The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.The Butler Didnt Do It!So Whodunit?!A Mystery...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Table of ContentsTable of ContentsThe Butler ...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.  Categories of crime fiction...................
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Page 4 of 78
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.First, The Solutions.Within the next few page...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Mystery WritingBy [http://ezinearticles.com/?...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.investigator, the mounting tension, the sudde...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Mystery WritingBy [http://ezinearticles.com/?...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Article Source: [http://EzineArticles.com/?My...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.How to Write a Mystery Novel - Essential Elem...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.5 Tips for Writing Mystery StoriesBy [http://...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Elements of Writing a Mystery NovelBy [http:/...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Thinking of Writing a Mystery Novel? Remember...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Another principle in mystery writing to obser...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Writing Mystery Series: Ten Tips That WorkBy ...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.only your latest in stock. Remind readers thr...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.How to Write a Mystery Novel - 5 Awesome Tips...
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The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Writing The Modern MysteryBy [http://ezineart...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.woman, CNA at a nursing home-all accidental s...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.How to Create Believable Stories by Nick Sand...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.take a look through your work and acknowledge...
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The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.products, and receiving a percentage of the s...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Now, the Encyclopedia!Here follows are some W...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Mystery fictionFrom Wikipedia, the free encyc...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.BeginningsAn early work of modern mystery fic...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.    • The Top 100 Crime Novels of All Time   ...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Detective fictionFrom Wikipedia, the free enc...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Contents    • 1      Beginni      ngs of     ...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Beginnings of detective fictionIn ancient lit...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Dutch sinologist Robert Van Gulik, who then u...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Morgue".[10] Also suggested as a possible inf...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Dickenss protégé, Wilkie Collins (1824–1889)—...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.deductive reasoning, and forensic skills to s...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.popular were the stories featuring Dorothy L....
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.this is illusory, however, and any real priva...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.detectives. Modern cozy mysteries are frequen...
The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Effects of technologyTechnological progress h...
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  1. 1. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.The Butler Didnt Do It!So Whodunit?!A Mystery Writing Solutions CompendiumCompiled by Apollyon (Nathan Magus / Nathan Z.)Page 1 of 78
  2. 2. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Table of ContentsTable of ContentsThe Butler Didnt Do It!.............................................................................................................................1 A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium..........................................................................................1 Table of Contents..............................................................................................................................2 First, The Solutions...............................................................................................................................5 Now, the Encyclopedia!......................................................................................................................27Mystery fiction.........................................................................................................................................28 Contents...............................................................................................................................................28 Beginnings...........................................................................................................................................29 Classifications.....................................................................................................................................29 See also................................................................................................................................................29 References...........................................................................................................................................30 External links.......................................................................................................................................30Detective fiction.......................................................................................................................................31 Contents...............................................................................................................................................32 Beginnings of detective fiction............................................................................................................33 In ancient literature.........................................................................................................................33 Early Arab detective fiction............................................................................................................33 Early Chinese detective fiction.......................................................................................................33 Early Western detective fiction.......................................................................................................34 Golden Age detective novels...............................................................................................................37 The private eye novel..........................................................................................................................38 The "whodunit" versus the "inverted detective story"........................................................................39 Police procedural.................................................................................................................................39 Other subgenres...................................................................................................................................39 Analysis...............................................................................................................................................40 Preserving the storys secrets..........................................................................................................40 Plausibility and coincidence...........................................................................................................40 Effects of technology......................................................................................................................41 Introduction to regional and ethnic subcultures..............................................................................41 Proposed rules.....................................................................................................................................41 Famous fictional detectives.................................................................................................................41 Detective debuts and swansongs.........................................................................................................47 Books...................................................................................................................................................49 See also................................................................................................................................................49 References...........................................................................................................................................49 Further reading....................................................................................................................................51Crime fiction............................................................................................................................................52 Contents...............................................................................................................................................53 History of crime fictions......................................................................................................................54Page 2 of 78
  3. 3. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon. Categories of crime fiction..................................................................................................................54 Detective fiction..............................................................................................................................54 Later and contemporary contributions to the whodunit......................................................................55 Crime fiction and mainstream fiction.............................................................................................55 "High art" versus "popular art"............................................................................................................56 The discrepancy between taste and acclaim...................................................................................56 A reassessment of critical ideals.....................................................................................................57 Pseudonymous authors...................................................................................................................57 Film and literature: The case of crime fiction.....................................................................................58 Availability of crime novels................................................................................................................58 Quality and availability...................................................................................................................58 Classics and bestsellers...................................................................................................................58 Forgotten classics............................................................................................................................59 Revival of past classics...................................................................................................................59 See also................................................................................................................................................60 References...........................................................................................................................................60 External links.......................................................................................................................................61Whodunit..................................................................................................................................................62 Contents...............................................................................................................................................63 History.................................................................................................................................................64 Examples of whodunits.......................................................................................................................64 Parody and spoof............................................................................................................................66 Homicide investigation...................................................................................................................67 See also................................................................................................................................................67Spy fiction................................................................................................................................................68 Contents...............................................................................................................................................69 History.................................................................................................................................................70 Pre-First World War........................................................................................................................70 Inter-war period..............................................................................................................................70 Second World War..........................................................................................................................71 Cold War.........................................................................................................................................71 British.........................................................................................................................................72 American....................................................................................................................................72 Russian.......................................................................................................................................73 Cinema and television................................................................................................................73 Post–Cold War................................................................................................................................73 Post–9/11........................................................................................................................................74 Sub-genres...........................................................................................................................................74 Notable writers....................................................................................................................................75 See also................................................................................................................................................75 Notes....................................................................................................................................................76 References...........................................................................................................................................76 External links.......................................................................................................................................76 All Good Things Come To An End!...............................................................................................78Page 3 of 78
  4. 4. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Page 4 of 78
  5. 5. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.First, The Solutions.Within the next few pages are solutions and tutorials on writing mysteries.Enjoy!Page 5 of 78
  6. 6. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Mystery WritingBy [http://ezinearticles.com/?expert=John_Halas]John HalasMystery writing follows certain norms of writing and offers the readers the opportunity to exert theirintellectual powers to unravel the unknown before the detective does. In this way it is an excellent toolto exercise the human mind. Once the mystery authors embark on their journey to compose the thriller,there is no looking back and they can progress to penning great mystery novels.People with an inclination to tackle this genre can write screenplays, novels, or short stories. Thepossibilities are endless, and authors may choose from a number mystery sub-genres. Whichever sub-genre or medium, mystery writing must be steeped in suspense and surprises. By following certainrules that dictate the way mysteries are to be composed, writers can have improved chances ofachieving greater success. The ones mentioned below are only starters. Writers can brainstorm andcome up with a several ideas to refine their mystery story. Consider the following when writingmystery:� Having a plausible plot is of utmost importance. A novel based on a weak idea is least likely toattract readers and the writer may eventually fade away into anonymity.� Introduce the protagonist and the antagonist within the first few pages or else the readers will notinclude the culprit in their list of suspects and feel let down. Go on to present the minor characters afterthat.� The crime must be laid out clearly within the few chapters of the start of the book or scenes as in thecase of a screenplay. This will set the minds of the audience ticking and establish the right mood.� Mystery writing that revolves around high degree of crime has better prospects. Readers feelsatiated with murder mysteries although it is more taxing for their brains. A feeble suspense does notexcite the readers sufficiently. A clear definition of the problem that has to be solved makes for a farbetter story.� List out the workable clues that could fit the plot selected and use the best ones, holding back themain or crucial clue for the end.� The detective or the hero must finally solve the mystery using the laws of science. The story willbecome more believable if backed by postulates of rational knowledge.� Characterize the villain in a mold that leaves no room for doubt in his capability to commit thecrime. Often the readers are side-tracked by the culprits outer behavior that belies his intentions he isharboring.� Readers cannot be fooled by mystery writing through the presence of supernatural elements to solvethe mystery or by an accidental solution.When done right, mystery writing is one of the most exciting of the genres. The initial set-backs to thePage 6 of 78
  7. 7. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.investigator, the mounting tension, the sudden twist and ultimately resolving the mystery will satisfythe reader and electrify the author. Working with an experienced mystery writer and revising andrewriting the rough draft can significantly improve the final outcome.Contact professional [http://screenwritersforhire.com/mystery-writers/]MYSTERY WRITERS to helpwrite or edit your horror screenplay, novel, or short story.Just visit our website: [http://screenwritersforhire.com/mystery-writers/]http://screenwritersforhire.com/mystery-writers/ , call / text message John at (716) 579-5984,or EMAIL: Ezine[AT]GhostwritersForHire.ComArticle Source: [http://EzineArticles.com/?Mystery-Writing&id=6526415] Mystery WritingPage 7 of 78
  8. 8. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Mystery WritingBy [http://ezinearticles.com/?expert=John_Halas]John HalasMystery writing is perhaps the most creative forms of writing. Successful authors of this vibrant genretend to be observant and intelligent. The task of handling such a literature calls for an inquisitive mindas well as a love for writing and solving problems. Writing novels with mystery being its theme is anart and a science at the same time. The story has to be solved by the hero or the detective usingscientifically proven laws, thus necessitating the writer to be well versed with rational knowledge.Many of the writers turn their attention to compiling screenplays after getting a fair hang of dealingwith mystery. This is probably the outcome of the fact that script writing is by far the most profitable ofall other forms of artistic writing.Mystery writing can be an enjoyable and imaginative mission, but it does take hard work and severalyears of practice to produce a mystery novel of outstanding worth. A lot depends upon the central plot.The idea for one may come from anywhere -- a conversation, a place, an incident, an article appearingin the newspaper or just about the most unexpected source. It is up to the inventive skill of the author todevelop a plot based on an intriguing idea. All great screenplays started as a tiny idea in thescriptwriters mind.The next step in mystery writing is the creation of characters. While some authors prefer to beinnovative in this area, others base the characters on somebody in the real world. Yet others create ahybrid of real people, exaggerating and altering certain characteristics to create a completely newcharacter. Creating interesting characters is essential to mystery writing. It is also important to infusethe story with surprise and suspense.The ability to tie up all loose ends before the conclusion of the literature is easier said than done. Theclues that lead the hero towards solving the puzzle are challenging to create. Leaving the crucialevidence or the trump card for the end is the best policy. Of course, interspersing the entire tale withlittle clues and a dash of frivolity helps to maintain reader interest.Mystery writing requires re-writing several times because as the writer progresses, flaws show upeither in the plot characters, necessitating amendments in the story. Involving all the emotions of thereader is a sure way to success in mystery writing. Grabbing their attention within the first couple ofpages is more imperative than important, for the audience is likely to put a non-attention grabber aside,perhaps forever. Refrain from bringing cruelty to animals or extreme violence into the book beingwritten. The author should always remember to write something that could happen to the commonpeople with average capabilities, use easy-to-understand language and sit back and watch the receptionof his creation.Contact professional [http://screenwritersforhire.com/mystery-writers/]MYSTERY WRITERS to helpwrite or edit your horror screenplay, novel, or short story.Just visit our website: [http://screenwritersforhire.com/mystery-writers/]http://screenwritersforhire.com/mystery-writers/, call / text message John at (716) 579-5984, orEMAIL: Ezine[AT]GhostwritersForHire.ComPage 8 of 78
  9. 9. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Article Source: [http://EzineArticles.com/?Mystery-Writing&id=6526381] Mystery WritingPage 9 of 78
  10. 10. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.How to Write a Mystery Novel - Essential Elements of Mystery WritingBy [http://ezinearticles.com/?expert=Michael_J_Rushnak]Michael J RushnakAuthors write best what we know best. As a retired physician, I have written a fictional medicalmystery thriller trilogy. After three decades of working in many aspects of the medical world, I knowthe inside story of healthcare--the good, the bad, and the ugly. That said, my fictional stories alwayswalk a fine line between what I can imagine and what might or what could really happen. Thus, inorder to bring a high degree of believability and realism into my thrillers, I incorporate many detailsinto my novels. Whenever I need expertise that I dont personally possess, I talk with experts tocontribute their real world experiences into particular aspects of my writing to give my storiesmaximum credibility. Therefore, beyond using the Internet, my research expands by speaking directlywith many subject matter experts. My goal is to write novels that will thrill and entertain but also leavethe reader thinking about possible solutions to many real issues in my novels that includes political andcorporate corruption, greed, revenge, forgiveness, and many shades of both what is good and what isevil in the world. Since the devil is in the details, research into those real world facts is the foundationfor me to write a compelling medical mystery thriller.In writing a mystery thriller, it is critical to create action and excitement through conflict and tensionbetween the characters themselves or conflict between the characters and the circumstances into whichthey find themselves. In my thrillers, the main characters are simply doing their "day job" and areliterally sucked into the specific bone chilling conflict swirling around him/her knowing full well thatthey are risking their life and/or career if they do act and engage the conflict embodied in the storywhile at the same time clearly understanding and recognizing that something horrific will happen tomany others or to society at large if the main characters turn a "blind eye" or choose to ignorebecoming involved in solving the mystery to save their own skins.Be bold. Get to the conflict as soon as possible. Develop multi-demensional characters that the readerswill either love or hate. Dont be bland or neutral, at least not for the main characters. Write your novelin three sections, a strong beginning on the main conflict at hand, moving to a middle that does not sagbecause you have interwoven an exciting back-story that adds depth to your main characters, andconclude with the highest level of conflict in the story by writing a thrilling emotional climax that willhave more surprise twists and turns than your own small intestine, leaving your reader with goosebumps, shaking their heads in utter amazement over a shocking ending that ties up all loose ends with afinish that was foreshadowed throughout the story with subtle clues, and which leaves the readerclamoring for my next mystery thriller story.Please feel free to interact with me through social networking on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn.Check out my web site to purchase my novels and to read testimonials such as NY Times bestsellingauthor Michael Palmer who called my first novel Terminal Neglect -- "one of the very best medicalthrillers I have read, not recently, EVER!" http://www.michaelrushnakbooks.comArticle Source: [http://EzineArticles.com/?How-to-Write-a-Mystery-Novel---Essential-Elements-of-Mystery-Writing&id=7077691] How to Write a Mystery Novel - Essential Elements of MysteryWritingPage 10 of 78
  11. 11. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.5 Tips for Writing Mystery StoriesBy [http://ezinearticles.com/?expert=Dawn_Arkin]Dawn ArkinMystery stories are a special type of writing. Fast paced and complex, they are a problem solvingpersons idea of a great read. Good mysteries keep a reader wondering while solving the crime. Greatmysteries keep a reader in the dark until the very end.Though you can have almost any combination of genre in one, there are certain rules you must followfor the tale to be considered a mystery.1. Plot - Mysteries are plot-driven tales. They go beyond the standard victim is killed - detectivesearches for clues - killer is caught plotlines. Good mysteries have all that. Great mysteries have twists,turns and enough red herrings to keep the reader guessing until the moment the killer is revealed. Amystery storys plot must be plausible or the story will fall flat on its covers.2. Crime - The crime should be introduced as early as possible, preferable in the firs chapter. Not manyreaders will be willing to read hundreds of pages without a victim. Most would not be willing to readpast the first chapter. The crime should be believable, something the reader can see happening.3. Main Characters - Introduce your detective and villain early on. Your detective is the hero of thestory and your reader wants to see him in action from the get go. Your villain can be shown early, but ifyou want to keep your reader guessing, then keep your villain in the shadows until his unmasking.4. Take your time - Keep your villain a secret until the last possible moment. If you show the readerwho he is too soon, they might lose interest in the rest of the story. Be sure you reveal the clues as yourdetective uncovers them so your reader has a chance to solve the crime first.5. Research - Make sure you read up on the type of crime, police procedures, and forensic informationto make your story come to life. Also, make sure you know your storys setting inside and out. Nothingruins a story faster than a writer who doesnt understand their own setting and makes errors the readercan see.Mystery stories tend to follow more standard rules than other genres. Following those rules will helpyou write the kind of mystery your readers are looking for, and create the kind of suspenseful storylinethat will have your readers turning the page until the very ending.Dawn Arkin is an author on http://www.Writing.Com/which is a site for Fiction Writing. Her portfolio can be found at http://darkin.Writing.Com/ so stop byand read for a while.Article Source: [http://EzineArticles.com/?5-Tips-for-Writing-Mystery-Stories&id=722552] 5 Tips forWriting Mystery StoriesPage 11 of 78
  12. 12. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Elements of Writing a Mystery NovelBy [http://ezinearticles.com/?expert=Kasaundra_Riley]Kasaundra RileyLike anything, a mystery novel is composed of different parts, which are referred to as elements. Eachare critical in capturing the readers interest. If your story is researched and well written, it is sure to bea winner. By now, you are probably wondering what the elements are. They are the science, plot,characters with settings and writing technique.First is the science. This needs to be accurate due to the fact several mystery novel readers are welledversed in forensic techniques. They can see through phony stuff in an instant, and you want to avoidthat. If you can write a good story and have correct science then your book just went from decent togreat.Next is the development of the plot. This will make or break your story. It is crucial to have a plot thatmakes sense, is intriguing, and has many twists and turns to keep the reader not knowing what is goingto happen next. The more they do not know what is coming the more suspense you will create and ofcourse in a mystery novel, suspense is everything! If there was a part to really focus on, it would be theplot!Following is creating the characters with stories settings. It is important to really develop them andmake them something authentic. You want to have the audience relate them. This will increase theconnection with the reader and makes it easier for you to write the rest of the novel. The more youknow about your character, the easier it is for you to write about them. After the characters, the settingis extremely important to set the atmosphere for the story.Lastly, the element of writing technique is significant when constructing your mystery novels. This issimply because this is part of what creates the emotion within the reader. It is good to include literaryelements such as similes, personification, and metaphors. It is good to also include more advancedtechniques such as suspense and foreshadowing. These are big keys when writing a mystery story.What is even more important is what is called red herrings. These will make reader think the story isgoing one way when it is actually the other. Incorporating these will enhance your story and make for abetter read.If you can have all these elements intertwined into your story, you are on the right track to write a greatmystery novel!Learn how to write your own mystery novel at [http://www.writeamysterynovel.com]Article Source: [http://EzineArticles.com/?Elements-of-Writing-a-Mystery-Novel&id=4655051]Elements of Writing a Mystery NovelPage 12 of 78
  13. 13. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Thinking of Writing a Mystery Novel? Remember These PrinciplesBy [http://ezinearticles.com/?expert=A._W._Guerra]A. W. GuerraProbably one of lifes greatest simple pleasures has been the act of reading a well-written piece offiction, especially when its something like a classic "whodunit." The names of famous authors in thisgenre are legion: Agatha Christie and Raymond Chandler were famous in their day, as are Sue Graftonand Mary Higgins Clark today.Whats also for certain is that there probably arent many people who like to write who havent thoughtof sitting down and penning a juicy mystery novel. For aspiring mystery writers one of the first thingsto understand is that there are general principles involved in the writing of any story, and especially sowhen it comes to mysteries in general.For the most part, there are a number of broad themes when it comes to working out a plot for the novelof your dreams in this sort of genre. Almost all of the most successful writers in the business use somevariation or another of these principles when it comes to the writing of their own stories, and thesevariations have worked well for pretty much as long as the mystery novel has been around.To begin with, dont obsess over filling in parts of characters lives or even the story itself that mostreaders will just skip or skim over anyway. Many newer mystery writers fall into this trap, and wasteprecious pages trying to explain things that the average reader just doesnt care about, sad to say.Also, work very hard at plotting a mystery thats actually going to be a mystery and not just somethingwritten to create confusion in a readers mind. Give your reader enough info to stay interested in thestory but not so much that the storyline just becomes tiring instead. In mysteries, streamlining is vital,so never lose sight of that particular rule when it comes down to plot.Keep in mind, also, that good whodunits have a number of "what?" questions. Simply put, these areeither explicitly or implicitly stated throughout a novel and consist of "what will...?" or "what is...?"lines of plot development.For instance, a writer might pose a "What will the main character do when hes confronted with the realtruth of things?" question indirectly to his or her reader. Readers love those sorts of questions, for afact, and sometimes - but be sparing when using them - they also love a few "why did...?" questions,which can be good to occasionally throw into the plot mix.Many newer writers - not only of mysteries but also just about any other sort of fiction - fail toremember that in such styles of writing the story must be moved along with pace and speed. Especiallyin the mystery genre, its not necessary to waste page after page on extraneous plot set-ups and deepcharacter development.In the above observation, really, who cares -- when reading a mystery -- what color ties the dead guywore unless its absolutely essential to explaining why he ended up dead and who might have whackedhim for wearing such a color tie? Instead, get to the point and throw out the red meat plot stuff that anymystery lover adores.Page 13 of 78
  14. 14. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Another principle in mystery writing to observe is the need to come up with a juicy moral or ethicalproblem or dilemma for the storys protagonist, and then weave that problem into the fabric and pace ofthe story itself. The best stories always seem to present at least one difficult moral quandary that thecharacter will have to resolve, so work hard to develop one for your protagonist.Perhaps the most important plot element in any good mystery is that theres tension all throughout it.This tension, for the most part, exists between the good guy (the protagonist) and the bad guy (theantagonist).What this means is that the protagonist needs to be at work trying to solve a problem and that theantagonist needs to be working to try to prevent its subsequent solution. Remember, most of the greatstories are about good and bad and how we address either or both of the two, and the problem thatneeds to be solved will always be a statement about the tension or struggle between good and bad.Generally, its the case that when all of the above plot elements exist in a mystery the story will usuallybe high quality and of interest to readers, which is should be the aim of any aspiring mystery writer. Ifyou can discipline yourself to stay within the broad themes of classic mystery writing, theres a goodchance that any story you produce will have at least a fighting chance at eventual success.A. W. Guerra is a retired military officer, current writer and also author who presently pens articles andposts for over 15 personal websites and blogs, including WriteWell Communications.This blog, [http://writewellcommunications.com], is dedicated to teaching the mechanics and processesinvolved in learning to write well.He may be reached through his personal website at [http://www.tonyguerraonline.com].Article Source: [http://EzineArticles.com/?Thinking-of-Writing-a-Mystery-Novel?-Remember-These-Principles&id=2629260] Thinking of Writing a Mystery Novel? Remember These PrinciplesPage 14 of 78
  15. 15. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Writing Mystery Series: Ten Tips That WorkBy [http://ezinearticles.com/?expert=Camille_Minichino]Camille MinichinoReaders of crime fiction love series. They like nothing better than to get to know a protagonist and hisworld over the course of many books, much as we enjoy the episodes of a television drama series. Eachstory must stand alone, with its own character and story arcs, but with a larger character arc thatencompasses the whole series. Its the writers job to reveal character over many books, making surethat new readers will understand and old readers will not be bored. Once all of your investigatorspersonal issues are resolved, the series is over.Tip 1. Plan ahead. Think carefully about your protagonist before you begin a mystery series. Yoursleuth, if amateur must have an interesting enough job to ride out many books; thus, a loner in anaccounting office might not work. If your protagonist is a professional investigator, he should workenough outside the box to be appealing and worthy of return visits.Tip 2. Ride the best friend wave. Give your protagonist/sleuth a complementary friend! Is your sleuthlogical and literal to the point of obsession? Give her a friend who will force her to dig into herintuitive side, someone who shows her another way to approach problem solving-and life. This BestFriend Forever can be a partner, a spouse, a grandchild, or the old fashioned Watson-like sidekick.Youll be able to bring the best friend forward in other entries to your series.Tip 3. Make each cohort count. Other than having a best friend, how "connected" should yourprotagonist be? Not as much as you the author need to be to sell and promote your book! Giving yoursleuth too many friends makes the story hard to handle, but give him too few and youre stuck with notenough of a cast to keep a series going. Avoid the trap of needing to conjure up a long-lost cousin in thefifth book.Tip 4. Location, location, location. Whether your setting is real or fictional, make it sparkle. If its a realcity, be sure to use its special character, whether climate, storied neighborhoods, or physical attraction.If you make up a town, youre free to give it a specialness of your own choosing, like an annual festivalor performance, or a unique cuisine. Convince the reader that its worth revisiting your setting over andover in the series.Tip 5. Become a bookkeeper. Keeping track of details is especially essential when writing a series.Create a handy chart where you list each characters physical attributes and back story, plus herpreferences for things like music, books, hobbies, and fashion. Each time you start a new book in theseries, check to be sure that if Virgil has a son in book two, he still has a son in book three.Tip 6. Become a sketch artist. Even a crude sketch of your crime scene will come in handy for keepingthe details of the crime straight throughout the book. Sketch every room thats important in your story.The sketches also serve as inspiration if you find yourself blocked and needing a new avenue toexplore. Go back to the sketches. Wheres the bullet casing? What purpose is served by the windowoverlooking the garden?Tip 7. Start in the middle. Be ready when readers want the first in your series and the bookstore hasPage 15 of 78
  16. 16. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.only your latest in stock. Remind readers through promotion that each book stands on its own with afully developed and resolved story and that your protagonist can be completely understood as heappears in each book. Just as you can make new friends mid-life, you can meet a character mid-seriesand have a satisfying relationship.Tip 8. Make your own calendar. Books in a series are typically released a year apart. Does your sleuthalso age a year? Are you ready for a sleuth thats twelve years older in the twelfth book? Its yourchoice, but if you make your sleuth ageless, be sure to deal correctly with factors like changes intechnology. A fictional investigator operating even five years ago has significantly fewer resources ather disposal. Keep track of your schedule of aging!Tip 9. Kill creatively. Be aware that readers of series like to be surprised, but not too much! Stay true tothe personalities and voices of your characters, but be creative with your villains, weapons, and theresources your protagonist uses to solve the crime. Find a new way to build suspense in each book anda new escape route for your sleuth in each threatening situation.Tip 10. Postpone the wedding. Romantic threads are common in mystery series and theres much debateabout whether keeping the romantic tension between unmarried characters is preferable to marryingthem off quickly. It does seem that there are more opportunities for adventures and hazardous duty ifyour sleuth doesnt have to be home for dinner every night! Your choice, and its your job to be sure noexcitement is lost whether your sleuth says "I do" or not.Camille Minichino, aka Margaret Grace and Ada Madison, has published 13 mysteries in two series. InJuly 2011 shell launch a third series, the Professor Sophie Knowles series. More athttp://www.minichino.comArticle Source: [http://EzineArticles.com/?Writing-Mystery-Series:-Ten-Tips-That-Work&id=6225001]Writing Mystery Series: Ten Tips That WorkPage 16 of 78
  17. 17. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.How to Write a Mystery Novel - 5 Awesome Tips For Writing Your Mystery Or ThrillerBy [http://ezinearticles.com/?expert=Anabelle_J_Paisley]Anabelle J PaisleyAre you an aspiring author who would like to know how to write a mystery novel? Read on for 5 reallygreat tips to get you started on your way.1. Read all the time in your genre, but also read on a wide variety of subjects as well. Read magazinesand newspapers. Youll be really surprised at the great ideas you will get just from reading articles inthe paper, especially for mystery novels. There are tons of things going on all the time that could beturned into a novel. Keep your eyes and mind open.2. Observe people. Notice how they speak. Watch adults and watch children. Watch their reactions tothings, especially unexpected things, and see what they do. You might consider carrying a smallnotebook or voice recorder around with you to write down or record these observations. Youll be ableto use a lot of it later in your novel.3. When plotting your mystery, decide what the "twist" is going to be before you begin writing. What isthe twist? Thats the really interesting and surprising ending where your reader realizes that what he orshe was lulled into believing throughout the novel wasnt actually what was going on after all. Some ofthe most popular mystery books have twists. But be careful not to throw out too many red herrings, asthis will probably anger the reader.4. Figure out your plot first, then add the characters. Your characters should arise from the plot itself.5. If you are stuck for an idea for your novel, think about routine and mundane things that happen everyday in your life, just those normal daily activities, and put an interesting twist on them. Like, forexample, lets say that every night before you go to bed you check all the doors and windows but everymorning your kitchen window is unlocked. Nothing is ever missing and no sign of forced entry, yet thewindow is mysteriously unlocked each and every day. Just that simple little thing is enough to grabyour readers interest.You can write a mystery novel easy and fast! Go here now: http://www.writeyourfirstnovel.comYou will not believe how quick and painless it can be to get that novel finished and ready to go to thepublisher.Article Source: [http://EzineArticles.com/?How-to-Write-a-Mystery-Novel---5-Awesome-Tips-For-Writing-Your-Mystery-Or-Thriller&id=2629645] How to Write a Mystery Novel - 5 Awesome Tips ForWriting Your Mystery Or ThrillerPage 17 of 78
  18. 18. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.How to Write a Mystery Novel - 5 Common Mistakes to AvoidBy [http://ezinearticles.com/?expert=Anabelle_J_Paisley]Anabelle J PaisleyAs an aspiring author and beginning novelist, you may be looking for information on how to write amystery novel. There is plenty of information out there for you in the form of books and lots ofinformation online. But although its very important to know what to do, its also extremely crucial toknow what to avoid as well. So here are 5 common mistakes you should avoid.1. The first thing not to do is dont fail to grab your readers attention from the very first line of the veryfirst page. Its quite common for novice authors to begin chronologically and not want to start right at amoment of action. Then theyll be describing some scenery and losing readers left and right. Engage thereader immediately or they will not bother to read your novel.2. This leads us to problem number two in your mystery novel which is too much description ingeneral. Your reader will simply begin skimming. You must introduce the conflict of the novel andintroduce the protagonist. You must make the reader care. They dont care about a bunch of lengthydescriptions.3. The next issue is not giving your characters believable motivations and having them act in believableways. You must know your characters before you start to write.4. Dropping too many clues and too many "red herrings" in your mystery novel is another mistake.Everything needs to flow logically, and your clues should be interspersed as the book progresses, notthrown about willy nilly in an effort to cause confusion.5. Deliberately misleading the reader. There is actually a fine line here. You obviously need somesuspense because after all, it is a mystery, and you do need that red herring mentioned above. But dontgo out of your way to throw something out there that, 3 chapters later. is shown to be totally unrelatedto the story in any way. A lot of people will get angry and toss your book down in disgust. Someticulous planning is required on your part with the use of foreshadowing which gives readers a few"real" clues to lead them along and allow them to try and figure things out. After all, thats why peopleread mysteries and "whodunits," to try and figure them out.You can write a mystery novel easy and fast! Go here now: http://www.writeyourfirstnovel.comYou will not believe how quick and painless it can be to get that novel finished and ready to go to thepublisher.Article Source: [http://EzineArticles.com/?How-to-Write-a-Mystery-Novel---5-Common-Mistakes-to-Avoid&id=2621162] How to Write a Mystery Novel - 5 Common Mistakes to AvoidPage 18 of 78
  19. 19. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Writing The Modern MysteryBy [http://ezinearticles.com/?expert=Billie_A_Williams]Billie A WilliamsFrom private eye, police procedural, professional Amateur, John and Jane Q Public, Heists, Capers,Kidnapping, Romantic Suspense the genres and sub-genres are endless when it comes to whatconstitutes a mystery. Correction, a Modern Mystery.Lets begin with a definition of mystery - it comes from the old Greek mysterian - to keep silence(myein- to be closed as with eyes or lips sealed.) Keeping a secret is the idea behind it all. The modernmystery finds its roots in morality plays. The felonious assault against neighbors and crimes againstentire populaces, though the crimes may remain the same the intensity, the horrid actuality of thosecrimes has increased. It seems the stakes are higher, the punishment harsher in the modern day mystery.Some modern mystery writers prefer their imagination to reality creating their own criminal milieu.Whether or not they use modern technology to solve the crimes is their choice. They ring out, draw-out,and leverage their creative powers until they squeeze the last thrill out of the whodunit and give thereader a full measure of satisfaction."It is characterized by its own rules and is judged by those rules." According to Barbara Norville, inWriting the Modern Mystery. This book was published in 1986 but the information is as true as if itwere written today.Supposedly there is no such thing as a simple linear plot in a mystery. A mystery thought when a writerbegins s/he better have a plot outline in place so s/he does not run a muck. Painting him or her into theproverbial, unsolvable corner is not an option. Even though it may not appear that the mystery is asorderly as a plot outline on the page, it must be thoroughly thought through to keep you on target sothat you reach your perceived goal at the end.There is no room for irrelevant material or loose ends. Absolutely no room to change course midstream,unless you want to see the reader toss your book in to the circular file and cross you off their "to beread" list.Characters, fully developed characters, are always consistent in their attitudes and actions. Usually whothey are isnt as important as what they do. Hero/heroines solve the problems or promises made at thebeginning of the story. Antagonists disrupt, thwart and create chaos that tears a hole in the fabric ofknown society. Theme choice of the crime and authors attitude toward the crime are also key factors.The many sub-genres help define what type of story the mystery reader can expect. Detective, romanticsuspense or true crime. Characters and plot define, and genre rules, ultimately, illuminate the categoryor sub-genre for the reader. Create a world you are comfortable with, people it with characters, a crime,a world you are contented with and want to write about-choose your sub-genre, and write.Your sleuth can have any career you can think of. Billie A Williams has used a single mother waitress,hobby candle making; an antique store owner, a bed and Breakfast owner, a town chairwoman, bookstore owner, investigative reporter, teacher, archeology professor, peace corps worker, a homelessPage 19 of 78
  20. 20. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.woman, CNA at a nursing home-all accidental sleuths who solve the crimes in their own style. Themodern mystery has many options for the writer, depending on the crime and author experience orimagination as mentioned above.Many times in real life, crimes, cold case crimes, as in Patricia Cornwells Jack-the-Ripper solved, orothers unsolved, but begging all sleuths to render their version of whodunit, a solution -they becomemystery novels.The modern mystery is not shackled by earlier conventions; locked rooms are pass�, but could still beused with a twist and your unique take on it. Your imagination, your comfort zone and your skill are theonly limitations you must obey.Write Like the Wind and Solve it your way.Make your reading time absorbing. Pit your wits against the accidental sleuth, who may be in a job likeyours. Subscribe to my free e-zine "Mystery Readers and Working Writers," the free e-zine for mysterylovers readers or writers Get a free e-booklet " A Nice Quiet Family" a very short flash mystery.http://www.billiewilliams.comArticle Source: [http://EzineArticles.com/?Writing-The-Modern-Mystery&id=5808219] Writing TheModern MysteryPage 20 of 78
  21. 21. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.How to Create Believable Stories by Nick Sanders Creating believable stories is probably at the forefront of many writer’s minds when you are looking toput pen to paper and excel in writing a truly monumental story/novel.Through this article, you will be provided some helpful tips and hints that will help you in theconstruction and creation of an entertaining and believable story that your peers will envy. With theinformation, you will find yourself in a better position to write a story that is not only realistic, but ismeaningful to your reader.One main agreement by many authors is that when you actually get down to writing a story or piece ofwriting is that you should only write about what you actually have experienced or know about. Youdon’t have to be an expert in your field, but having actually done some gardening, when writing aboutgardening tolls, for example, is a good place to start. This will also help you when you are writingmuch longer pieces that are going to be published, as you can draw on any life experiences that youhave had in the past to help emphasize your points, opinions and guide the reader in understandingwhat they are actually reading in from of them.Also, creating a believable story and writing of your own is significantly influenced by reading thework of others, and this is a techniques you should remember. When evaluating your own work anddirection, you should also think about the past works you have read by many different authors, as thesewill influence your decisions on direction of your believable story. To actually write a believable storyyou should always read the work of others who are writing other stories.Creating a story that is going to be understood by your readers is paramount, so creating characters thatthey can associate with will be a must when you are writing away. You should keep track of yourcharacters too, having an old lady riding around on a scooter probably isn’t the best thing to have herdo. Plus its unnatural and not likely to happen.Together with your characters, you should also make sure that the scenery and settings are utilizing thedevelopment of your story and plot. A major problem in novels that occurs is in an incorrectdescription of an existing place, do your research before writing something; using google is a greatsource to find out information on just about anything.Good writers tend to sketch out their outline in what they are going to write about as this allows themto question whether or not someone would take a point of view on their novel with positive eyes. Nothaving an outline in what you are going to be writing about will be a bad idea, as you will be writingaway and get to the end with a muddled and disjointed story.When you are revising your work you will want to edit the novel to ensure that you have created apiece of writing that is going to stand out and people are going to enjoy. Many writers don’t takeenough time in the editing process to spot mistakes and inconsistencies in their writing, and not doingso causes their story to be misleading and not clearly understood.Before you submit your work to be published you will want to source an experienced editor who canPage 21 of 78
  22. 22. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.take a look through your work and acknowledge whether your manuscript is of the highest quality to besubmitted to be published.By recognizing and taking on board the tips provided in this article, you will be able to recognizewhere your writing needs to be improved and how you are able to produce a manuscript that is bothbelievable to readers and is a story produced by an accomplished writer. This in turn will lead to youbecoming an admired writer in your own field.Neil is an editor at Supaproofread, an online proofreading company, specialising in book copyeditingservices. You should visit them if you are looking for a professional proofreading serviceArticle Source: http://www.article-buzz.comPage 22 of 78
  23. 23. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.How To Publish A Book To Generate Sales Leads by Bob Burnham For many, sales are the least desirable aspect of being a business owner. It means knocking on doorsand making cold calls, the majority of which end up in rejection. Publishing a book can literally endthe need to go out and get sales. Heres how.Writing a book will end cold calling. Imagine talking to a potential customer and being able to say,"Let me give you a copy of my book." This is a huge selling point. They may never actually read yourbook, however simply because you have one tells your prospective client you are an expert in yourindustry and you are so confident in your knowledge and abilities you have written a book on thesubject.Seriously, would you rather do business with a company you know nothing about or a company whohas written a book on the subject? Most of us would rather go with a company who has written a book,we are more comfortable with them. We are instantly more confident in their skills. Your customerswill be too. In fact, I have know business owners who simply had to say "let me send you a copy of mybook," and the potential customer made a purchase on the spot. They did not even have to see thebook, just the mention of publication was enough to give them confidence.Writing a book will bring customers to your door. Having a book available and on the market willbring customers to your door. For example, imagine you are exploring the possibility of running amarathon. You buy a book or two on the subject. During your training you decide you need more helpgetting proper form so you go back to the author of your book, visit their website and book a weekendtraining camp with them. Now if you had not read the book, how likely is it you would have bookedtheir particular training camp? Not likely. The same is true for your customers. Regardless of yourbusiness, when people read your book they will look to your for more information. It does not matter ifyou run a product oriented business like selling running shoes or a service related business like fitnesstraining, the concept works the same. You wont have to pound on doors to make sales becausecustomers will be pounding on your door.Writing a book will open up opportunities for you and your business. Continuing with the sameexample from above, the fitness trainer writes a book and runs marathon training camps. The bookcatches the attention of a television producer, a news program, or maybe even the manufacturer of arunning product like shoes. They contact you and offer you an opportunity. Maybe you are asked to bean expert on the local news, maybe youre offered a radio or television program or maybe your name isattached to a new product. All of it means more money for you and an expansion of your business andyour company name.Theres no doubt about it, a book can eliminate the stress associated with HAVING to make sales.When you write a book, sales will automatically happen and you can focus on the more interestingtasks of being an entrepreneur - namely growing your business!For Your FREE MP3 (Value $97.00)How To Make A 6 Figure Income Writing and Publishing Your Own BookPage 23 of 78
  24. 24. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Go To: Book MarketingBob BurnhamEntrepreneur, Consultant and # 1 Amazon Best Selling Author of "101 Reasons Why You Must Write ABook"Information on How to Write and Publish your Own Book go to Expert Author -http://www.expertauthorpublishing.comArticle Source: http://www.article-buzz.comPage 24 of 78
  25. 25. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Publishing A Book, 10 Money Saving Secrets by Bob Burnham If you have ever looked into publishing a book, you may have found that an abundance of theinformation makes it sound like writing and publishing a book is a very expensive endeavor. This doesnot have to be the case. You can write and publish a fantastic and well received professional book,without breaking the bank or taking out a second mortgage on your home. In fact, some people haveeven found a way to publish a book for free! Heres how to save money writing and publishing yourbook:Money saving secret #1 Get others to write the book for you. This may sound sneaky, however manysuccessful authors have used this tactic quite successfully. We are not talking about paying aghostwriter, we are talking about asking experts in the field to contribute. For example, Chicken Soupfor the Soul books are collections of inspirational stories written by others. The Secret, is a collectionof information from experts in manifestation and the Law of Attraction. Experts will often gladlycontribute to your book in exchange for the ability to put their contact information in the book. It isexcellent marketing for them and a product for you.Money Saving Secret #2 Use information you have already written. If you have written articles,reports, and even blog posts these can be collected and organized to create a book. All you will spendis time organizing the material into a cohesive package.Money saving secret #3 Interview experts. One excellent way to provide value and create a book is tointerview experts in your field and organize the transcripts into an easy to read and logical manner.Transcription generally costs about $2.20-$3.00 per minute depending on the transcriptionist and theirlevel of service, some simply transcribe and others will edit the document to make it read well.Regardless, this simple process makes writing and publishing a book very cost effective and it takes notime at all.Money saving secret #4 epublish. Printing costs money. Distribution costs money. Many successfulauthors decide to first publish their book electronically. This means customers can quickly downloadthe book onto their computer. Many customers actually prefer to get their information in this formathowever if you are determined to see your book in print, consider funding the printing with anelectronic first run. You may find that it sells so well as an e-book that printing it does does not makesense.Money saving secret #5 Create a joint venture. Partner with an expert writer or if you do prefer to writethe book, partner with an expert marketer. Joint ventures are excellent ways to split the costs ofpublishing a book. When seeking a joint venture partner, make certain to find someone who hasstrengths where you have weaknesses. For example, if youre a good writer then find a partner who isan excellent marketer and you both split the profits.Money saving secret #6 Partner with a company to pre-purchase your book in exchange for promotionin your bookMoney saving secret #7 Promote affiliate products to cover the price of publication. PromotingPage 25 of 78
  26. 26. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.products, and receiving a percentage of the sales, is a great way to fund the printing and marketing ofyour book. Simply including a link in your book or on your website will initiate the affiliate incomeprocess. Remember to only promote products that are relevant to your books topic and are productsyou would use yourself.Money saving secret #8 The more you print the cheaper the cost per book. Printing operates just likeany other business. The more you buy, the cheaper it is. Of course, when exercising this strategy,make sure you are confident you can sell what you print and make sure you have a safe place to storeall those books!Money saving secret #9 Use technology to make distribution easy. For example Amazon offersdistribution and instead of charging you, they take a portion of your sale. This can easily be made upby increasing the price just a touch. Clickbank also makes it easy and economical to distribute your e-book.Money saving secret #10 Take advantage of open source products. For example word processing,website design and hosting, and even accounting software, all a vital part of becoming a successfulpublisher, dont have to be expensive. If you buy software products to handle all of your publishingtasks it can cost you thousands. Open source is free.Writing and publishing a book does not have to be expensive. True, it may take a little creativity butwhen you have all those dollar signs at the end of the road its worth a little creative time to make itwork.For Your FREE MP3 (Value $97.00)How To Make A 6 Figure Income Writing and Publishing Your Own BookGo To: Make Money WritingBob BurnhamEntrepreneur, Consultant and # 1 Amazon Best Selling Author of "101 Reasons Why You Must Write ABook"Information on How to Write and Publish your Own Book go to Expert Author-http://www.expertauthorpublishing.comArticle Source: http://www.article-buzz.comPage 26 of 78
  27. 27. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Now, the Encyclopedia!Here follows are some Wikipedia articles on various types of Mystery Fiction.Enjoy!Page 27 of 78
  28. 28. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Mystery fictionFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaMystery fiction is a loosely-defined term.1.It is often used as a synonym for detective fiction or crime fiction— in other words a novel or shortstory in which a detective (either professional or amateur) investigates and solves a crime mystery.Sometimes mystery books are nonfiction. The term "mystery fiction" may sometimes be limited to thesubset of detective stories in which the emphasis is on the puzzle/suspense element and its logicalsolution (cf. whodunit), as a contrast to hardboiled detective stories, which focus on action and grittyrealism.2.Although normally associated with the crime genre, the term "mystery fiction" may in certainsituations refer to a completely different genre, where the focus is on supernatural or thriller mystery(the solution doesnt have to be logical, and even no crime is involved). This usage was common in thepulp magazines of the 1930s and 1940s, where titles such as Dime Mystery, Thrilling Mystery andSpicy Mystery offered what at the time were described as "weird menace" stories – supernatural horrorin the vein of Grand Guignol. This contrasted with parallel titles of the same names which containedconventional hardboiled crime fiction. The first use of "mystery" in this sense was by Dime Mystery,which started out as an ordinary crime fiction magazine but switched to "weird menace" during thelatter part of 1933.[1]Contents • 1 Beginni ngs • 2 Classifi cations • 3 See also • 4 Referen ces • 5 Externa l linksPage 28 of 78
  29. 29. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.BeginningsAn early work of modern mystery fiction, Das Fräulein von Scuderi by E.T.A. Hoffmann (1819), wasan influence on The Murders in the Rue Morgue by Edgar Allan Poe (1841). Wilkie Collins epistolarynovel The Woman in White was published in 1860, while The Moonstone (1868), is often thought to behis masterpiece. In 1887 Arthur Conan Doyle introduced Sherlock Holmes, whose mysteries are said tohave been singularly responsible for the huge popularity in this genre. The genre began to expand nearthe turn of century with the development of dime novels and pulp magazines. Books were especiallyhelpful to the genre, with many authors writing in the genre in the 1920s. An important contribution tomystery fiction in the 1920s was the development of the juvenile mystery by Edward Stratemeyer.Stratemeyer originally developed and wrote the Hardy Boys and Nancy Drew mysteries written underthe Franklin W. Dixon and Carolyn Keene pseudonyms respectively (and were later written by hisdaughter, Harriet Adams, and other authors). The 1920s also gave rise to one of the most popularmystery authors of all time, Agatha Christie, whose works include Murder on the Orient Express(1934), Death on the Nile (1937), and the worlds best-selling mystery And Then There Were None(1939).[2]The massive popularity of pulp magazines in the 1930s and 1940s increased interest in mystery fiction.Pulp magazines decreased in popularity in the 1950s with the rise of television so much that thenumerous titles available then are reduced to two today: Alfred Hitchcocks Mystery Magazine andEllery Queens Mystery Magazine. The detective fiction author Ellery Queen (pseudonym of FredericDannay and Manfred B. Lee) is also credited with continuing interest in mystery fiction.Interest in mystery fiction continues to this day because of various television shows which have usedmystery themes and the many juvenile and adult novels which continue to be published. There is someoverlap with "thriller" or "suspense" novels and like authors in those genres may consider themselvesmystery novelists. Comic books and like graphic novels have carried on the tradition, and filmadaptations have helped to re-popularize the genre in recent times.[3]ClassificationsMystery fiction can be divided into numerous categories, among them the "traditional mystery", "legalthriller", " medical thriller", "cozy mystery", "police procedural", and "hardboiled" (for instance,Dashiell Hammetts The Maltese Falcons main detective, Sam Spade).See also • Detective fiction • List of crime writers • List of female detective characters • Art theft • Category:Mystery novels • List of mystery writers • List of thriller authors • Mystery filmPage 29 of 78
  30. 30. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon. • The Top 100 Crime Novels of All Time • GialloReferences 1. ^ Haining, Peter (2000). The Classic Era of American Pulp Magazines. Prion Books. ISBN 1- 85375-388-2. 2. ^ Davies, Helen; Marjorie Dorfman, Mary Fons, Deborah Hawkins, Martin Hintz, Linnea Lundgren, David Priess, Julia Clark Robinson, Paul Seaburn, Heidi Stevens, and Steve Theunissen (14 September 2007). "21 Best-Selling Books of All Time". Editors of Publications International, Ltd.. Retrieved 2009-03-25. 3. ^ J. Madison Davis: How graphic can a mystery be?, World Literature Today, July-August 2007External links • Mystery genre at the Open Directory Project • Mystery Fiction at TV Tropes.Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mystery_fiction&oldid=517008556"Categories: • Mystery fiction • Crime fiction • This page was last modified on 10 October 2012 at 14:05. • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.Page 30 of 78
  31. 31. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Detective fictionFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaDetective fiction is a sub-genre of crime fiction and mystery fiction in which an investigator (often adetective), either professional or amateur, investigates a crime, often murder.Page 31 of 78
  32. 32. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Contents • 1 Beginni ngs of detectiv e fiction • 1 . 1 I n a n c i e n t l i t e r a t u r e • 1 . 2 E a r l y APage 32 of 78
  33. 33. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Beginnings of detective fictionIn ancient literatureSome scholars have suggested that some ancient and religious texts bear similarities to what wouldlater be called detective fiction. In the Old Testament story of Susanna and the Elders (Daniel 13; in theProtestant Bible this story is found in the apocrypha), the story told by two witnesses breaks downwhen Daniel cross-examines them. The author Julian Symons has commented on writers who see thisas a detective story, arguing that "those who search for fragments of detection in the Bible andHerodotus are looking only for puzzles" and that these puzzles are not detective stories.[1] In the playOedipus Rex by Ancient Greek playwright Sophocles, the title character discovers the truth about hisorigins after questioning various witnesses. Although "Oedipuss enquiry is based on supernatural, pre-rational methods that are evident in most narratives of crime until the development of Enlightenmentthought in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries" it has "all of the central characteristics and formalelements of the detective story, including a mystery sur- rounding a murder, a closed circle of suspects,and the gradual uncovering of a hidden past."[2]Early Arab detective fictionThe earliest known example of a detective story was The Three Apples, one of the tales narrated byScheherazade in the One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights). In this tale, a fishermandiscovers a heavy locked chest along the Tigris river and he sells it to the Abbasid Caliph, Harun al-Rashid, who then has the chest broken open only to find inside it the dead body of a young woman whowas cut into pieces. Harun orders his vizier, Jafar ibn Yahya, to solve the crime and find the murdererwithin three days or be executed if he fails his assignment.[3] Suspense is generated through multipleplot twists that occur as the story progresses.[4] This may thus be considered an archetype for detectivefiction.[5]The main difference between Jafar in "The Three Apples" and later fictional detectives such asSherlock Holmes and Hercule Poirot, however, is that Jafar has no actual desire to solve the case. Thewhodunit mystery is solved when the murderer himself confesses his crime,[6] which in turn leads toanother assignment in which Jafar has to find the culprit who instigated the murder within three daysor else be executed. Jafar again fails to find the culprit before the deadline, but owing to his chancediscovery of a key item, he eventually manages to solve the case through reasoning, in order to preventhis own execution.[7]Early Chinese detective fictionThe "Gong An story" (公案小说, literally:"case records of a public law court")is the earliest knowngenre of Chinese detective fiction.Some well known stories include the Yuan Dynasty story Circle of Chalk (Chinese:灰闌記), the MingDynasty story collection Bao Gong An (Chinese:包公案) and the 18th century Di Gong An (Chinese:狄公案) story collection. The latter was translated into English as Celebrated Cases of Judge Dee byPage 33 of 78
  34. 34. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Dutch sinologist Robert Van Gulik, who then used the style and characters to write an original JudgeDee series.The hero/detective of these novels is typically a traditional judge or similar official based on historicalpersonages such as Judge Bao (Bao Qingtian) or Judge Dee (Di Renjie). Although the historicalcharacters may have lived in an earlier period (such as the Song or Tang dynasty) most stories arewritten in the latter Ming or Qing period.These novels differ from the Western tradition in several points as described by van Gulik: • the detective is the local magistrate who is usually involved in several unrelated cases simultaneously; • the criminal is introduced at the very start of the story and his crime and reasons are carefully explained, thus constituting an inverted detective story rather than a "puzzle"; • the stories have a supernatural element with ghosts telling people about their death and even accusing the criminal; • the stories are filled with digressions into philosophy, the complete texts of official documents, and much more, making for very long books; • the novels tend to have a huge cast of characters, typically in the hundreds, all described as to their relation to the various main actors in the story.Van Gulik chose Di Gong An to translate because it was in his view closer to the Western tradition andmore likely to appeal to non-Chinese readers.One notable fact is that a number of Gong An works may have been lost or destroyed during theLiterary Inquisitions and the wars in ancient China. Only little or incomplete case volumes can befound; for example, the only copy of Di Gong An was found at a second-hand book store in Tokyo,Japan.Early Western detective fictionDaguerreotype of Edgar Allan PoeOne of the earliest examples of detective fiction is Voltaires Zadig (1748), which features a maincharacter who performs feats of analysis.[8] The Danish crime story The Rector of Veilbye by SteenSteensen Blicher was written in 1829, and the Norwegian crime novel Mordet på MaskinbyggerRolfsen ("The Murder of Engine Maker Rolfsen") by Maurits Hansen was published in 1839.[9]"Das Fräulein von Scuderi", an 1819 short story by E. T. A. Hoffmann, in which Mlle de Scuderyestablishes the innocence of the polices favorite suspect in the murder of a jeweller, is sometimes citedas the first detective story and a direct influence on Edgar Allan Poes "The Murders in the RuePage 34 of 78
  35. 35. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Morgue".[10] Also suggested as a possible influence on Poe is ‘The Secret Cell’, a short storypublished in September 1837 by William Evans Burton, describing how a London policeman solves themystery of a kidnapped girl. Burton’s fictional detective relies on practical methods - dogged legwork,knowledge of the underworld and undercover surveillance - rather than brilliance of imagination orintellect, but it has been suggested this story may have been known to Poe, who in 1839 worked forBurton. [11]However, true detective fiction is more often considered in the English-speaking world tohave begun in 1841 with the publication of "The Murders in the Rue Morgue" itself,[8] featuring "thefirst fictional detective, the eccentric and brilliant C. Auguste Dupin". Poe devised a "plot formula thatsbeen successful ever since, give or take a few shifting variables."[12] Poe followed with furtherAuguste Dupin tales: "The Mystery of Marie Rogêt" in 1843 and "The Purloined Letter" in 1845.Poe referred to his stories as "tales of ratiocination".[8] In stories such as these, the primary concern ofthe plot is ascertaining truth, and the usual means of obtaining the truth is a complex and mysteriousprocess combining intuitive logic, astute observation, and perspicacious inference. "Early detectivestories tended to follow an investigating protagonist from the first scene to the last, making theunraveling a practical rather than emotional matter."[12] "The Mystery of Marie Rogêt" is particularlyinteresting because it is a barely fictionalized account based on Poes theory of what happened to thereal-life Mary Cecilia Rogers.Émile Gaboriau was a pioneer of the detective fiction genre in France. In Monsieur Lecoq (1868), thetitle character is adept at disguise, a key characteristic of detectives.[13] Gaboriaus writing is alsoconsidered to contain the first example of a detective minutely examining a crime scene for clues.[14]Dickens in 1858Another early example of a whodunit is a subplot in the novel Bleak House (1853) by Charles Dickens.The conniving lawyer Tulkinghorn is killed in his office late one night, and the crime is investigated byInspector Bucket of the Metropolitan police force. Numerous characters appeared on the staircaseleading to Tulkinghorns office that night, some of them in disguise, and Inspector Bucket mustpenetrate these mysteries to identify the murderer.Wilkie CollinsPage 35 of 78
  36. 36. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Dickenss protégé, Wilkie Collins (1824–1889)—sometimes referred to as the "grandfather of Englishdetective fiction"—is credited with the first great mystery novel, The Woman in White. T. S. Eliotcalled Collinss novel The Moonstone (1868) "the first, the longest, and the best of modern Englishdetective novels... in a genre invented by Collins and not by Poe",[15] and Dorothy L. Sayers called it"probably the very finest detective story ever written".[16] The Moonstone contains a number of ideasthat have established in the genre several classic features of the 20th century detective story: • English country house robbery • An "inside job" • red herrings • A celebrated, skilled, professional investigator • Bungling local constabulary • Detective inquiries • Large number of false suspects • The "least likely suspect" • A rudimentary "locked room" murder • A reconstruction of the crime • A final twist in the plotArthur Conan DoyleAlthough The Moonstone is usually seen as the first detective novel, a number of critics suggest that thelesser known Notting Hill Mystery (1862–63), written by the pseudonymous "Charles Felix", precededit by a number of years and first used techniques that would come to define the genre.[17][18] In 1952,William Buckler identified the author of the novel as Charles Warren Adams and in 2011 Americaninvestigator Paul Collins found a number of lines of evidence that confirmed Bucklers initial claim.[17][19]In 1887, Arthur Conan Doyle created Sherlock Holmes, the most famous of all fictional detectives.Although Sherlock Holmes is not the original fiction detective (he was influenced by Poes Dupin andGaboriaus Lecoq), his name has become a byword for the part. Conan Doyle stated that the characterof Holmes was inspired by Dr. Joseph Bell, for whom Doyle had worked as a clerk at the EdinburghRoyal Infirmary. Like Holmes, Bell was noted for drawing large conclusions from the smallestobservations.[20] A brilliant London-based "consulting detective" residing at 221B Baker Street,Holmes is famous for his intellectual prowess and is renowned for his skillful use of astute observation,Page 36 of 78
  37. 37. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.deductive reasoning, and forensic skills to solve difficult cases. Conan Doyle wrote four novels andfifty-six short stories featuring Holmes, and all but four stories are narrated by Holmess friend,assistant, and biographer, Dr. John H. Watson.Golden Age detective novelsAgatha ChristieThe period of the 1920s and 1930s is generally referred to as the Golden Age of Detective Fiction.During this period, a number of very popular writers emerged, mostly British but with a notable subsetof American writers. Female writers constituted a major portion of notable Golden Age writers,including Agatha Christie, the most famous of the Golden Age writers, and among the most famousauthors of any genre, of all time. Four female writers of the Golden Age are considered the fouroriginal "Queens of Crime": Christie, Dorothy L. Sayers, Ngaio Marsh and Margery Allingham. Apartfrom Ngaio Marsh (New Zealand born) they were all British.Various conventions of the detective genre were standardized during the Golden Age, and in 1929 someof them were codified by writer Ronald Knox in his Decalogue of rules for detective fiction, amongthem to avoid supernatural elements, all of which were meant to guarantee that, in Knoxs words, adetective story "must have as its main interest the unravelling of a mystery; a mystery whose elementsare clearly presented to the reader at an early stage in the proceedings, and whose nature is such as toarouse curiosity, a curiosity which is gratified at the end." In Golden Age detective stories, an outsider— sometimes a salaried investigator or a police officer, but often a gifted amateur — investigates amurder committed in a closed environment by one of a limited number of suspects.The most widespread subgenre of the detective novel became the whodunit (or whodunnit, short for"who done it?"), where great ingenuity may be exercised in narrating the events of the crime, usually ahomicide, and of the subsequent investigation in such a manner as to conceal the identity of thecriminal from the reader until the end of the book, when the method and culprit are revealed. Accordingto scholars Carole Kismaric and Marvi Heiferman, "The golden age of detective fiction began withhigh-class amateur detectives sniffing out murderers lurking in rose gardens, down country lanes, andin picturesque villages. Many conventions of the detective-fiction genre evolved in this era, asnumerous writers — from populist entertainers to respected poets — tried their hands at mysterystories."[12]Many of the most popular books of the Golden Age were written by Agatha Christie, who produced along series of books featuring her detectives Hercule Poirot and Miss Marple, amongst others, andusually including a complex puzzle for the reader to try to unravel. Christies novels include, Murderon the Orient Express (1934), Death on the Nile (1937), and And Then There Were None (1939). AlsoPage 37 of 78
  38. 38. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.popular were the stories featuring Dorothy L. Sayerss Lord Peter Wimsey and S. S. Van Dines PhiloVance.The "puzzle" approach was carried even further into ingenious and seemingly impossible plots by JohnDickson Carr — also writing as Carter Dickson — who is regarded as the master of the "locked roommystery", and Cecil Street, who also wrote as John Rhode, whose detective, Dr. Priestley, specialised inelaborate technical devices, while in the US the whodunnit was adopted and extended by Rex Stout andEllery Queen, among others. The emphasis on formal rules during the Golden Age produced a varietyof reactions. Most writers were content to follow the rules slavishly, some flouted some or all of theconventions, and some exploited the conventions to produce new and startling results.The private eye novelMartin Hewitt, created by British author Arthur Morrison in 1894, is perhaps the first example of themodern style of fictional private detective.By the late 1920s, Al Capone and the Mob were inspiring not only fear, but piquing mainstreamcuriosity about the American underworld. Popular pulp fiction magazines like Black Mask capitalizedon this, as authors such as Carrol John Daly published violent stories that focused on the mayhem andinjustice surrounding the criminals, not the circumstances behind the crime. From within this literaryenvironment emerged many stories and novels about private detectives, also known as privateinvestigators, PIs and "private eyes" ("eye" being the vocalization of "I" for "investigator"). Very often,no actual mystery even existed: the books simply revolved around justice being served to those whodeserved harsh treatment, which was described in explicit detail."[12]In the 1930s, the private eye genre was adopted wholeheartedly by American writers. The tough, stylishdetective fiction of Dashiell Hammett, Jonathan Latimer, Erle Stanley Gardner and others explored the"mean streets" and corrupt underbelly of the United States. Their style of crime fiction came to beknown as "hardboiled", which encompasses stories with similar attitudes concentrating not ondetectives but gangsters, crooks, and other committers or victims of crimes. "Told in stark andsometimes elegant language through the unemotional eyes of new hero-detectives, these stories were anAmerican phenomenon."[12]In the late 1930s, Raymond Chandler updated the form with his private detective Philip Marlowe, whobrought a more intimate voice to the detective than the more distanced, "operatives report" style ofHammetts Continental Op stories. Despite struggling through the task of plotting a story, his cadenceddialogue and cryptic narrations were musical, evoking the dark alleys and tough thugs, rich women andpowerful men about whom he wrote. Several feature and television movies have been made about thePhilip Marlowe character. James Hadley Chase wrote a few novels with private eyes as the main hero,including Blondes Requiem (1945), Lay Her Among the Lilies (1950), and Figure It Out for Yourself(1950). Heroes of these novels are typical private eyes very similar to Philip Marlowe.Ross Macdonald, pseudonym of Kenneth Millar, updated the form again with his detective LewArcher. Archer, like Hammetts fictional heroes, was a camera eye, with hardly any known past. "TurnArcher sideways, and he disappears," one reviewer wrote. Two of Macdonalds strengths were his useof psychology and his beautiful prose, which was full of imagery. Like other hardboiled writers,Macdonald aimed to give an impression of realism in his work through violence, sex and confrontation;Page 38 of 78
  39. 39. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.this is illusory, however, and any real private eye undergoing a typical fictional investigation wouldsoon be dead or incapacitated. The 1966 movie Harper starring Paul Newman was based on the firstLew Archer story The Moving Target (1949). Newman reprised the role in The Drowning Pool in 1976.Michael Collins, pseudonym of Dennis Lynds, is generally considered the author who led the form intothe Modern Age. His PI, Dan Fortune, was consistently involved in the same sort of David-and-Goliathstories that Hammett, Chandler, and Macdonald wrote, but Collins took a sociological bent, exploringthe meaning of his characters places in society and the impact society had on people. Full ofcommentary and clipped prose, his books were more intimate than those of his predecessors,dramatizing that crime can happen in ones own living room.The PI novel was a male-dominated field in which female authors seldom found publication untilMarcia Muller, Sara Paretsky, and Sue Grafton were finally published in the late 1970s and early1980s. Each authors detective, also female, was brainy and physical and could hold her own.[21] Theiracceptance, and success, caused publishers to seek out other female authors.The "whodunit" versus the "inverted detective story"Main articles: Whodunit and Inverted detective storyA majority of detective stories follow the "whodunit" format. The events of the crime and thesubsequent events of the investigation are presented so that the reader is only provided clues fromwhich the identity of the perpetrator of the crime may be deduced. The solution is not revealed until thefinal pages of the book.In an inverted detective story, the commission of the crime, and usually also the identity of theperpetrator, is shown or described at the beginning. The remainder of the story then describes thesubsequent investigation. Instead, the "puzzle" presented to the reader is discovering the clues andevidence that the perpetrator left behind.Police proceduralMain article: Police proceduralMany detective stories have police officers as the main characters. Of course these stories may take avariety of forms, but many authors try to realistically depict the routine activities of a group of policeofficers who are frequently working on more than one case simultaneously. Some of these stories arewhodunits; in others the criminal is well known, and it is a case of getting enough evidence.Other subgenresThere is also a subgenre of historical detectives. See historical whodunnit for an overview.The first amateur railway detective, Thorpe Hazell, was created by Victor Whitechurch and his storiesimpressed Ellery Queen and Dorothy L. Sayers.[22]"Cozy mysteries" began in the late 20th century as a reinvention of the Golden Age whodunnit; thesenovels generally shy away from violence and suspense and frequently feature female amateurPage 39 of 78
  40. 40. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.detectives. Modern cozy mysteries are frequently, though not necessarily in either case, humorous andthematic (culinary mystery, animal mystery, quilting mystery, etc.)Another subgenre of detective fiction is the serial killer mystery, which might be thought of as anoutcropping of the police procedural. There are early mystery novels in which a police force attempts tocontend with the type of criminal known in the 1920s as a homicidal maniac, such as a few of the earlynovels of Philip Macdonald and Ellery Queens Cat of Many Tails. However, this sort of story becamemuch more popular after the coining of the phrase "serial killer" in the 1970s and the publication ofThe Silence of the Lambs in 1988. These stories frequently show the activities of many members of apolice force or government agency in their efforts to apprehend a killer who is selecting victims onsome obscure basis. They are also often much more violent and suspenseful than other mysteries.AnalysisPreserving the storys secretsEven if they do not mean to, advertisers, reviewers, scholars and aficionados sometimes give awaydetails or parts of the plot, and sometimes — for example in the case of Mickey Spillanes novel I, theJury — even the solution. After the credits of Billy Wilders film Witness for the Prosecution, thecinemagoers are asked not to talk to anyone about the plot so that future viewers will also be able tofully enjoy the unravelling of the mystery.Plausibility and coincidenceFor series involving amateur detectives, their frequent encounters with crime often tests the limits ofplausibility. The character Miss Marple, for instance, dealt with an estimated two murders a year; DeAndrea has described Marples home town, the quiet little village of St. Mary Mead as having "put on apageant of human depravity rivaled only by that of Sodom and Gomorrah". Similarly, TV heroineJessica Fletcher of Murder, She Wrote is confronted with bodies wherever she goes, but over the yearscorpses have also piled up in the streets of Cabot Cove, Maine, where she lives. It is arguably moreconvincing if police, forensic experts or similar professionals are made the protagonist of a series ofcrime novels.The television series Monk has often made fun of this implausible frequency. The main character,Adrian Monk, is frequently accused of being a "bad luck charm" and a "murder magnet" as the result ofthe frequency with which murder happens in his vicinity.Likewise Kogoro Mori of Detective Conan got that kind of unflattering reputation. Although Mori isactually a private investigator with his own agency, the police never intentionally consult him as hestumbles from one crime scene to another.The role and legitimacy of coincidence has frequently been the topic of heated arguments ever sinceRonald A. Knox categorically stated that "no accident must ever help the detective" (CommandmentNo. 6 in his "Decalogue").Page 40 of 78
  41. 41. The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Effects of technologyTechnological progress has also rendered many plots implausible and antiquated. For example, thepredominance of mobile phones, pagers, and PDAs has significantly altered the previously dangeroussituations in which investigators traditionally might have found themselves. Some authors have notsucceeded in adapting to the changes brought about by modern technology; others, such as CarlHiaasen, have.[citation needed]One tactic that avoids the issue of technology altogether is the historical detective genre. As globalinterconnectedness makes legitimate suspense more difficult to achieve, several writers — includingElizabeth Peters, P. C. Doherty, Steven Saylor, and Lindsey Davis — have eschewed fabricatingconvoluted plots in order to manufacture tension, instead opting to set their characters in some formerperiod. Such a strategy forces the protagonist to rely on more inventive means of investigation, lackingas they do the technological tools available to modern detectives.Introduction to regional and ethnic subculturesEspecially in the United States, detective fiction emerged in the 1960s, and gained prominence in laterdecades, as a way for authors to bring stories about various subcultures to mainstream audiences. Onescholar wrote about the detective novels of Tony Hillerman, set among the Native American populationaround New Mexico, "many American readers have probably gotten more insight into traditionalNavajo culture from his detective stories than from any other recent books."[23] Other notable writerswho have explored regional and ethnic communities in their detective novels are Harry Kemelman,whose Rabbi Small series were set the Conservative Jewish community of Massachusetts; WalterMosley, whose Easy Rawlins books are set in the African American community of 1950s Los Angeles;and Sara Paretsky, whose V. I. Warshawski books have explored the various subcultures of Chicago.Proposed rulesSeveral authors have attempted to set forth a sort of list of “Detective Commandments” for prospectiveauthors of the genre.According to "Twenty rules for writing detective stories," by Van Dine in 1928: "The detective story isa kind of intellectual game. It is more — it is a sporting event. And for the writing of detective storiesthere are very definite laws — unwritten, perhaps, but nonetheless binding; and every respectable andself-respecting concocter of literary mysteries lives up to them. Herewith, then, is a sort of credo, basedpartly on the practice of all the great writers of detective stories, and partly on the promptings of thehonest authors inner conscience."[24] Ronald Knox wrote a set of Ten Commandments or Decaloguein 1929, see article on the Golden Age of Detective Fiction.Famous fictional detectivesThe full list of fictional detectives is immense. The format is well suited to dramatic presentation, andso there are also many television and film detectives, besides those appearing in adaptations of novelsin this genre. Fictional detectives are generally applicable to one of four archetypes:Page 41 of 78

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