5. Anarchy – the most decentralized approach 6. 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 13 / 43
    • 2. Six archetypal approaches (cont.) 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 14 / 43
    • 3. United Parcel Service of America Inc. UPS’s governance arrangements  Reflection the company’s commitment to offering total 1. Integrated solutions for customers’ global commerce needs 2. Senior management accountability for principles and  investment decisions IT 이슈를 기업의 전략적 의사결정 절차와 통합  CIO는 principles and investment decisions를 IT architecture and  infrastructure로 변환 Business unit projects  Delivered in the context of business and IT principles  정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 15 / 43
    • 3. United Parcel Service of America Inc. (cont.) Business unit projects  Delivered in the context of business and IT principles  Defining business application needs in a way that both enhances  business unit performance and supports corporate objectives. 동시다발적 진행  Creating strategic control at the top of the company  Empowering decision making at multiple organizational levels  Senior management  Works to make IT governance transparent  정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 16 / 43
    • Governance Mechanisms 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 17 / 43
    • 1. Decision-making structures 3가지 거버넌스 메커니즘  Decision-making structures 1. Alignment processes 2. Formal communications 3. 의사 결정 구조의 역할  The organizational committees  Roles that locate decision-making responsibilities  정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 18 / 43
    • 1. Decision-making structures (cont.) Each archetypes  Anarchies require no decision-making structures at all.  Feudal arrangements rely on local DM structures.  Monarchy, federal or duopoly arrangements demand DM  structures with the representation and authority. 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 19 / 43
    • 2. Alignment processes Management techniques for securing widespread and  effective involvement in governance decisions and their implementation IT 투자 제안 과정은 IT 프로젝트를 정의하고, 정밀하게  조사하고, 그것에 우선권을 주는 단계를 묘사한 것이고, 어떤 프로젝트에 투자할 것인지 결정하는 것이다. IT로 발생한 비즈니스 가치에 대한 공식적인 추적은 기업  이 완성한 프로젝트에 대한 자금 회수를 결정하도록 강 화하며, 그것은 기업이 의도한 수익을 만들어내는가에 초점을 두도록 한다. 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 20 / 43
    • 3. Formal communications A huge barrier to effective governance  Lack of understanding about  How decisions are made.  What processes are being implemented.  What the desired outcomes are.  Management can communicate in a variety of ways  General announcements  The institution of formal committees  Regular communication from the office of CIO or the office of IT  governance One-on-one sessions  Intranets  So on…  정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 21 / 43
    • 3. Formal communications (cont.) More communication = more effective governance  Well-designed, well-understood and transparent  mechanism UPS의 4가지 거버넌스 조정 메커니즘  An IT steering committee 1. An IT governance committee 2. A formal “charter” process 3. An escalation process 4. These four mechanisms clarify processes and accountabilities so  that individuals throughout the company can make decisions that result in desirable behavior as defined at UPS. 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 22 / 43
    • How Top Performers Govern 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 23 / 43
    • There is no single best model of IT governance.  Governance arrangements can vary from more  centralized approaches to more decentralized approaches. Effective IT governance should be evident in business-  performance metrics. Top-performing companies govern significantly differently  from other companies. 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 24 / 43
    • 1. Centralized Approaches and Profitability The most profitable companies tend to be centralized in  their approach to IT governance. Their strategies emphasize efficient operations.  Low business costs  A high degree of standardization  Key mechanisms include  Executive committees for decision making  Centralized processes for architecture  Enterprisewide IT investment decision processes  Formal post-implementation assessments of IT-related projects  정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 25 / 43
    • 1. Centralized Approaches and … (cont.) UNICEF  Its emphasis on cost-effectiveness and rapid organizational  learning Before, IT at UNICEF supported administrative tasks at HQ, but  the field offices. In the mid-1990s, the organization equipped remote locations with  IT services. The result was improved global knowledge, information flow,  transparency and communication. 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 26 / 43
    • 2. Decentralized Approaches and Growth The fastest-growing companies are focused on  innovation and time to market. They insist on local accountability.  Maximizing responsiveness to local customer needs  Minimizing constraints on creativity and business unit autonomy  Manheim Auctions: B2B car auctions  In the late 1990s, Manheim introduced online auction capabilities.  Manheim Interactive: an independent business unit  The company focused on managing projects for rapid  development. 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 27 / 43
    • 2. Decentralized Approaches and … (cont.) Menheim의 변화  Menheim’s decentralized approach to IT governance allowed the  company to innovate and grow its business base. As became the large company, it identified a need for more  centralized architecture and reusable infrastructure services. IT governance has transitioned to a blend of centralized and  decentralized arrangements. 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 28 / 43
    • 3. Hybrid Approaches and Asset Utilization Companies seeking optimal asset utilization attempt to  balance the contrasts between governance for profitability and governance for revenue growth and innovation. They focus on using shared services to achieve either  responsiveness to customers or economies of scale – or both. Asset utilization demands a hybrid approach to  governance. It’s leaders rely on duopolies and federal governance design.  정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 29 / 43
    • 3. Hybrid Approaches and Asset … (cont.) Those mechanisms include  High-level business-IT relationship managers  Service-level agreements  IT chargeback  IT leadership teams comprising business unit IT representatives  Enterprisewide business process teams with IT members  It clearly demands a great deal of management attention.  정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 30 / 43
    • 3. Hybrid Approaches and Asset … (cont.) ING DIRECT  Taking a hybrid approach to IT governance  Each country unit operates autonomously.  The units share a common business model.  The key mechanism is the Information Technology and Operations  Council The Council makes enterprisewide principles, architecture,  infrastructure and investment decisions. The enterprise allows IT capabilities to influence business strategy just  as strategy influences IT. It looks to its local businesses for innovations for facilitating  development and reusing of business process modules. The outcome of the selection process is a global standard.  The arrangement supports the enterprise’s desirable behaviors.  정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 31 / 43
    • 3. Hybrid Approaches and Asset … (cont.) Carlson Companies Inc.  Traditionally, each Carlson operating group functioned  independently and competed with other operating groups. In 2000, chairman and CEO Marilyn Carlson sought to change that  competitive relationship to a collaborative one. CIO articulated two key principles.  Application development could continue to take place within operating  groups. Carlson would have a shared IT infrastructure.  Carlson assigned governance responsibilities to five decision-  making structures. CTAC  EAO  IT Council  CSSB and Investment Committee  정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 32 / 43
    • 3. Hybrid Approaches and Asset … (cont.) 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 33 / 43
    • Recommendations to Guide Effective IT Governance Design 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 34 / 43
    • Effective IT governance demands senior managers  To define enterprise performance objectives  To actively design governance to facilitate behavior  Often companies have mature business governance  processes to use as a starting point in designing IT governance. 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 35 / 43
    • The Tennessee Valley Authority  It piggybacked its IT governance on its more mature business  governance mechanisms. The TVA’s governance included a project review committee.  Companies can use the one-page framework of IT  governance to help design structures and processes that enhance their strategic use of IT. In order to use the framework effectively, management  teams must first establish the context for IT governance. 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 36 / 43
    • 1. Identify the company’s needs … IT governance design should encompass four steps.  Identify the company’s needs for synergy and autonomy.  Management teams should consider realistically both the  benefits and cost of such synergies. Synergy-autonomy trade-offs force senior managers to  make tough decisions and communicate those decisions throughout the enterprise. 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 37 / 43
    • 2. Establish the role of organization structure Companies eventually pursued both centralization and  decentralization simultaneously. By establishing organizational priorities for autonomy and  synergy, companies can introduce organizational designs and incentive systems. Governance processes – and related incentives – can  then compensate for the limitations and instability of the organizational structure. 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 38 / 43
    • 3. Identify the desirable IT-related behaviors Identify the desirable IT-related behaviors that fall outside  the scope of organizational structures. New governance mechanisms can force new behaviors  without requiring reorganization. Governance mechanisms can provide organizational  stability by demanding disciplined processes. Even if organizational structures emphasize the  autonomy of individual business units, a company can establish IT architecture principles that limit business unit technical choices and achieve cost objs. 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 39 / 43
    • 3. Identify the desirable IT-related … (cont.) IT investment decision processes can direct business  unit priorities toward enterprise priorities by approving only projects that support enterprise strategies. Dual incentives are necessary in most companies to  motivate senior-level managers to focus on both enterprisewide and business unit goals. 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 40 / 43
    • 4. Thoughtfully design IT governance When the objectives of IT governance are clear,  companies can design IT governance by outlining governance arrangements, and then specifying the mechanisms that will implement the intended arrangements. Companies that have not been effective in using IT  strategically should expect to invest in organizational learning. 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 41 / 43
    • 4. Thoughtfully design IT governance (cont.) Dow Corning Corp.  In the mid-1990s, the executive committee met regularly for  several years to redefine the role of IT  articulate the role of the CIO  establish architectural principles  outline key projects  Closely manage IT investment priorities  The ability to reduce the size of the steering committee, indicated  that Down Corning had created sustainable senior management participation in high-level IT management. 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 42 / 43
    • Fine. Thanks for concentration!  You will see the slides online. 정보자원관리론 국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원 차상민 (skykids@skykids.kr) 2009-04-04 43 / 43