Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy             Thirteenth AP* Edition        Edwards/Wattenberg/Lineberry...
Constitution Definition  – A constitution is a nation’s basic law. It creates    political institutions, assigns or divid...
Origins of the Constitution The   Road to Revolution  – Colonists faced tax increases after the French    and Indian War....
Origins of the Constitution   European Claims in North America (Figure 2.1)                     Pearson Education,       ...
Origins of the Constitution Declaring   Independence  – In May and June 1776, the Continental    Congress debated resolut...
Origins of the Constitution The   English Heritage: The Power of Ideas  – Natural rights: rights inherent in human beings...
Origins of the Constitution        Pearson Education,       Inc., Longman ©
Origins of the Constitution Winning   Independence  – In 1783, the American colonies prevailed in    their war against En...
The Government That Failed The   Articles of Confederation  – The first document to govern the United States,    it was a...
The Government That Failed Changes   in the States  – Liberalized voting laws increased political    participation and po...
The Government that Failed        Pearson Education,       Inc., Longman ©
The Government That Failed Economic    Turmoil  – Postwar depression left farmers unable to pay debts  – State legislatur...
The Government That Failed The   Aborted Annapolis Meeting  – An attempt to discuss changes to the Articles of    Confede...
Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention Gentlemen   in Philadelphia  – 55 men from 12 of the 13 states  – Most...
The Philadelphia Convention,         continued Philosophy   into Action  – Human Nature, which is self-interested  – Poli...
The Agenda in Philadelphia The   Equality Issues  – Equality and Representation of the States      New Jersey Plan—equal...
The Agenda in Philadelphia        Pearson Education,       Inc., Longman ©
The Agenda in Philadelphia The   Economic Issues  – States had tariffs on products from other states  – Paper money was b...
The Agenda in Philadelphia        Pearson Education,       Inc., Longman ©
The Agenda in Philadelphia The   Individual Rights Issues  – Some were written into the Constitution:           Prohibit...
The Madisonian Model To   prevent a tyranny of the majority, Madison proposed a government of:  – Limiting Majority Contr...
The Madisonian Model   The Constitution and the Electoral Process: The    Original Plan (Figure 2.2)                     ...
The Madisonian Model      Pearson Education,     Inc., Longman ©
The Madisonian Model The   Constitutional Republic  – Republic: A form of government in which the    people select repres...
Ratifying the Constitution        Pearson Education,       Inc., Longman ©
Ratifying the Constitution Federalist   Papers   – A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander     Hamilton, John Ja...
Ratifying the Constitution        Pearson Education,       Inc., Longman ©
Ratifying the Constitution Ratification  – Lacking majority support, the Federalists    specified that the Constitution b...
Constitutional Change      Pearson Education,     Inc., Longman ©
Constitutional Change The    Informal Process of Constitutional Change  – Judicial Interpretation      Marbury v. Madiso...
The Importance of Flexibility The  Constitution is short, with fewer than 8,000  words. It does not prescribe every deta...
Understanding the Constitution The   Constitution and Democracy  – The Constitution is rarely described as democratic.  –...
Summary The Constitution was ratified to strengthen  congressional economic powers, even with  disagreements over issues ...
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Chapter 02

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Chapter 02

  1. 1. Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy Thirteenth AP* Edition Edwards/Wattenberg/Lineberry Chapter 2 The Constitution Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008
  2. 2. Constitution Definition – A constitution is a nation’s basic law. It creates political institutions, assigns or divides powers in government, and often provides certain guarantees to citizens. Sets the broad rules of the game The rules are not neutral; some participants and policy options have advantages over others. Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  3. 3. Origins of the Constitution The Road to Revolution – Colonists faced tax increases after the French and Indian War. – Colonists lacked direct representation in parliament. – Colonial leaders formed the Continental Congress to address abuses of the English Crown. Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  4. 4. Origins of the Constitution European Claims in North America (Figure 2.1) Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  5. 5. Origins of the Constitution Declaring Independence – In May and June 1776, the Continental Congress debated resolutions for independence. – The Declaration of Independence, which listed the colonists grievances against the British, is adopted on July 4, 1776. – Politically, the Declaration was a polemic, announcing and justifying revolution. Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  6. 6. Origins of the Constitution The English Heritage: The Power of Ideas – Natural rights: rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on government – Consent of the governed: government derives its authority by sanction of the people – Limited Government: certain restrictions should be placed on government to protect natural rights of citizens Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  7. 7. Origins of the Constitution Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  8. 8. Origins of the Constitution Winning Independence – In 1783, the American colonies prevailed in their war against England. The “Conservative” Revolution – Restored rights the colonists felt they had lost – Not a major change of lifestyles Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  9. 9. The Government That Failed The Articles of Confederation – The first document to govern the United States, it was adopted in 1777 and ratified in 1781. – It established a confederation, a “league of friendship and perpetual union” among 13 states and former colonies. – Congress had few powers; there was no president or national court system. – All government power rested in the states. Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  10. 10. The Government That Failed Changes in the States – Liberalized voting laws increased political participation and power among a new middle class. – An expanding economic middle class of farmers and craft workers counterbalanced the power of the old elite of professionals and wealthy merchants. – Ideas of equality spread and democracy took hold. Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  11. 11. The Government that Failed Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  12. 12. The Government That Failed Economic Turmoil – Postwar depression left farmers unable to pay debts – State legislatures sympathetic to farmers and passed laws that favored debtors over creditors Shays’ Rebellion – Series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings. – Economic elite concerned about Articles’ inability to limit these violations of individual’s property rights Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  13. 13. The Government That Failed The Aborted Annapolis Meeting – An attempt to discuss changes to the Articles of Confederation in September 1786 – Attended by only 12 delegates from 5 states – Called for a meeting in May 1787 to further discuss changes—the Constitutional Convention Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  14. 14. Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention Gentlemen in Philadelphia – 55 men from 12 of the 13 states – Mostly wealthy planters & merchants – Most were college graduates with some political experience – Many were coastal residents from the larger cities, not the rural areas Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  15. 15. The Philadelphia Convention, continued Philosophy into Action – Human Nature, which is self-interested – Political Conflict, which leads to factions – Objects of Government, including the preservation of property – Nature of Government, which sets power against power so that no one faction rises above and overwhelms another Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  16. 16. The Agenda in Philadelphia The Equality Issues – Equality and Representation of the States  New Jersey Plan—equal representation in states  Virginia Plan—population-based representation  Connecticut Compromise – Slavery  Three-fifths compromise – Political Equality and voting left to states Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  17. 17. The Agenda in Philadelphia Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  18. 18. The Agenda in Philadelphia The Economic Issues – States had tariffs on products from other states – Paper money was basically worthless – Congress couldn’t raise money – Actions taken:  Powers of Congress to be strengthened  Powers of states to be limited Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  19. 19. The Agenda in Philadelphia Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  20. 20. The Agenda in Philadelphia The Individual Rights Issues – Some were written into the Constitution:  Prohibits suspension of writ of habeas corpus  No bills of attainder  No ex post facto laws  Religious qualifications for holding office prohibited  Strict rules of evidence for conviction of treason  Right to trial by jury in criminal cases – Some were not specified  Freedom of speech and expression  Rights of the accused Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  21. 21. The Madisonian Model To prevent a tyranny of the majority, Madison proposed a government of: – Limiting Majority Control – Separating Powers – Creating Checks and Balances – Establishing a Federal System Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  22. 22. The Madisonian Model The Constitution and the Electoral Process: The Original Plan (Figure 2.2) Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  23. 23. The Madisonian Model Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  24. 24. The Madisonian Model The Constitutional Republic – Republic: A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws – Favors the status quo – change is slow The End of the Beginning – The document was approved, but not unanimously. Now it had to be ratified. Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  25. 25. Ratifying the Constitution Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  26. 26. Ratifying the Constitution Federalist Papers – A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name “Publius” to defend the Constitution Bill of Rights – The first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, drafted in response to some of the Anti-Federalist concerns about the lack of basic liberties Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  27. 27. Ratifying the Constitution Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  28. 28. Ratifying the Constitution Ratification – Lacking majority support, the Federalists specified that the Constitution be ratified by state conventions, not state legislatures. – Delaware first ratified the Constitution on December 7, 1787. – New Hampshire’s approval (the ninth state to ratify) made the Constitution official six months later. Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  29. 29. Constitutional Change Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  30. 30. Constitutional Change The Informal Process of Constitutional Change – Judicial Interpretation  Marbury v. Madison (1803): judicial review – Changing Political Practice – Technology – Increasing Demands on Policymakers Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  31. 31. The Importance of Flexibility The Constitution is short, with fewer than 8,000 words. It does not prescribe every detail. – There is no mention of congressional committees or independent regulatory commissions. The Constitution is not static, but flexible for future generations to determine their own needs. Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  32. 32. Understanding the Constitution The Constitution and Democracy – The Constitution is rarely described as democratic. – There has been a gradual democratization of the Constitution. The Constitution and the Scope of Government – Much of the Constitution reinforces individualism and provides multiple access points for citizens. – It also encourages stalemate and limits government. Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
  33. 33. Summary The Constitution was ratified to strengthen congressional economic powers, even with disagreements over issues of equality. Protection of individual rights guaranteed through the Bill of Rights. Formal and informal changes continue to shape our Madisonian system of government. Pearson Education, Inc., Longman ©
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