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    The Butler Didn't Do It! The Butler Didn't Do It! Document Transcript

    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.The Butler Didnt Do It!So Whodunit?!A Mystery Writing Solutions CompendiumCompiled by Apollyon (Nathan Magus / Nathan Z.)Page 1 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Table of ContentsTable of ContentsThe Butler Didnt Do It!.............................................................................................................................1 A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium..........................................................................................1 Table of Contents..............................................................................................................................2 First, The Solutions...............................................................................................................................5 Now, the Encyclopedia!......................................................................................................................27Mystery fiction.........................................................................................................................................28 Contents...............................................................................................................................................28 Beginnings...........................................................................................................................................29 Classifications.....................................................................................................................................29 See also................................................................................................................................................29 References...........................................................................................................................................30 External links.......................................................................................................................................30Detective fiction.......................................................................................................................................31 Contents...............................................................................................................................................32 Beginnings of detective fiction............................................................................................................33 In ancient literature.........................................................................................................................33 Early Arab detective fiction............................................................................................................33 Early Chinese detective fiction.......................................................................................................33 Early Western detective fiction.......................................................................................................34 Golden Age detective novels...............................................................................................................37 The private eye novel..........................................................................................................................38 The "whodunit" versus the "inverted detective story"........................................................................39 Police procedural.................................................................................................................................39 Other subgenres...................................................................................................................................39 Analysis...............................................................................................................................................40 Preserving the storys secrets..........................................................................................................40 Plausibility and coincidence...........................................................................................................40 Effects of technology......................................................................................................................41 Introduction to regional and ethnic subcultures..............................................................................41 Proposed rules.....................................................................................................................................41 Famous fictional detectives.................................................................................................................41 Detective debuts and swansongs.........................................................................................................47 Books...................................................................................................................................................49 See also................................................................................................................................................49 References...........................................................................................................................................49 Further reading....................................................................................................................................51Crime fiction............................................................................................................................................52 Contents...............................................................................................................................................53 History of crime fictions......................................................................................................................54Page 2 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon. Categories of crime fiction..................................................................................................................54 Detective fiction..............................................................................................................................54 Later and contemporary contributions to the whodunit......................................................................55 Crime fiction and mainstream fiction.............................................................................................55 "High art" versus "popular art"............................................................................................................56 The discrepancy between taste and acclaim...................................................................................56 A reassessment of critical ideals.....................................................................................................57 Pseudonymous authors...................................................................................................................57 Film and literature: The case of crime fiction.....................................................................................58 Availability of crime novels................................................................................................................58 Quality and availability...................................................................................................................58 Classics and bestsellers...................................................................................................................58 Forgotten classics............................................................................................................................59 Revival of past classics...................................................................................................................59 See also................................................................................................................................................60 References...........................................................................................................................................60 External links.......................................................................................................................................61Whodunit..................................................................................................................................................62 Contents...............................................................................................................................................63 History.................................................................................................................................................64 Examples of whodunits.......................................................................................................................64 Parody and spoof............................................................................................................................66 Homicide investigation...................................................................................................................67 See also................................................................................................................................................67Spy fiction................................................................................................................................................68 Contents...............................................................................................................................................69 History.................................................................................................................................................70 Pre-First World War........................................................................................................................70 Inter-war period..............................................................................................................................70 Second World War..........................................................................................................................71 Cold War.........................................................................................................................................71 British.........................................................................................................................................72 American....................................................................................................................................72 Russian.......................................................................................................................................73 Cinema and television................................................................................................................73 Post–Cold War................................................................................................................................73 Post–9/11........................................................................................................................................74 Sub-genres...........................................................................................................................................74 Notable writers....................................................................................................................................75 See also................................................................................................................................................75 Notes....................................................................................................................................................76 References...........................................................................................................................................76 External links.......................................................................................................................................76 All Good Things Come To An End!...............................................................................................78Page 3 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Page 4 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.First, The Solutions.Within the next few pages are solutions and tutorials on writing mysteries.Enjoy!Page 5 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Mystery WritingBy [http://ezinearticles.com/?expert=John_Halas]John HalasMystery writing follows certain norms of writing and offers the readers the opportunity to exert theirintellectual powers to unravel the unknown before the detective does. In this way it is an excellent toolto exercise the human mind. Once the mystery authors embark on their journey to compose the thriller,there is no looking back and they can progress to penning great mystery novels.People with an inclination to tackle this genre can write screenplays, novels, or short stories. Thepossibilities are endless, and authors may choose from a number mystery sub-genres. Whichever sub-genre or medium, mystery writing must be steeped in suspense and surprises. By following certainrules that dictate the way mysteries are to be composed, writers can have improved chances ofachieving greater success. The ones mentioned below are only starters. Writers can brainstorm andcome up with a several ideas to refine their mystery story. Consider the following when writingmystery:� Having a plausible plot is of utmost importance. A novel based on a weak idea is least likely toattract readers and the writer may eventually fade away into anonymity.� Introduce the protagonist and the antagonist within the first few pages or else the readers will notinclude the culprit in their list of suspects and feel let down. Go on to present the minor characters afterthat.� The crime must be laid out clearly within the few chapters of the start of the book or scenes as in thecase of a screenplay. This will set the minds of the audience ticking and establish the right mood.� Mystery writing that revolves around high degree of crime has better prospects. Readers feelsatiated with murder mysteries although it is more taxing for their brains. A feeble suspense does notexcite the readers sufficiently. A clear definition of the problem that has to be solved makes for a farbetter story.� List out the workable clues that could fit the plot selected and use the best ones, holding back themain or crucial clue for the end.� The detective or the hero must finally solve the mystery using the laws of science. The story willbecome more believable if backed by postulates of rational knowledge.� Characterize the villain in a mold that leaves no room for doubt in his capability to commit thecrime. Often the readers are side-tracked by the culprits outer behavior that belies his intentions he isharboring.� Readers cannot be fooled by mystery writing through the presence of supernatural elements to solvethe mystery or by an accidental solution.When done right, mystery writing is one of the most exciting of the genres. The initial set-backs to thePage 6 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.investigator, the mounting tension, the sudden twist and ultimately resolving the mystery will satisfythe reader and electrify the author. Working with an experienced mystery writer and revising andrewriting the rough draft can significantly improve the final outcome.Contact professional [http://screenwritersforhire.com/mystery-writers/]MYSTERY WRITERS to helpwrite or edit your horror screenplay, novel, or short story.Just visit our website: [http://screenwritersforhire.com/mystery-writers/]http://screenwritersforhire.com/mystery-writers/ , call / text message John at (716) 579-5984,or EMAIL: Ezine[AT]GhostwritersForHire.ComArticle Source: [http://EzineArticles.com/?Mystery-Writing&id=6526415] Mystery WritingPage 7 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Mystery WritingBy [http://ezinearticles.com/?expert=John_Halas]John HalasMystery writing is perhaps the most creative forms of writing. Successful authors of this vibrant genretend to be observant and intelligent. The task of handling such a literature calls for an inquisitive mindas well as a love for writing and solving problems. Writing novels with mystery being its theme is anart and a science at the same time. The story has to be solved by the hero or the detective usingscientifically proven laws, thus necessitating the writer to be well versed with rational knowledge.Many of the writers turn their attention to compiling screenplays after getting a fair hang of dealingwith mystery. This is probably the outcome of the fact that script writing is by far the most profitable ofall other forms of artistic writing.Mystery writing can be an enjoyable and imaginative mission, but it does take hard work and severalyears of practice to produce a mystery novel of outstanding worth. A lot depends upon the central plot.The idea for one may come from anywhere -- a conversation, a place, an incident, an article appearingin the newspaper or just about the most unexpected source. It is up to the inventive skill of the author todevelop a plot based on an intriguing idea. All great screenplays started as a tiny idea in thescriptwriters mind.The next step in mystery writing is the creation of characters. While some authors prefer to beinnovative in this area, others base the characters on somebody in the real world. Yet others create ahybrid of real people, exaggerating and altering certain characteristics to create a completely newcharacter. Creating interesting characters is essential to mystery writing. It is also important to infusethe story with surprise and suspense.The ability to tie up all loose ends before the conclusion of the literature is easier said than done. Theclues that lead the hero towards solving the puzzle are challenging to create. Leaving the crucialevidence or the trump card for the end is the best policy. Of course, interspersing the entire tale withlittle clues and a dash of frivolity helps to maintain reader interest.Mystery writing requires re-writing several times because as the writer progresses, flaws show upeither in the plot characters, necessitating amendments in the story. Involving all the emotions of thereader is a sure way to success in mystery writing. Grabbing their attention within the first couple ofpages is more imperative than important, for the audience is likely to put a non-attention grabber aside,perhaps forever. Refrain from bringing cruelty to animals or extreme violence into the book beingwritten. The author should always remember to write something that could happen to the commonpeople with average capabilities, use easy-to-understand language and sit back and watch the receptionof his creation.Contact professional [http://screenwritersforhire.com/mystery-writers/]MYSTERY WRITERS to helpwrite or edit your horror screenplay, novel, or short story.Just visit our website: [http://screenwritersforhire.com/mystery-writers/]http://screenwritersforhire.com/mystery-writers/, call / text message John at (716) 579-5984, orEMAIL: Ezine[AT]GhostwritersForHire.ComPage 8 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Article Source: [http://EzineArticles.com/?Mystery-Writing&id=6526381] Mystery WritingPage 9 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.How to Write a Mystery Novel - Essential Elements of Mystery WritingBy [http://ezinearticles.com/?expert=Michael_J_Rushnak]Michael J RushnakAuthors write best what we know best. As a retired physician, I have written a fictional medicalmystery thriller trilogy. After three decades of working in many aspects of the medical world, I knowthe inside story of healthcare--the good, the bad, and the ugly. That said, my fictional stories alwayswalk a fine line between what I can imagine and what might or what could really happen. Thus, inorder to bring a high degree of believability and realism into my thrillers, I incorporate many detailsinto my novels. Whenever I need expertise that I dont personally possess, I talk with experts tocontribute their real world experiences into particular aspects of my writing to give my storiesmaximum credibility. Therefore, beyond using the Internet, my research expands by speaking directlywith many subject matter experts. My goal is to write novels that will thrill and entertain but also leavethe reader thinking about possible solutions to many real issues in my novels that includes political andcorporate corruption, greed, revenge, forgiveness, and many shades of both what is good and what isevil in the world. Since the devil is in the details, research into those real world facts is the foundationfor me to write a compelling medical mystery thriller.In writing a mystery thriller, it is critical to create action and excitement through conflict and tensionbetween the characters themselves or conflict between the characters and the circumstances into whichthey find themselves. In my thrillers, the main characters are simply doing their "day job" and areliterally sucked into the specific bone chilling conflict swirling around him/her knowing full well thatthey are risking their life and/or career if they do act and engage the conflict embodied in the storywhile at the same time clearly understanding and recognizing that something horrific will happen tomany others or to society at large if the main characters turn a "blind eye" or choose to ignorebecoming involved in solving the mystery to save their own skins.Be bold. Get to the conflict as soon as possible. Develop multi-demensional characters that the readerswill either love or hate. Dont be bland or neutral, at least not for the main characters. Write your novelin three sections, a strong beginning on the main conflict at hand, moving to a middle that does not sagbecause you have interwoven an exciting back-story that adds depth to your main characters, andconclude with the highest level of conflict in the story by writing a thrilling emotional climax that willhave more surprise twists and turns than your own small intestine, leaving your reader with goosebumps, shaking their heads in utter amazement over a shocking ending that ties up all loose ends with afinish that was foreshadowed throughout the story with subtle clues, and which leaves the readerclamoring for my next mystery thriller story.Please feel free to interact with me through social networking on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn.Check out my web site to purchase my novels and to read testimonials such as NY Times bestsellingauthor Michael Palmer who called my first novel Terminal Neglect -- "one of the very best medicalthrillers I have read, not recently, EVER!" http://www.michaelrushnakbooks.comArticle Source: [http://EzineArticles.com/?How-to-Write-a-Mystery-Novel---Essential-Elements-of-Mystery-Writing&id=7077691] How to Write a Mystery Novel - Essential Elements of MysteryWritingPage 10 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.5 Tips for Writing Mystery StoriesBy [http://ezinearticles.com/?expert=Dawn_Arkin]Dawn ArkinMystery stories are a special type of writing. Fast paced and complex, they are a problem solvingpersons idea of a great read. Good mysteries keep a reader wondering while solving the crime. Greatmysteries keep a reader in the dark until the very end.Though you can have almost any combination of genre in one, there are certain rules you must followfor the tale to be considered a mystery.1. Plot - Mysteries are plot-driven tales. They go beyond the standard victim is killed - detectivesearches for clues - killer is caught plotlines. Good mysteries have all that. Great mysteries have twists,turns and enough red herrings to keep the reader guessing until the moment the killer is revealed. Amystery storys plot must be plausible or the story will fall flat on its covers.2. Crime - The crime should be introduced as early as possible, preferable in the firs chapter. Not manyreaders will be willing to read hundreds of pages without a victim. Most would not be willing to readpast the first chapter. The crime should be believable, something the reader can see happening.3. Main Characters - Introduce your detective and villain early on. Your detective is the hero of thestory and your reader wants to see him in action from the get go. Your villain can be shown early, but ifyou want to keep your reader guessing, then keep your villain in the shadows until his unmasking.4. Take your time - Keep your villain a secret until the last possible moment. If you show the readerwho he is too soon, they might lose interest in the rest of the story. Be sure you reveal the clues as yourdetective uncovers them so your reader has a chance to solve the crime first.5. Research - Make sure you read up on the type of crime, police procedures, and forensic informationto make your story come to life. Also, make sure you know your storys setting inside and out. Nothingruins a story faster than a writer who doesnt understand their own setting and makes errors the readercan see.Mystery stories tend to follow more standard rules than other genres. Following those rules will helpyou write the kind of mystery your readers are looking for, and create the kind of suspenseful storylinethat will have your readers turning the page until the very ending.Dawn Arkin is an author on http://www.Writing.Com/which is a site for Fiction Writing. Her portfolio can be found at http://darkin.Writing.Com/ so stop byand read for a while.Article Source: [http://EzineArticles.com/?5-Tips-for-Writing-Mystery-Stories&id=722552] 5 Tips forWriting Mystery StoriesPage 11 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Elements of Writing a Mystery NovelBy [http://ezinearticles.com/?expert=Kasaundra_Riley]Kasaundra RileyLike anything, a mystery novel is composed of different parts, which are referred to as elements. Eachare critical in capturing the readers interest. If your story is researched and well written, it is sure to bea winner. By now, you are probably wondering what the elements are. They are the science, plot,characters with settings and writing technique.First is the science. This needs to be accurate due to the fact several mystery novel readers are welledversed in forensic techniques. They can see through phony stuff in an instant, and you want to avoidthat. If you can write a good story and have correct science then your book just went from decent togreat.Next is the development of the plot. This will make or break your story. It is crucial to have a plot thatmakes sense, is intriguing, and has many twists and turns to keep the reader not knowing what is goingto happen next. The more they do not know what is coming the more suspense you will create and ofcourse in a mystery novel, suspense is everything! If there was a part to really focus on, it would be theplot!Following is creating the characters with stories settings. It is important to really develop them andmake them something authentic. You want to have the audience relate them. This will increase theconnection with the reader and makes it easier for you to write the rest of the novel. The more youknow about your character, the easier it is for you to write about them. After the characters, the settingis extremely important to set the atmosphere for the story.Lastly, the element of writing technique is significant when constructing your mystery novels. This issimply because this is part of what creates the emotion within the reader. It is good to include literaryelements such as similes, personification, and metaphors. It is good to also include more advancedtechniques such as suspense and foreshadowing. These are big keys when writing a mystery story.What is even more important is what is called red herrings. These will make reader think the story isgoing one way when it is actually the other. Incorporating these will enhance your story and make for abetter read.If you can have all these elements intertwined into your story, you are on the right track to write a greatmystery novel!Learn how to write your own mystery novel at [http://www.writeamysterynovel.com]Article Source: [http://EzineArticles.com/?Elements-of-Writing-a-Mystery-Novel&id=4655051]Elements of Writing a Mystery NovelPage 12 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Thinking of Writing a Mystery Novel? Remember These PrinciplesBy [http://ezinearticles.com/?expert=A._W._Guerra]A. W. GuerraProbably one of lifes greatest simple pleasures has been the act of reading a well-written piece offiction, especially when its something like a classic "whodunit." The names of famous authors in thisgenre are legion: Agatha Christie and Raymond Chandler were famous in their day, as are Sue Graftonand Mary Higgins Clark today.Whats also for certain is that there probably arent many people who like to write who havent thoughtof sitting down and penning a juicy mystery novel. For aspiring mystery writers one of the first thingsto understand is that there are general principles involved in the writing of any story, and especially sowhen it comes to mysteries in general.For the most part, there are a number of broad themes when it comes to working out a plot for the novelof your dreams in this sort of genre. Almost all of the most successful writers in the business use somevariation or another of these principles when it comes to the writing of their own stories, and thesevariations have worked well for pretty much as long as the mystery novel has been around.To begin with, dont obsess over filling in parts of characters lives or even the story itself that mostreaders will just skip or skim over anyway. Many newer mystery writers fall into this trap, and wasteprecious pages trying to explain things that the average reader just doesnt care about, sad to say.Also, work very hard at plotting a mystery thats actually going to be a mystery and not just somethingwritten to create confusion in a readers mind. Give your reader enough info to stay interested in thestory but not so much that the storyline just becomes tiring instead. In mysteries, streamlining is vital,so never lose sight of that particular rule when it comes down to plot.Keep in mind, also, that good whodunits have a number of "what?" questions. Simply put, these areeither explicitly or implicitly stated throughout a novel and consist of "what will...?" or "what is...?"lines of plot development.For instance, a writer might pose a "What will the main character do when hes confronted with the realtruth of things?" question indirectly to his or her reader. Readers love those sorts of questions, for afact, and sometimes - but be sparing when using them - they also love a few "why did...?" questions,which can be good to occasionally throw into the plot mix.Many newer writers - not only of mysteries but also just about any other sort of fiction - fail toremember that in such styles of writing the story must be moved along with pace and speed. Especiallyin the mystery genre, its not necessary to waste page after page on extraneous plot set-ups and deepcharacter development.In the above observation, really, who cares -- when reading a mystery -- what color ties the dead guywore unless its absolutely essential to explaining why he ended up dead and who might have whackedhim for wearing such a color tie? Instead, get to the point and throw out the red meat plot stuff that anymystery lover adores.Page 13 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Another principle in mystery writing to observe is the need to come up with a juicy moral or ethicalproblem or dilemma for the storys protagonist, and then weave that problem into the fabric and pace ofthe story itself. The best stories always seem to present at least one difficult moral quandary that thecharacter will have to resolve, so work hard to develop one for your protagonist.Perhaps the most important plot element in any good mystery is that theres tension all throughout it.This tension, for the most part, exists between the good guy (the protagonist) and the bad guy (theantagonist).What this means is that the protagonist needs to be at work trying to solve a problem and that theantagonist needs to be working to try to prevent its subsequent solution. Remember, most of the greatstories are about good and bad and how we address either or both of the two, and the problem thatneeds to be solved will always be a statement about the tension or struggle between good and bad.Generally, its the case that when all of the above plot elements exist in a mystery the story will usuallybe high quality and of interest to readers, which is should be the aim of any aspiring mystery writer. Ifyou can discipline yourself to stay within the broad themes of classic mystery writing, theres a goodchance that any story you produce will have at least a fighting chance at eventual success.A. W. Guerra is a retired military officer, current writer and also author who presently pens articles andposts for over 15 personal websites and blogs, including WriteWell Communications.This blog, [http://writewellcommunications.com], is dedicated to teaching the mechanics and processesinvolved in learning to write well.He may be reached through his personal website at [http://www.tonyguerraonline.com].Article Source: [http://EzineArticles.com/?Thinking-of-Writing-a-Mystery-Novel?-Remember-These-Principles&id=2629260] Thinking of Writing a Mystery Novel? Remember These PrinciplesPage 14 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Writing Mystery Series: Ten Tips That WorkBy [http://ezinearticles.com/?expert=Camille_Minichino]Camille MinichinoReaders of crime fiction love series. They like nothing better than to get to know a protagonist and hisworld over the course of many books, much as we enjoy the episodes of a television drama series. Eachstory must stand alone, with its own character and story arcs, but with a larger character arc thatencompasses the whole series. Its the writers job to reveal character over many books, making surethat new readers will understand and old readers will not be bored. Once all of your investigatorspersonal issues are resolved, the series is over.Tip 1. Plan ahead. Think carefully about your protagonist before you begin a mystery series. Yoursleuth, if amateur must have an interesting enough job to ride out many books; thus, a loner in anaccounting office might not work. If your protagonist is a professional investigator, he should workenough outside the box to be appealing and worthy of return visits.Tip 2. Ride the best friend wave. Give your protagonist/sleuth a complementary friend! Is your sleuthlogical and literal to the point of obsession? Give her a friend who will force her to dig into herintuitive side, someone who shows her another way to approach problem solving-and life. This BestFriend Forever can be a partner, a spouse, a grandchild, or the old fashioned Watson-like sidekick.Youll be able to bring the best friend forward in other entries to your series.Tip 3. Make each cohort count. Other than having a best friend, how "connected" should yourprotagonist be? Not as much as you the author need to be to sell and promote your book! Giving yoursleuth too many friends makes the story hard to handle, but give him too few and youre stuck with notenough of a cast to keep a series going. Avoid the trap of needing to conjure up a long-lost cousin in thefifth book.Tip 4. Location, location, location. Whether your setting is real or fictional, make it sparkle. If its a realcity, be sure to use its special character, whether climate, storied neighborhoods, or physical attraction.If you make up a town, youre free to give it a specialness of your own choosing, like an annual festivalor performance, or a unique cuisine. Convince the reader that its worth revisiting your setting over andover in the series.Tip 5. Become a bookkeeper. Keeping track of details is especially essential when writing a series.Create a handy chart where you list each characters physical attributes and back story, plus herpreferences for things like music, books, hobbies, and fashion. Each time you start a new book in theseries, check to be sure that if Virgil has a son in book two, he still has a son in book three.Tip 6. Become a sketch artist. Even a crude sketch of your crime scene will come in handy for keepingthe details of the crime straight throughout the book. Sketch every room thats important in your story.The sketches also serve as inspiration if you find yourself blocked and needing a new avenue toexplore. Go back to the sketches. Wheres the bullet casing? What purpose is served by the windowoverlooking the garden?Tip 7. Start in the middle. Be ready when readers want the first in your series and the bookstore hasPage 15 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.only your latest in stock. Remind readers through promotion that each book stands on its own with afully developed and resolved story and that your protagonist can be completely understood as heappears in each book. Just as you can make new friends mid-life, you can meet a character mid-seriesand have a satisfying relationship.Tip 8. Make your own calendar. Books in a series are typically released a year apart. Does your sleuthalso age a year? Are you ready for a sleuth thats twelve years older in the twelfth book? Its yourchoice, but if you make your sleuth ageless, be sure to deal correctly with factors like changes intechnology. A fictional investigator operating even five years ago has significantly fewer resources ather disposal. Keep track of your schedule of aging!Tip 9. Kill creatively. Be aware that readers of series like to be surprised, but not too much! Stay true tothe personalities and voices of your characters, but be creative with your villains, weapons, and theresources your protagonist uses to solve the crime. Find a new way to build suspense in each book anda new escape route for your sleuth in each threatening situation.Tip 10. Postpone the wedding. Romantic threads are common in mystery series and theres much debateabout whether keeping the romantic tension between unmarried characters is preferable to marryingthem off quickly. It does seem that there are more opportunities for adventures and hazardous duty ifyour sleuth doesnt have to be home for dinner every night! Your choice, and its your job to be sure noexcitement is lost whether your sleuth says "I do" or not.Camille Minichino, aka Margaret Grace and Ada Madison, has published 13 mysteries in two series. InJuly 2011 shell launch a third series, the Professor Sophie Knowles series. More athttp://www.minichino.comArticle Source: [http://EzineArticles.com/?Writing-Mystery-Series:-Ten-Tips-That-Work&id=6225001]Writing Mystery Series: Ten Tips That WorkPage 16 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.How to Write a Mystery Novel - 5 Awesome Tips For Writing Your Mystery Or ThrillerBy [http://ezinearticles.com/?expert=Anabelle_J_Paisley]Anabelle J PaisleyAre you an aspiring author who would like to know how to write a mystery novel? Read on for 5 reallygreat tips to get you started on your way.1. Read all the time in your genre, but also read on a wide variety of subjects as well. Read magazinesand newspapers. Youll be really surprised at the great ideas you will get just from reading articles inthe paper, especially for mystery novels. There are tons of things going on all the time that could beturned into a novel. Keep your eyes and mind open.2. Observe people. Notice how they speak. Watch adults and watch children. Watch their reactions tothings, especially unexpected things, and see what they do. You might consider carrying a smallnotebook or voice recorder around with you to write down or record these observations. Youll be ableto use a lot of it later in your novel.3. When plotting your mystery, decide what the "twist" is going to be before you begin writing. What isthe twist? Thats the really interesting and surprising ending where your reader realizes that what he orshe was lulled into believing throughout the novel wasnt actually what was going on after all. Some ofthe most popular mystery books have twists. But be careful not to throw out too many red herrings, asthis will probably anger the reader.4. Figure out your plot first, then add the characters. Your characters should arise from the plot itself.5. If you are stuck for an idea for your novel, think about routine and mundane things that happen everyday in your life, just those normal daily activities, and put an interesting twist on them. Like, forexample, lets say that every night before you go to bed you check all the doors and windows but everymorning your kitchen window is unlocked. Nothing is ever missing and no sign of forced entry, yet thewindow is mysteriously unlocked each and every day. Just that simple little thing is enough to grabyour readers interest.You can write a mystery novel easy and fast! Go here now: http://www.writeyourfirstnovel.comYou will not believe how quick and painless it can be to get that novel finished and ready to go to thepublisher.Article Source: [http://EzineArticles.com/?How-to-Write-a-Mystery-Novel---5-Awesome-Tips-For-Writing-Your-Mystery-Or-Thriller&id=2629645] How to Write a Mystery Novel - 5 Awesome Tips ForWriting Your Mystery Or ThrillerPage 17 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.How to Write a Mystery Novel - 5 Common Mistakes to AvoidBy [http://ezinearticles.com/?expert=Anabelle_J_Paisley]Anabelle J PaisleyAs an aspiring author and beginning novelist, you may be looking for information on how to write amystery novel. There is plenty of information out there for you in the form of books and lots ofinformation online. But although its very important to know what to do, its also extremely crucial toknow what to avoid as well. So here are 5 common mistakes you should avoid.1. The first thing not to do is dont fail to grab your readers attention from the very first line of the veryfirst page. Its quite common for novice authors to begin chronologically and not want to start right at amoment of action. Then theyll be describing some scenery and losing readers left and right. Engage thereader immediately or they will not bother to read your novel.2. This leads us to problem number two in your mystery novel which is too much description ingeneral. Your reader will simply begin skimming. You must introduce the conflict of the novel andintroduce the protagonist. You must make the reader care. They dont care about a bunch of lengthydescriptions.3. The next issue is not giving your characters believable motivations and having them act in believableways. You must know your characters before you start to write.4. Dropping too many clues and too many "red herrings" in your mystery novel is another mistake.Everything needs to flow logically, and your clues should be interspersed as the book progresses, notthrown about willy nilly in an effort to cause confusion.5. Deliberately misleading the reader. There is actually a fine line here. You obviously need somesuspense because after all, it is a mystery, and you do need that red herring mentioned above. But dontgo out of your way to throw something out there that, 3 chapters later. is shown to be totally unrelatedto the story in any way. A lot of people will get angry and toss your book down in disgust. Someticulous planning is required on your part with the use of foreshadowing which gives readers a few"real" clues to lead them along and allow them to try and figure things out. After all, thats why peopleread mysteries and "whodunits," to try and figure them out.You can write a mystery novel easy and fast! Go here now: http://www.writeyourfirstnovel.comYou will not believe how quick and painless it can be to get that novel finished and ready to go to thepublisher.Article Source: [http://EzineArticles.com/?How-to-Write-a-Mystery-Novel---5-Common-Mistakes-to-Avoid&id=2621162] How to Write a Mystery Novel - 5 Common Mistakes to AvoidPage 18 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Writing The Modern MysteryBy [http://ezinearticles.com/?expert=Billie_A_Williams]Billie A WilliamsFrom private eye, police procedural, professional Amateur, John and Jane Q Public, Heists, Capers,Kidnapping, Romantic Suspense the genres and sub-genres are endless when it comes to whatconstitutes a mystery. Correction, a Modern Mystery.Lets begin with a definition of mystery - it comes from the old Greek mysterian - to keep silence(myein- to be closed as with eyes or lips sealed.) Keeping a secret is the idea behind it all. The modernmystery finds its roots in morality plays. The felonious assault against neighbors and crimes againstentire populaces, though the crimes may remain the same the intensity, the horrid actuality of thosecrimes has increased. It seems the stakes are higher, the punishment harsher in the modern day mystery.Some modern mystery writers prefer their imagination to reality creating their own criminal milieu.Whether or not they use modern technology to solve the crimes is their choice. They ring out, draw-out,and leverage their creative powers until they squeeze the last thrill out of the whodunit and give thereader a full measure of satisfaction."It is characterized by its own rules and is judged by those rules." According to Barbara Norville, inWriting the Modern Mystery. This book was published in 1986 but the information is as true as if itwere written today.Supposedly there is no such thing as a simple linear plot in a mystery. A mystery thought when a writerbegins s/he better have a plot outline in place so s/he does not run a muck. Painting him or her into theproverbial, unsolvable corner is not an option. Even though it may not appear that the mystery is asorderly as a plot outline on the page, it must be thoroughly thought through to keep you on target sothat you reach your perceived goal at the end.There is no room for irrelevant material or loose ends. Absolutely no room to change course midstream,unless you want to see the reader toss your book in to the circular file and cross you off their "to beread" list.Characters, fully developed characters, are always consistent in their attitudes and actions. Usually whothey are isnt as important as what they do. Hero/heroines solve the problems or promises made at thebeginning of the story. Antagonists disrupt, thwart and create chaos that tears a hole in the fabric ofknown society. Theme choice of the crime and authors attitude toward the crime are also key factors.The many sub-genres help define what type of story the mystery reader can expect. Detective, romanticsuspense or true crime. Characters and plot define, and genre rules, ultimately, illuminate the categoryor sub-genre for the reader. Create a world you are comfortable with, people it with characters, a crime,a world you are contented with and want to write about-choose your sub-genre, and write.Your sleuth can have any career you can think of. Billie A Williams has used a single mother waitress,hobby candle making; an antique store owner, a bed and Breakfast owner, a town chairwoman, bookstore owner, investigative reporter, teacher, archeology professor, peace corps worker, a homelessPage 19 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.woman, CNA at a nursing home-all accidental sleuths who solve the crimes in their own style. Themodern mystery has many options for the writer, depending on the crime and author experience orimagination as mentioned above.Many times in real life, crimes, cold case crimes, as in Patricia Cornwells Jack-the-Ripper solved, orothers unsolved, but begging all sleuths to render their version of whodunit, a solution -they becomemystery novels.The modern mystery is not shackled by earlier conventions; locked rooms are pass�, but could still beused with a twist and your unique take on it. Your imagination, your comfort zone and your skill are theonly limitations you must obey.Write Like the Wind and Solve it your way.Make your reading time absorbing. Pit your wits against the accidental sleuth, who may be in a job likeyours. Subscribe to my free e-zine "Mystery Readers and Working Writers," the free e-zine for mysterylovers readers or writers Get a free e-booklet " A Nice Quiet Family" a very short flash mystery.http://www.billiewilliams.comArticle Source: [http://EzineArticles.com/?Writing-The-Modern-Mystery&id=5808219] Writing TheModern MysteryPage 20 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.How to Create Believable Stories by Nick Sanders Creating believable stories is probably at the forefront of many writer’s minds when you are looking toput pen to paper and excel in writing a truly monumental story/novel.Through this article, you will be provided some helpful tips and hints that will help you in theconstruction and creation of an entertaining and believable story that your peers will envy. With theinformation, you will find yourself in a better position to write a story that is not only realistic, but ismeaningful to your reader.One main agreement by many authors is that when you actually get down to writing a story or piece ofwriting is that you should only write about what you actually have experienced or know about. Youdon’t have to be an expert in your field, but having actually done some gardening, when writing aboutgardening tolls, for example, is a good place to start. This will also help you when you are writingmuch longer pieces that are going to be published, as you can draw on any life experiences that youhave had in the past to help emphasize your points, opinions and guide the reader in understandingwhat they are actually reading in from of them.Also, creating a believable story and writing of your own is significantly influenced by reading thework of others, and this is a techniques you should remember. When evaluating your own work anddirection, you should also think about the past works you have read by many different authors, as thesewill influence your decisions on direction of your believable story. To actually write a believable storyyou should always read the work of others who are writing other stories.Creating a story that is going to be understood by your readers is paramount, so creating characters thatthey can associate with will be a must when you are writing away. You should keep track of yourcharacters too, having an old lady riding around on a scooter probably isn’t the best thing to have herdo. Plus its unnatural and not likely to happen.Together with your characters, you should also make sure that the scenery and settings are utilizing thedevelopment of your story and plot. A major problem in novels that occurs is in an incorrectdescription of an existing place, do your research before writing something; using google is a greatsource to find out information on just about anything.Good writers tend to sketch out their outline in what they are going to write about as this allows themto question whether or not someone would take a point of view on their novel with positive eyes. Nothaving an outline in what you are going to be writing about will be a bad idea, as you will be writingaway and get to the end with a muddled and disjointed story.When you are revising your work you will want to edit the novel to ensure that you have created apiece of writing that is going to stand out and people are going to enjoy. Many writers don’t takeenough time in the editing process to spot mistakes and inconsistencies in their writing, and not doingso causes their story to be misleading and not clearly understood.Before you submit your work to be published you will want to source an experienced editor who canPage 21 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.take a look through your work and acknowledge whether your manuscript is of the highest quality to besubmitted to be published.By recognizing and taking on board the tips provided in this article, you will be able to recognizewhere your writing needs to be improved and how you are able to produce a manuscript that is bothbelievable to readers and is a story produced by an accomplished writer. This in turn will lead to youbecoming an admired writer in your own field.Neil is an editor at Supaproofread, an online proofreading company, specialising in book copyeditingservices. You should visit them if you are looking for a professional proofreading serviceArticle Source: http://www.article-buzz.comPage 22 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.How To Publish A Book To Generate Sales Leads by Bob Burnham For many, sales are the least desirable aspect of being a business owner. It means knocking on doorsand making cold calls, the majority of which end up in rejection. Publishing a book can literally endthe need to go out and get sales. Heres how.Writing a book will end cold calling. Imagine talking to a potential customer and being able to say,"Let me give you a copy of my book." This is a huge selling point. They may never actually read yourbook, however simply because you have one tells your prospective client you are an expert in yourindustry and you are so confident in your knowledge and abilities you have written a book on thesubject.Seriously, would you rather do business with a company you know nothing about or a company whohas written a book on the subject? Most of us would rather go with a company who has written a book,we are more comfortable with them. We are instantly more confident in their skills. Your customerswill be too. In fact, I have know business owners who simply had to say "let me send you a copy of mybook," and the potential customer made a purchase on the spot. They did not even have to see thebook, just the mention of publication was enough to give them confidence.Writing a book will bring customers to your door. Having a book available and on the market willbring customers to your door. For example, imagine you are exploring the possibility of running amarathon. You buy a book or two on the subject. During your training you decide you need more helpgetting proper form so you go back to the author of your book, visit their website and book a weekendtraining camp with them. Now if you had not read the book, how likely is it you would have bookedtheir particular training camp? Not likely. The same is true for your customers. Regardless of yourbusiness, when people read your book they will look to your for more information. It does not matter ifyou run a product oriented business like selling running shoes or a service related business like fitnesstraining, the concept works the same. You wont have to pound on doors to make sales becausecustomers will be pounding on your door.Writing a book will open up opportunities for you and your business. Continuing with the sameexample from above, the fitness trainer writes a book and runs marathon training camps. The bookcatches the attention of a television producer, a news program, or maybe even the manufacturer of arunning product like shoes. They contact you and offer you an opportunity. Maybe you are asked to bean expert on the local news, maybe youre offered a radio or television program or maybe your name isattached to a new product. All of it means more money for you and an expansion of your business andyour company name.Theres no doubt about it, a book can eliminate the stress associated with HAVING to make sales.When you write a book, sales will automatically happen and you can focus on the more interestingtasks of being an entrepreneur - namely growing your business!For Your FREE MP3 (Value $97.00)How To Make A 6 Figure Income Writing and Publishing Your Own BookPage 23 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Go To: Book MarketingBob BurnhamEntrepreneur, Consultant and # 1 Amazon Best Selling Author of "101 Reasons Why You Must Write ABook"Information on How to Write and Publish your Own Book go to Expert Author -http://www.expertauthorpublishing.comArticle Source: http://www.article-buzz.comPage 24 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Publishing A Book, 10 Money Saving Secrets by Bob Burnham If you have ever looked into publishing a book, you may have found that an abundance of theinformation makes it sound like writing and publishing a book is a very expensive endeavor. This doesnot have to be the case. You can write and publish a fantastic and well received professional book,without breaking the bank or taking out a second mortgage on your home. In fact, some people haveeven found a way to publish a book for free! Heres how to save money writing and publishing yourbook:Money saving secret #1 Get others to write the book for you. This may sound sneaky, however manysuccessful authors have used this tactic quite successfully. We are not talking about paying aghostwriter, we are talking about asking experts in the field to contribute. For example, Chicken Soupfor the Soul books are collections of inspirational stories written by others. The Secret, is a collectionof information from experts in manifestation and the Law of Attraction. Experts will often gladlycontribute to your book in exchange for the ability to put their contact information in the book. It isexcellent marketing for them and a product for you.Money Saving Secret #2 Use information you have already written. If you have written articles,reports, and even blog posts these can be collected and organized to create a book. All you will spendis time organizing the material into a cohesive package.Money saving secret #3 Interview experts. One excellent way to provide value and create a book is tointerview experts in your field and organize the transcripts into an easy to read and logical manner.Transcription generally costs about $2.20-$3.00 per minute depending on the transcriptionist and theirlevel of service, some simply transcribe and others will edit the document to make it read well.Regardless, this simple process makes writing and publishing a book very cost effective and it takes notime at all.Money saving secret #4 epublish. Printing costs money. Distribution costs money. Many successfulauthors decide to first publish their book electronically. This means customers can quickly downloadthe book onto their computer. Many customers actually prefer to get their information in this formathowever if you are determined to see your book in print, consider funding the printing with anelectronic first run. You may find that it sells so well as an e-book that printing it does does not makesense.Money saving secret #5 Create a joint venture. Partner with an expert writer or if you do prefer to writethe book, partner with an expert marketer. Joint ventures are excellent ways to split the costs ofpublishing a book. When seeking a joint venture partner, make certain to find someone who hasstrengths where you have weaknesses. For example, if youre a good writer then find a partner who isan excellent marketer and you both split the profits.Money saving secret #6 Partner with a company to pre-purchase your book in exchange for promotionin your bookMoney saving secret #7 Promote affiliate products to cover the price of publication. PromotingPage 25 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.products, and receiving a percentage of the sales, is a great way to fund the printing and marketing ofyour book. Simply including a link in your book or on your website will initiate the affiliate incomeprocess. Remember to only promote products that are relevant to your books topic and are productsyou would use yourself.Money saving secret #8 The more you print the cheaper the cost per book. Printing operates just likeany other business. The more you buy, the cheaper it is. Of course, when exercising this strategy,make sure you are confident you can sell what you print and make sure you have a safe place to storeall those books!Money saving secret #9 Use technology to make distribution easy. For example Amazon offersdistribution and instead of charging you, they take a portion of your sale. This can easily be made upby increasing the price just a touch. Clickbank also makes it easy and economical to distribute your e-book.Money saving secret #10 Take advantage of open source products. For example word processing,website design and hosting, and even accounting software, all a vital part of becoming a successfulpublisher, dont have to be expensive. If you buy software products to handle all of your publishingtasks it can cost you thousands. Open source is free.Writing and publishing a book does not have to be expensive. True, it may take a little creativity butwhen you have all those dollar signs at the end of the road its worth a little creative time to make itwork.For Your FREE MP3 (Value $97.00)How To Make A 6 Figure Income Writing and Publishing Your Own BookGo To: Make Money WritingBob BurnhamEntrepreneur, Consultant and # 1 Amazon Best Selling Author of "101 Reasons Why You Must Write ABook"Information on How to Write and Publish your Own Book go to Expert Author-http://www.expertauthorpublishing.comArticle Source: http://www.article-buzz.comPage 26 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Now, the Encyclopedia!Here follows are some Wikipedia articles on various types of Mystery Fiction.Enjoy!Page 27 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Mystery fictionFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaMystery fiction is a loosely-defined term.1.It is often used as a synonym for detective fiction or crime fiction— in other words a novel or shortstory in which a detective (either professional or amateur) investigates and solves a crime mystery.Sometimes mystery books are nonfiction. The term "mystery fiction" may sometimes be limited to thesubset of detective stories in which the emphasis is on the puzzle/suspense element and its logicalsolution (cf. whodunit), as a contrast to hardboiled detective stories, which focus on action and grittyrealism.2.Although normally associated with the crime genre, the term "mystery fiction" may in certainsituations refer to a completely different genre, where the focus is on supernatural or thriller mystery(the solution doesnt have to be logical, and even no crime is involved). This usage was common in thepulp magazines of the 1930s and 1940s, where titles such as Dime Mystery, Thrilling Mystery andSpicy Mystery offered what at the time were described as "weird menace" stories – supernatural horrorin the vein of Grand Guignol. This contrasted with parallel titles of the same names which containedconventional hardboiled crime fiction. The first use of "mystery" in this sense was by Dime Mystery,which started out as an ordinary crime fiction magazine but switched to "weird menace" during thelatter part of 1933.[1]Contents • 1 Beginni ngs • 2 Classifi cations • 3 See also • 4 Referen ces • 5 Externa l linksPage 28 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.BeginningsAn early work of modern mystery fiction, Das Fräulein von Scuderi by E.T.A. Hoffmann (1819), wasan influence on The Murders in the Rue Morgue by Edgar Allan Poe (1841). Wilkie Collins epistolarynovel The Woman in White was published in 1860, while The Moonstone (1868), is often thought to behis masterpiece. In 1887 Arthur Conan Doyle introduced Sherlock Holmes, whose mysteries are said tohave been singularly responsible for the huge popularity in this genre. The genre began to expand nearthe turn of century with the development of dime novels and pulp magazines. Books were especiallyhelpful to the genre, with many authors writing in the genre in the 1920s. An important contribution tomystery fiction in the 1920s was the development of the juvenile mystery by Edward Stratemeyer.Stratemeyer originally developed and wrote the Hardy Boys and Nancy Drew mysteries written underthe Franklin W. Dixon and Carolyn Keene pseudonyms respectively (and were later written by hisdaughter, Harriet Adams, and other authors). The 1920s also gave rise to one of the most popularmystery authors of all time, Agatha Christie, whose works include Murder on the Orient Express(1934), Death on the Nile (1937), and the worlds best-selling mystery And Then There Were None(1939).[2]The massive popularity of pulp magazines in the 1930s and 1940s increased interest in mystery fiction.Pulp magazines decreased in popularity in the 1950s with the rise of television so much that thenumerous titles available then are reduced to two today: Alfred Hitchcocks Mystery Magazine andEllery Queens Mystery Magazine. The detective fiction author Ellery Queen (pseudonym of FredericDannay and Manfred B. Lee) is also credited with continuing interest in mystery fiction.Interest in mystery fiction continues to this day because of various television shows which have usedmystery themes and the many juvenile and adult novels which continue to be published. There is someoverlap with "thriller" or "suspense" novels and like authors in those genres may consider themselvesmystery novelists. Comic books and like graphic novels have carried on the tradition, and filmadaptations have helped to re-popularize the genre in recent times.[3]ClassificationsMystery fiction can be divided into numerous categories, among them the "traditional mystery", "legalthriller", " medical thriller", "cozy mystery", "police procedural", and "hardboiled" (for instance,Dashiell Hammetts The Maltese Falcons main detective, Sam Spade).See also • Detective fiction • List of crime writers • List of female detective characters • Art theft • Category:Mystery novels • List of mystery writers • List of thriller authors • Mystery filmPage 29 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon. • The Top 100 Crime Novels of All Time • GialloReferences 1. ^ Haining, Peter (2000). The Classic Era of American Pulp Magazines. Prion Books. ISBN 1- 85375-388-2. 2. ^ Davies, Helen; Marjorie Dorfman, Mary Fons, Deborah Hawkins, Martin Hintz, Linnea Lundgren, David Priess, Julia Clark Robinson, Paul Seaburn, Heidi Stevens, and Steve Theunissen (14 September 2007). "21 Best-Selling Books of All Time". Editors of Publications International, Ltd.. Retrieved 2009-03-25. 3. ^ J. Madison Davis: How graphic can a mystery be?, World Literature Today, July-August 2007External links • Mystery genre at the Open Directory Project • Mystery Fiction at TV Tropes.Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mystery_fiction&oldid=517008556"Categories: • Mystery fiction • Crime fiction • This page was last modified on 10 October 2012 at 14:05. • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.Page 30 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Detective fictionFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaDetective fiction is a sub-genre of crime fiction and mystery fiction in which an investigator (often adetective), either professional or amateur, investigates a crime, often murder.Page 31 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Contents • 1 Beginni ngs of detectiv e fiction • 1 . 1 I n a n c i e n t l i t e r a t u r e • 1 . 2 E a r l y APage 32 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Beginnings of detective fictionIn ancient literatureSome scholars have suggested that some ancient and religious texts bear similarities to what wouldlater be called detective fiction. In the Old Testament story of Susanna and the Elders (Daniel 13; in theProtestant Bible this story is found in the apocrypha), the story told by two witnesses breaks downwhen Daniel cross-examines them. The author Julian Symons has commented on writers who see thisas a detective story, arguing that "those who search for fragments of detection in the Bible andHerodotus are looking only for puzzles" and that these puzzles are not detective stories.[1] In the playOedipus Rex by Ancient Greek playwright Sophocles, the title character discovers the truth about hisorigins after questioning various witnesses. Although "Oedipuss enquiry is based on supernatural, pre-rational methods that are evident in most narratives of crime until the development of Enlightenmentthought in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries" it has "all of the central characteristics and formalelements of the detective story, including a mystery sur- rounding a murder, a closed circle of suspects,and the gradual uncovering of a hidden past."[2]Early Arab detective fictionThe earliest known example of a detective story was The Three Apples, one of the tales narrated byScheherazade in the One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights). In this tale, a fishermandiscovers a heavy locked chest along the Tigris river and he sells it to the Abbasid Caliph, Harun al-Rashid, who then has the chest broken open only to find inside it the dead body of a young woman whowas cut into pieces. Harun orders his vizier, Jafar ibn Yahya, to solve the crime and find the murdererwithin three days or be executed if he fails his assignment.[3] Suspense is generated through multipleplot twists that occur as the story progresses.[4] This may thus be considered an archetype for detectivefiction.[5]The main difference between Jafar in "The Three Apples" and later fictional detectives such asSherlock Holmes and Hercule Poirot, however, is that Jafar has no actual desire to solve the case. Thewhodunit mystery is solved when the murderer himself confesses his crime,[6] which in turn leads toanother assignment in which Jafar has to find the culprit who instigated the murder within three daysor else be executed. Jafar again fails to find the culprit before the deadline, but owing to his chancediscovery of a key item, he eventually manages to solve the case through reasoning, in order to preventhis own execution.[7]Early Chinese detective fictionThe "Gong An story" (公案小说, literally:"case records of a public law court")is the earliest knowngenre of Chinese detective fiction.Some well known stories include the Yuan Dynasty story Circle of Chalk (Chinese:灰闌記), the MingDynasty story collection Bao Gong An (Chinese:包公案) and the 18th century Di Gong An (Chinese:狄公案) story collection. The latter was translated into English as Celebrated Cases of Judge Dee byPage 33 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Dutch sinologist Robert Van Gulik, who then used the style and characters to write an original JudgeDee series.The hero/detective of these novels is typically a traditional judge or similar official based on historicalpersonages such as Judge Bao (Bao Qingtian) or Judge Dee (Di Renjie). Although the historicalcharacters may have lived in an earlier period (such as the Song or Tang dynasty) most stories arewritten in the latter Ming or Qing period.These novels differ from the Western tradition in several points as described by van Gulik: • the detective is the local magistrate who is usually involved in several unrelated cases simultaneously; • the criminal is introduced at the very start of the story and his crime and reasons are carefully explained, thus constituting an inverted detective story rather than a "puzzle"; • the stories have a supernatural element with ghosts telling people about their death and even accusing the criminal; • the stories are filled with digressions into philosophy, the complete texts of official documents, and much more, making for very long books; • the novels tend to have a huge cast of characters, typically in the hundreds, all described as to their relation to the various main actors in the story.Van Gulik chose Di Gong An to translate because it was in his view closer to the Western tradition andmore likely to appeal to non-Chinese readers.One notable fact is that a number of Gong An works may have been lost or destroyed during theLiterary Inquisitions and the wars in ancient China. Only little or incomplete case volumes can befound; for example, the only copy of Di Gong An was found at a second-hand book store in Tokyo,Japan.Early Western detective fictionDaguerreotype of Edgar Allan PoeOne of the earliest examples of detective fiction is Voltaires Zadig (1748), which features a maincharacter who performs feats of analysis.[8] The Danish crime story The Rector of Veilbye by SteenSteensen Blicher was written in 1829, and the Norwegian crime novel Mordet på MaskinbyggerRolfsen ("The Murder of Engine Maker Rolfsen") by Maurits Hansen was published in 1839.[9]"Das Fräulein von Scuderi", an 1819 short story by E. T. A. Hoffmann, in which Mlle de Scuderyestablishes the innocence of the polices favorite suspect in the murder of a jeweller, is sometimes citedas the first detective story and a direct influence on Edgar Allan Poes "The Murders in the RuePage 34 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Morgue".[10] Also suggested as a possible influence on Poe is ‘The Secret Cell’, a short storypublished in September 1837 by William Evans Burton, describing how a London policeman solves themystery of a kidnapped girl. Burton’s fictional detective relies on practical methods - dogged legwork,knowledge of the underworld and undercover surveillance - rather than brilliance of imagination orintellect, but it has been suggested this story may have been known to Poe, who in 1839 worked forBurton. [11]However, true detective fiction is more often considered in the English-speaking world tohave begun in 1841 with the publication of "The Murders in the Rue Morgue" itself,[8] featuring "thefirst fictional detective, the eccentric and brilliant C. Auguste Dupin". Poe devised a "plot formula thatsbeen successful ever since, give or take a few shifting variables."[12] Poe followed with furtherAuguste Dupin tales: "The Mystery of Marie Rogêt" in 1843 and "The Purloined Letter" in 1845.Poe referred to his stories as "tales of ratiocination".[8] In stories such as these, the primary concern ofthe plot is ascertaining truth, and the usual means of obtaining the truth is a complex and mysteriousprocess combining intuitive logic, astute observation, and perspicacious inference. "Early detectivestories tended to follow an investigating protagonist from the first scene to the last, making theunraveling a practical rather than emotional matter."[12] "The Mystery of Marie Rogêt" is particularlyinteresting because it is a barely fictionalized account based on Poes theory of what happened to thereal-life Mary Cecilia Rogers.Émile Gaboriau was a pioneer of the detective fiction genre in France. In Monsieur Lecoq (1868), thetitle character is adept at disguise, a key characteristic of detectives.[13] Gaboriaus writing is alsoconsidered to contain the first example of a detective minutely examining a crime scene for clues.[14]Dickens in 1858Another early example of a whodunit is a subplot in the novel Bleak House (1853) by Charles Dickens.The conniving lawyer Tulkinghorn is killed in his office late one night, and the crime is investigated byInspector Bucket of the Metropolitan police force. Numerous characters appeared on the staircaseleading to Tulkinghorns office that night, some of them in disguise, and Inspector Bucket mustpenetrate these mysteries to identify the murderer.Wilkie CollinsPage 35 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Dickenss protégé, Wilkie Collins (1824–1889)—sometimes referred to as the "grandfather of Englishdetective fiction"—is credited with the first great mystery novel, The Woman in White. T. S. Eliotcalled Collinss novel The Moonstone (1868) "the first, the longest, and the best of modern Englishdetective novels... in a genre invented by Collins and not by Poe",[15] and Dorothy L. Sayers called it"probably the very finest detective story ever written".[16] The Moonstone contains a number of ideasthat have established in the genre several classic features of the 20th century detective story: • English country house robbery • An "inside job" • red herrings • A celebrated, skilled, professional investigator • Bungling local constabulary • Detective inquiries • Large number of false suspects • The "least likely suspect" • A rudimentary "locked room" murder • A reconstruction of the crime • A final twist in the plotArthur Conan DoyleAlthough The Moonstone is usually seen as the first detective novel, a number of critics suggest that thelesser known Notting Hill Mystery (1862–63), written by the pseudonymous "Charles Felix", precededit by a number of years and first used techniques that would come to define the genre.[17][18] In 1952,William Buckler identified the author of the novel as Charles Warren Adams and in 2011 Americaninvestigator Paul Collins found a number of lines of evidence that confirmed Bucklers initial claim.[17][19]In 1887, Arthur Conan Doyle created Sherlock Holmes, the most famous of all fictional detectives.Although Sherlock Holmes is not the original fiction detective (he was influenced by Poes Dupin andGaboriaus Lecoq), his name has become a byword for the part. Conan Doyle stated that the characterof Holmes was inspired by Dr. Joseph Bell, for whom Doyle had worked as a clerk at the EdinburghRoyal Infirmary. Like Holmes, Bell was noted for drawing large conclusions from the smallestobservations.[20] A brilliant London-based "consulting detective" residing at 221B Baker Street,Holmes is famous for his intellectual prowess and is renowned for his skillful use of astute observation,Page 36 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.deductive reasoning, and forensic skills to solve difficult cases. Conan Doyle wrote four novels andfifty-six short stories featuring Holmes, and all but four stories are narrated by Holmess friend,assistant, and biographer, Dr. John H. Watson.Golden Age detective novelsAgatha ChristieThe period of the 1920s and 1930s is generally referred to as the Golden Age of Detective Fiction.During this period, a number of very popular writers emerged, mostly British but with a notable subsetof American writers. Female writers constituted a major portion of notable Golden Age writers,including Agatha Christie, the most famous of the Golden Age writers, and among the most famousauthors of any genre, of all time. Four female writers of the Golden Age are considered the fouroriginal "Queens of Crime": Christie, Dorothy L. Sayers, Ngaio Marsh and Margery Allingham. Apartfrom Ngaio Marsh (New Zealand born) they were all British.Various conventions of the detective genre were standardized during the Golden Age, and in 1929 someof them were codified by writer Ronald Knox in his Decalogue of rules for detective fiction, amongthem to avoid supernatural elements, all of which were meant to guarantee that, in Knoxs words, adetective story "must have as its main interest the unravelling of a mystery; a mystery whose elementsare clearly presented to the reader at an early stage in the proceedings, and whose nature is such as toarouse curiosity, a curiosity which is gratified at the end." In Golden Age detective stories, an outsider— sometimes a salaried investigator or a police officer, but often a gifted amateur — investigates amurder committed in a closed environment by one of a limited number of suspects.The most widespread subgenre of the detective novel became the whodunit (or whodunnit, short for"who done it?"), where great ingenuity may be exercised in narrating the events of the crime, usually ahomicide, and of the subsequent investigation in such a manner as to conceal the identity of thecriminal from the reader until the end of the book, when the method and culprit are revealed. Accordingto scholars Carole Kismaric and Marvi Heiferman, "The golden age of detective fiction began withhigh-class amateur detectives sniffing out murderers lurking in rose gardens, down country lanes, andin picturesque villages. Many conventions of the detective-fiction genre evolved in this era, asnumerous writers — from populist entertainers to respected poets — tried their hands at mysterystories."[12]Many of the most popular books of the Golden Age were written by Agatha Christie, who produced along series of books featuring her detectives Hercule Poirot and Miss Marple, amongst others, andusually including a complex puzzle for the reader to try to unravel. Christies novels include, Murderon the Orient Express (1934), Death on the Nile (1937), and And Then There Were None (1939). AlsoPage 37 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.popular were the stories featuring Dorothy L. Sayerss Lord Peter Wimsey and S. S. Van Dines PhiloVance.The "puzzle" approach was carried even further into ingenious and seemingly impossible plots by JohnDickson Carr — also writing as Carter Dickson — who is regarded as the master of the "locked roommystery", and Cecil Street, who also wrote as John Rhode, whose detective, Dr. Priestley, specialised inelaborate technical devices, while in the US the whodunnit was adopted and extended by Rex Stout andEllery Queen, among others. The emphasis on formal rules during the Golden Age produced a varietyof reactions. Most writers were content to follow the rules slavishly, some flouted some or all of theconventions, and some exploited the conventions to produce new and startling results.The private eye novelMartin Hewitt, created by British author Arthur Morrison in 1894, is perhaps the first example of themodern style of fictional private detective.By the late 1920s, Al Capone and the Mob were inspiring not only fear, but piquing mainstreamcuriosity about the American underworld. Popular pulp fiction magazines like Black Mask capitalizedon this, as authors such as Carrol John Daly published violent stories that focused on the mayhem andinjustice surrounding the criminals, not the circumstances behind the crime. From within this literaryenvironment emerged many stories and novels about private detectives, also known as privateinvestigators, PIs and "private eyes" ("eye" being the vocalization of "I" for "investigator"). Very often,no actual mystery even existed: the books simply revolved around justice being served to those whodeserved harsh treatment, which was described in explicit detail."[12]In the 1930s, the private eye genre was adopted wholeheartedly by American writers. The tough, stylishdetective fiction of Dashiell Hammett, Jonathan Latimer, Erle Stanley Gardner and others explored the"mean streets" and corrupt underbelly of the United States. Their style of crime fiction came to beknown as "hardboiled", which encompasses stories with similar attitudes concentrating not ondetectives but gangsters, crooks, and other committers or victims of crimes. "Told in stark andsometimes elegant language through the unemotional eyes of new hero-detectives, these stories were anAmerican phenomenon."[12]In the late 1930s, Raymond Chandler updated the form with his private detective Philip Marlowe, whobrought a more intimate voice to the detective than the more distanced, "operatives report" style ofHammetts Continental Op stories. Despite struggling through the task of plotting a story, his cadenceddialogue and cryptic narrations were musical, evoking the dark alleys and tough thugs, rich women andpowerful men about whom he wrote. Several feature and television movies have been made about thePhilip Marlowe character. James Hadley Chase wrote a few novels with private eyes as the main hero,including Blondes Requiem (1945), Lay Her Among the Lilies (1950), and Figure It Out for Yourself(1950). Heroes of these novels are typical private eyes very similar to Philip Marlowe.Ross Macdonald, pseudonym of Kenneth Millar, updated the form again with his detective LewArcher. Archer, like Hammetts fictional heroes, was a camera eye, with hardly any known past. "TurnArcher sideways, and he disappears," one reviewer wrote. Two of Macdonalds strengths were his useof psychology and his beautiful prose, which was full of imagery. Like other hardboiled writers,Macdonald aimed to give an impression of realism in his work through violence, sex and confrontation;Page 38 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.this is illusory, however, and any real private eye undergoing a typical fictional investigation wouldsoon be dead or incapacitated. The 1966 movie Harper starring Paul Newman was based on the firstLew Archer story The Moving Target (1949). Newman reprised the role in The Drowning Pool in 1976.Michael Collins, pseudonym of Dennis Lynds, is generally considered the author who led the form intothe Modern Age. His PI, Dan Fortune, was consistently involved in the same sort of David-and-Goliathstories that Hammett, Chandler, and Macdonald wrote, but Collins took a sociological bent, exploringthe meaning of his characters places in society and the impact society had on people. Full ofcommentary and clipped prose, his books were more intimate than those of his predecessors,dramatizing that crime can happen in ones own living room.The PI novel was a male-dominated field in which female authors seldom found publication untilMarcia Muller, Sara Paretsky, and Sue Grafton were finally published in the late 1970s and early1980s. Each authors detective, also female, was brainy and physical and could hold her own.[21] Theiracceptance, and success, caused publishers to seek out other female authors.The "whodunit" versus the "inverted detective story"Main articles: Whodunit and Inverted detective storyA majority of detective stories follow the "whodunit" format. The events of the crime and thesubsequent events of the investigation are presented so that the reader is only provided clues fromwhich the identity of the perpetrator of the crime may be deduced. The solution is not revealed until thefinal pages of the book.In an inverted detective story, the commission of the crime, and usually also the identity of theperpetrator, is shown or described at the beginning. The remainder of the story then describes thesubsequent investigation. Instead, the "puzzle" presented to the reader is discovering the clues andevidence that the perpetrator left behind.Police proceduralMain article: Police proceduralMany detective stories have police officers as the main characters. Of course these stories may take avariety of forms, but many authors try to realistically depict the routine activities of a group of policeofficers who are frequently working on more than one case simultaneously. Some of these stories arewhodunits; in others the criminal is well known, and it is a case of getting enough evidence.Other subgenresThere is also a subgenre of historical detectives. See historical whodunnit for an overview.The first amateur railway detective, Thorpe Hazell, was created by Victor Whitechurch and his storiesimpressed Ellery Queen and Dorothy L. Sayers.[22]"Cozy mysteries" began in the late 20th century as a reinvention of the Golden Age whodunnit; thesenovels generally shy away from violence and suspense and frequently feature female amateurPage 39 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.detectives. Modern cozy mysteries are frequently, though not necessarily in either case, humorous andthematic (culinary mystery, animal mystery, quilting mystery, etc.)Another subgenre of detective fiction is the serial killer mystery, which might be thought of as anoutcropping of the police procedural. There are early mystery novels in which a police force attempts tocontend with the type of criminal known in the 1920s as a homicidal maniac, such as a few of the earlynovels of Philip Macdonald and Ellery Queens Cat of Many Tails. However, this sort of story becamemuch more popular after the coining of the phrase "serial killer" in the 1970s and the publication ofThe Silence of the Lambs in 1988. These stories frequently show the activities of many members of apolice force or government agency in their efforts to apprehend a killer who is selecting victims onsome obscure basis. They are also often much more violent and suspenseful than other mysteries.AnalysisPreserving the storys secretsEven if they do not mean to, advertisers, reviewers, scholars and aficionados sometimes give awaydetails or parts of the plot, and sometimes — for example in the case of Mickey Spillanes novel I, theJury — even the solution. After the credits of Billy Wilders film Witness for the Prosecution, thecinemagoers are asked not to talk to anyone about the plot so that future viewers will also be able tofully enjoy the unravelling of the mystery.Plausibility and coincidenceFor series involving amateur detectives, their frequent encounters with crime often tests the limits ofplausibility. The character Miss Marple, for instance, dealt with an estimated two murders a year; DeAndrea has described Marples home town, the quiet little village of St. Mary Mead as having "put on apageant of human depravity rivaled only by that of Sodom and Gomorrah". Similarly, TV heroineJessica Fletcher of Murder, She Wrote is confronted with bodies wherever she goes, but over the yearscorpses have also piled up in the streets of Cabot Cove, Maine, where she lives. It is arguably moreconvincing if police, forensic experts or similar professionals are made the protagonist of a series ofcrime novels.The television series Monk has often made fun of this implausible frequency. The main character,Adrian Monk, is frequently accused of being a "bad luck charm" and a "murder magnet" as the result ofthe frequency with which murder happens in his vicinity.Likewise Kogoro Mori of Detective Conan got that kind of unflattering reputation. Although Mori isactually a private investigator with his own agency, the police never intentionally consult him as hestumbles from one crime scene to another.The role and legitimacy of coincidence has frequently been the topic of heated arguments ever sinceRonald A. Knox categorically stated that "no accident must ever help the detective" (CommandmentNo. 6 in his "Decalogue").Page 40 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Effects of technologyTechnological progress has also rendered many plots implausible and antiquated. For example, thepredominance of mobile phones, pagers, and PDAs has significantly altered the previously dangeroussituations in which investigators traditionally might have found themselves. Some authors have notsucceeded in adapting to the changes brought about by modern technology; others, such as CarlHiaasen, have.[citation needed]One tactic that avoids the issue of technology altogether is the historical detective genre. As globalinterconnectedness makes legitimate suspense more difficult to achieve, several writers — includingElizabeth Peters, P. C. Doherty, Steven Saylor, and Lindsey Davis — have eschewed fabricatingconvoluted plots in order to manufacture tension, instead opting to set their characters in some formerperiod. Such a strategy forces the protagonist to rely on more inventive means of investigation, lackingas they do the technological tools available to modern detectives.Introduction to regional and ethnic subculturesEspecially in the United States, detective fiction emerged in the 1960s, and gained prominence in laterdecades, as a way for authors to bring stories about various subcultures to mainstream audiences. Onescholar wrote about the detective novels of Tony Hillerman, set among the Native American populationaround New Mexico, "many American readers have probably gotten more insight into traditionalNavajo culture from his detective stories than from any other recent books."[23] Other notable writerswho have explored regional and ethnic communities in their detective novels are Harry Kemelman,whose Rabbi Small series were set the Conservative Jewish community of Massachusetts; WalterMosley, whose Easy Rawlins books are set in the African American community of 1950s Los Angeles;and Sara Paretsky, whose V. I. Warshawski books have explored the various subcultures of Chicago.Proposed rulesSeveral authors have attempted to set forth a sort of list of “Detective Commandments” for prospectiveauthors of the genre.According to "Twenty rules for writing detective stories," by Van Dine in 1928: "The detective story isa kind of intellectual game. It is more — it is a sporting event. And for the writing of detective storiesthere are very definite laws — unwritten, perhaps, but nonetheless binding; and every respectable andself-respecting concocter of literary mysteries lives up to them. Herewith, then, is a sort of credo, basedpartly on the practice of all the great writers of detective stories, and partly on the promptings of thehonest authors inner conscience."[24] Ronald Knox wrote a set of Ten Commandments or Decaloguein 1929, see article on the Golden Age of Detective Fiction.Famous fictional detectivesThe full list of fictional detectives is immense. The format is well suited to dramatic presentation, andso there are also many television and film detectives, besides those appearing in adaptations of novelsin this genre. Fictional detectives are generally applicable to one of four archetypes:Page 41 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon. • the amateur detective (Marple, Jessica Fletcher, Peter Wimsey); • the private investigator (Dupin, Holmes, Marlowe, Cross, Spade, Poirot, Magnum, Simon & Simon); • the police detective (Dalgliesh, Kojak, Morse, Frost, Barnaby, Clouseau, Columbo); • the forensic specialists (Scarpetta, Quincy, Cracker, CSI, John Thorndyke).Notable fictional detectives and their creators include:Great detectives (non-private) • Jonathan Ames - Bored to Death • Sexton Blake - many including Hal Meredeth, John Creasey, Jack Trevor Story and Michael Moorcock • Encyclopedia Brown – Donald J. Sobol • Father Brown – G. K. Chesterton • Amelia Butterworth - Anna Katharine Green • Max Carrados – Ernest Bramah • Lord Edward Corinth - David Roberts • Jonathan Creek – Jonathan Creek • Alex Delaware – Jonathan Kellerman • Nancy Drew – Carolyn Keene • Bulldog Drummond – Sapper • C. Auguste Dupin – Edgar Allan Poe • Erast Fandorin – Boris Akunin • Gideon Fell – John Dickson Carr • Jessica Fletcher – Created by William Link and Richard Levinson for Murder, She Wrote (TV 1984-96) • The Hardy Boys – Franklin W. Dixon • Thorpe Hazell – Victor Whitechurch • Shinichi Kudo – Gosho Aoyama • Yusaku Kudo - Gosho Aoyama • Hattori Heiji - Gosho Aoyama • Patrick Jane - Created by Bruno Heller for The Mentalist TV series (2008- ) • L Lawliet - Tsugumi Ohba and Takeshi Obata • Miss Marple – Agatha Christie • Perry Mason – Erle Stanley Gardner • Travis McGee – John D. MacDonald • Dr. Lancelot Priestly – John Rhode • Ellery Queen – Ellery Queen • Tom Swift-Victor Appleton • Violet Strange - Anna Katharine Green • Dr. John Thorndyke – R. Austin Freeman • Philip Trent - Edmund Clerihew BentleyPage 42 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon. • Professor Augustus S. F. X. Van Dusen - Jacques Futrelle • Lord Peter Wimsey – Dorothy L. SayersPrivate Investigators • Angelus/Angel – Created by Joss Whedon for Angel (TV series) (1999-2004) • Lew Archer – Ross Macdonald • Byomkesh Bakshi – Sharadindu Bandyopadhyay • Trueman Bradley – Alexei Maxim Russell • Vincent Calvino – Christopher G. Moore • Elvis Cole – Robert Crais • The Continental Op – Dashiell Hammett • Carland Cross – Created by Michel Oleffe and Olivier Grenson for the animated Carland Cross (TV series) (1996) • Tim Diamond – Anthony Horowitz • Feluda – Satyajit Ray • Dirk Gently - Douglas Adams • Colonel Wyckham Gore - Lynn Brock • Cordelia Gray - P.D. James • Mike Hammer – Mickey Spillane • Sherlock Holmes – Sir Arthur Conan Doyle • Laura Holt – Created by Robert Butler and Michael Gleason for Remington Steele TV series (1982-87) • Thomas Magnum – Created by Donald P. Bellisario and Glen A. Larson for Magnum, P.I. TV series (1980-88) • Philip Marlowe – Raymond Chandler • Kinsey Millhone- Sue Grafton • Adrian Monk – Created by Andy Breckman for Monk (TV series) (2002-09) • Richard Moore - Gosho Aoyama • Charlie Parker - John Connolly • Hercule Poirot – Agatha Christie • Solar Pons - August Derleth • Easy Rawlins – Walter Mosley • Jim Rockford – Created by Roy Huggins and Stephen J. Cannell for The Rockford Files TV series (1974-80) • Michael Shayne – Brett Halliday • Miss Silver – Patricia Wentworth • A.J. and Rick Simon - Created by Philip DeGuere for Simon & Simon TV series (1981-89) • Sam Spade – Dashiell Hammett • Shawn Spencer – Created by Steve Franks for Psych (TV series) (2006- ) • Spenser – Robert B. Parker • John Taylor - Simon R. Green • Amos Walker - Loren D. EstlemanPage 43 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon. • V.I. Warshawski - Sara Paretsky • Nero Wolfe – Rex Stout • Precious Ramotswe – Alexander McCall SmithPolice detectives • 87th Precinct detectives - Ed McBain • Roderick Alleyn – Ngaio Marsh • Inspector Alan Banks – Peter Robinson • Tom Barnaby – Caroline Graham • Martin Beck – Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö • Detective Kate Beckett – Andrew W. Marlowe • Detective Mick Belker - Hill Street Blues • Harry Bosch – Michael Connelly • Detective Lennie Briscoe – Dick Wolf • Charlie Chan – Earl Derr Biggers • Inspector Clouseau – Pink Panther • Columbo – Created by William Link and Richard Levinson • Sergeant Cuff - Wilkie Collins, The Moonstone • Sonny Crockett – Miami Vice • Adam Dalgliesh – P. D. James • Peter Diamond - Peter Lovesey • Kurt Wallander – Henning Mankell* Colonel Faridi - Ibn-e-Safi • DCS Christopher Foyle – Foyles War • Inspector French – Freeman Wills Crofts • Joe Friday • George Gideon – John Creasey • Det. Bobby Goren – Law & Order: Criminal Intent • Ebenezer Gryce - Anna Katharine Green • Captain Hameed - Ibn-e-Safi • Det. Alexandra Eames – Law & Order: Criminal Intent • Det. Elliot Stabler – Law & Order: Special Victims Unit • Det. Olivia Benson – Law & Order: Special Victims Unit • Det. Fin Tutuola – Law & Order: Special Victims Unit • Det. John Munch – Homicide: Life on the Street & Law & Order: Special Victims Unit • Nick Amaro – Law & Order: Special Victims Unit • Amanda Rollins – Law & Order: Special Victims Unit • Adjutant Detective Henk Grijpstra and Detective Sergeant Rinus de Gier - Janwillem van de Wetering • Chief Inspector Heat - Joseph Conrad, The Secret Agent • Chief Inspector Japp – Agatha Christie • Inspector Javert - Victor Hugo • Lt. Theo Kojak – Kojak (played by Telly Savalas)Page 44 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon. • Inspector Lestrade – Sir Arthur Conan Doyle • Inspector Karl Lohmann – Fritz Lang • Sarah Lund - The Killing • Thomas Lynley – The Inspector Lynley Mysteries • Vic Mackey – The Shield • Jules Maigret – Georges Simenon • Inspector Montalbano – Andrea Camilleri • Inspector Morse – Colin Dexter • Frank Pembleton - Homicide: Life on the Street • Cole Phelps - L.A. Noire • Inspector Rebus – Ian Rankin • Jackie Reid - Created by Glenn Chandler for the Taggart TV series (1983-2010) • Arkady Renko - Martin Cruz Smith • Charlie Resnick – John Harvey • Robbie Ross - Created by Glenn Chandler for the Taggart TV series (1983-2010) • Andy Sipowicz - NYPD Blue • Jesse Stone – Robert B. Parker • Jim Taggart - Created by Glenn Chandler for the Taggart TV series (1983-2010) • Jane Tennison – [[Prime Suspect (UK TV series)] • Dick Tracy - Chester Gould • Commissaris Simon "Piet" van der Valk - Van der Valk • Van Veeteren – Håkan Nesser • Martin Vrenko – Avgust DemšarForensic specialists • Temperance Brennan – Bones • Eddie "Fitz" Fitzgerald - Cracker • Catherine Willows - CSI: Crime Scene Investigation • Gil Grissom – CSI: Crime Scene Investigation • Raymond Langston – CSI: Crime Scene Investigation • Donald "Ducky" Mallard – N.C.I.S. • Abby Scuito - N.C.I.S. • Quincy – Quincy, M.E. • Elizabeth Rodgers – Law & Order • Kay Scarpetta – Patricia Cornwell • Mac Taylor – CSI: NY • Stella Bonasera - CSI: NY • Jo Danville - CSI: NY • Calleigh Duquesne - CSI: Miami • Horatio Caine - CSI: Miami • Dr. Thorndyke – R. Austin FreemanPage 45 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Catholic Church detectives • Father Brown – G. K. Chesterton • Brother Cadfael – Edith Pargeter • Father Frank Dowling - Father Dowling Mysteries • Father John Blackwood "Blackie" Ryan – Andrew Greeley • William of Baskerville – Umberto EcoGovernment agents • Alex Cross – James Patterson • Agent Dale Cooper – Twin Peaks • Fox Mulder and Dana Scully – The X-Files • Francis York Morgan - Deadly Premonition • Imran/X-2 - Ibn-e-SafiOthers • Simon Templar, a.k.a. "The Saint" – Leslie Charteris • Batman, a.k.a. Bruce Wayne – Bob Kane & Bill Finger • Karel "Carl" Kolchak – Jeffrey Grant Rice • L Lawliet – Tsugumi Ohba and Takeshi Obata • Ben Matlock – Dean Hargrove • Detective Chimp – DC Comics • Naoto Shirogane- Persona 4 • Hershel Layton - Professor Layton series (Nintendo)For younger readers • Trixie Belden • The Boxcar Children • Inspector Gadget • Ginny Gordon • The Three Investigators • The Happy Hollisters • Inspector Rex • Roman Mysteries • Scooby Doo • Hardy BoysHistorical • Brother Cadfael – Edith Pargeter • Judge Dee – Robert van Gulik • Sister Fidelma – Peter Tremayne • Gordianus the Finder – Steven Saylor • Marcus Didius Falco – Lindsey DavisPage 46 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon. • Li Kao – Barry HughartScience-fiction and Fantasy • Elijah Baley – Isaac Asimov • Dr. Phil DAmato – Paul Levinson • Lord Darcy – Randall Garrett • Rick Deckard – Philip K. Dick Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? • Harry Dresden – Jim Butcher, The Dresden Files • Garrett – Glen Cook • Dirk Gently – Douglas Adams • Gil Hamilton – Larry Niven • Takeshi Kovacs – Richard Morgan • Thursday Next – Jasper Fforde • Sam Vimes – Terry Pratchett • Miles Vorkosigan – Lois McMaster BujoldDetective debuts and swansongsMany detectives appear in more than one novel or story. Here is a list of a few debut and swansongstories: Detective Author Debut SwansongRoderick Alleyn Ngaio Marsh A Man Lay Dead Light ThickensAngel (Angel Joss Whedon and City of Not Fade AwayInvestigations) David GreenwaltBatman Bob Kane Detective Comics #27Martin Beck Sjöwall and Wahlöö Roseanna The TerroristsAnita Blake Laurell K. Hamilton Guilty PleasuresHarry Bosch Michael Connelly The Black EchoFather Brown G. K. Chesterton "The Blue Cross" Brother CadfaelsBrother Cadfael Ellis Peters A Morbid Taste for Bones PenanceVincent Calvino Christopher G. Moore Spirit HouseAlbert Campion Margery Allingham The Crime at Black DudleyElvis Cole Robert Crais The Monkeys RaincoatLord Edward Corinth David Roberts Sweet Poison Sweet Sorrowand Verity BrowneJerry Cornelius Michael Moorcock The Final Programme "The ChronologyDr. Phil DAmato Paul Levinson Protection Case"Harry DAmour Clive Barker "The Last Illusion"Page 47 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Peter Decker Faye Kellerman The Ritual BathAlex Delaware Jonathan Kellerman When the Bough BreaksHarry Devlin Martin Edwards All the Lonely PeopleNancy Drew Carolyn Keene The Secret of the Old ClockMarcus Didius Falco Lindsey Davis The Silver PigsErast Fandorin Boris Akunin The Winter Queen Carolyn GoldKate Fansler Heilbrun/Amanda In the Last Analysis CrossDr. Gideon Fell John Dickson Carr Hags Nook Dark of the MoonSir John Fielding and Bruce Alexander Blind JusticeJeremy ProctorGordianus the Finder Steven Saylor Roman BloodMike Hammer Mickey Spillane I, the JuryHeiji Hattori Gosho Aoyama Detective Conan Sir Arthur Conan A Study in Scarlet (in His Last Bow (see alsoSherlock Holmes Doyle Beetons Christmas Annual) "The Final Problem")Shinichi Kudo / Conan Gosho Aoyama Detective ConanEdogawaThomas Lynley and Elizabeth George A Great DeliveranceBarbara HaversMiss Marple Agatha Christie The Murder at the Vicarage Sleeping MurderTravis McGee John D. MacDonald The Deep Blue Good-by The Lonely Silver RainSir Henry Merrivale Carter Dickson The Plague Court Murders The Cavaliers CupKinsey Millhone Sue Grafton A is for AlibiInspector Morse Colin Dexter Last Bus to Woodstock Remorseful DayThursday Next Jasper Fforde The Eyre AffairStephanie Plum Janet Evanovich One for the Money The Mysterious Affair atHercule Poirot Agatha Christie Curtain StylesEllery Queen Ellery Queen The Roman Hat Mystery A Fine and Private PlaceJack Reacher Lee Child Killing FloorJohn Rebus Ian Rankin Knots and CrossesDave Robicheaux James Lee Burke The Neon RainSpenser Robert B. Parker The Godwulf ManuscriptPhilip Trent E. C. Bentley Trents Last Case Trent IntervenesKurt Wallander Henning Mankell Faceless KillersV.I. Warshawski Sara Paretsky Indemnity OnlyPage 48 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Reginald Wexford Ruth Rendell From Doon with DeathLord Peter Wimsey Dorothy Sayers Whose Body? Busmans HoneymoonNero Wolfe Rex Stout Fer-de-Lance A Family AffairBooks • Bloody Murder: From the Detective Story to the Crime Novel — A History by Julian Symons ISBN 0-571-09465-1 • Stacy Gillis and Philippa Gates (Editors), The Devil Himself: Villainy in Detective Fiction and Film, Greenwood, 2001. ISBN 0-313-31655-4 • The Manichean Investigators: A Postcolonial and Cultural Rereading of the Sherlock Holmes and Byomkesh Bakshi Stories by Pinaki Roy, Sarup and Sons, New Delhi ISBN 978-81-7625- 849-4 • Killer Books by Jean Swanson & Dean James, Berkley Prime Crime edition 1998, Penguin Putnam Inc. New York ISBN 0-425-16218-4See also • Closed circle of suspects • Crime fiction • List of Ace Mystery Double Titles • List of Ace Mystery Letter-Series Single Titles • List of Ace Mystery Numeric-Series Single Titles • List of crime writers • List of detective fiction authors • List of female detective characters • Mystery fiction • Mystery film • Whodunit • Gong An story • Japanese detective fiction • Inverted detective storyReferences 1. ^ Scaggs, John (2005). Crime Fiction (The New Critical Idiom). Routledge. p. 8. ISBN 978- 0415318259. 2. ^ Scaggs, John (2005). Crime Fiction (The New Critical Idiom). Routledge. pp. 9-11. ISBN 978-0415318259. 3. ^ Pinault, David (1992), Story-Telling Techniques in the Arabian Nights, Brill Publishers, pp. 86–91, ISBN 90-04-09530-6 4. ^ Pinault, David (1992), Story-Telling Techniques in the Arabian Nights, Brill Publishers,Page 49 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon. pp. 93, 95, 97, ISBN 90-04-09530-6 5. ^ Pinault, David (1992), Story-Telling Techniques in the Arabian Nights, Brill Publishers, p. 91, ISBN 90-04-09530-6 6. ^ Pinault, David (1992), Story-Telling Techniques in the Arabian Nights, Brill Publishers, pp. 91–2, ISBN 90-04-09530-6 7. ^ Pinault, David (1992), Story-Telling Techniques in the Arabian Nights, Brill Publishers, pp. 96–7, ISBN 90-04-09530-6 8. ^ a b c Silverman, Kenneth (1991), Edgar A. Poe: Mournful and Never-ending Remembrance (Paperback ed.), New York: Harper Perennial, pp. 171, ISBN 0-06-092331-8 9. ^ Maurits Hansen (1794–1842). 10.^ The Seven Basic Plots, Christopher Booker, Continuum, 2004, page 507 11.^ Sims, Michael, ed. ‘’The Dead Witness: a connoisseur’s collection of Victorian detective stories’’, Bloomsbury, 2011: p2-3 Burton wrote the story for his own Philadelphia publication, Gentleman’s Magazine, which under a different owner later became the publication for which Poe wrote The Murders in the Rue Morgue. Poe worked for Burton, acting as his editor for some months in 1839, so may have known his story. 12.^ a b c d e Kismaric, Carole and Heiferman, Marvin. The Mysterious Case of Nancy Drew & The Hardy Boys. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998. p. 56. ISBN 0-684-84689-6 13.^ Bonnoit, R: Émile Gaboriau ou la Naissance du Roman Policier, Paris: Librairie Philosophique J Vrin, 1985, p. 198 14.^ Gunning, T.: Lynx-Eyed Detectives and Shadow Bandits: Visuality and Eclipse in French Detective Stories, Yale French Studies 108, 2005, p. 75 15.^ David, Deirdre The Cambridge companion to the Victorian novel p.179. Cambridge University Press, 2001. 16.^ Hall, Sharon K (1979). Twentieth century literary criticism. p. 531. University of Michigan 17.^ a b Paul Collins. "The Case of the First Mystery Novelist", in-print as "Before Hercule or Sherlock, There Was Ralph", New York Times Book Review, January 7, 2011 18.^ Julian Symons (1972), Bloody Murder: From the Detective Story to the Crime Novel. p. 51: "... there is no doubt that the first detective novel, preceding Collins and Gaboriau, was The Notting Hill Mystery. 19.^ Buckler, William. "Once a Week Under Samuel Lucas, 1859-65", PMLA, 67.7(1952): 924- 941. 20.^ Lycett, Andrew (2007), The Man Who Created Sherlock Holmes: The Life and Times of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Free Press, pp. 53–54, 190, ISBN 978-0-7432-7523-1 21.^ Martin, Nora (1996). ""In the business of believing womens stories": Feminism through detective fiction (Sara Paretsky, Sue Grafton)" (M.A. thesis) Wilfrid Laurier University 22.^ Stories of the Railway, reprinted Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1977, ISBN 0-7100- 8635-0: Foreword by Bryan Morgan 23.^ "Canonization, Modern Literature, and the Detective Story, John G. Cawelti, from Theory and practice of classic detective fiction, Jerome Delamater, etc., Hofstra University, 1997, p. 8 24.^ Twenty rules for writing detective stories (1928) by S.S. Van DinePage 50 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Further reading • Witschi, N. S. (2002), Traces of Gold: Californias Natural Resources and the Claim to Realism in Western American Literature, Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press., ISBN 0-8173-1117- 3Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Detective_fiction&oldid=514962045"Categories: • Crime fiction • Detective fiction • Literary genres • This page was last modified on 28 September 2012 at 08:12. • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.Page 51 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Crime fictionFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaSherlock Holmes, pipe-puffing hero of crime fiction, confers with his colleague Dr. Watson; togetherthese characters popularized the genre.Crime fiction is the literary genre that fictionalises crimes, their detection, criminals and their motives.It is usually distinguished from mainstream fiction and other genres such as science fiction or historicalfiction, but boundaries can be, and indeed are, blurred. It has several sub-genres, including detectivefiction (such as the whodunnit), legal thriller, courtroom drama and hard-boiled fiction.Page 52 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Contents • 1 History of crime fictions • 2 Categor ies of crime fiction • 2 . 1 D e t e c t i v e f i c t i o n • 3 Later and contem porary contrib utions to the whodun it • 3Page 53 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.History of crime fictionsMain article: History of crime fictionWhile the archetype for a murder mystery dates back to "The Three Apples" in the One Thousand andOne Nights,[1] crime fiction began to be considered as a serious genre only around 1900. The earliestknown crime novel is "The Rector of Veilbye" by the Danish author Steen Steensen Blicher, publishedin 1829. Better known are the earlier dark works of Edgar Allan Poe (e.g., "The Murders in the RueMorgue " (1841), " The Mystery of Marie Roget " (1842), and "The Purloined Letter" (1844). WilkieCollins epistolary novel The Woman in White was published in 1860, while The Moonstone (1868) isoften thought to be his masterpiece. French author Émile Gaboriaus Monsieur Lecoq (1868) laid thegroundwork for the methodical, scientifically minded detective. The evolution of locked roommysteries was one of the landmarks in the history of crime fiction. The Sherlock Holmes mysteries ofArthur Conan Doyle are said to have been singularly responsible for the huge popularity in this genre.A precursor was Paul Féval, whose series Les Habits Noirs (1862–67) features Scotland Yarddetectives and criminal conspiracies.The evolution of the print mass media in the United Kingdom and the United States in the latter half ofthe 19th century was crucial in popularising crime fiction and related genres. Literary varietymagazines like Strand, McClures, and Harpers quickly became central to the overall structure andfunction of popular fiction in society, providing a mass-produced medium that offered cheap, illustratedpublications that were essentially disposable.Like the works of many other important fiction writers of his day—e.g. Wilkie Collins and CharlesDickens—Arthur Conan Doyles Sherlock Holmes stories first appeared in serial form in the monthlyStrand magazine in the United Kingdom. The series quickly attracted a wide and passionate followingon both sides of the Atlantic, and when Doyle killed off Holmes in The Final Problem, the publicoutcry was so great, and the publishing offers for more stories so attractive, that he was reluctantlyforced to resurrect him.Later a set of stereotypic formulae began to appear to cater to various tastes.Categories of crime fictionCrime fiction can be divided into the following branches:Detective fictionMain article: Detective fiction • The whodunit: The most common form of detective fiction. It features a complex, plot-driven story in which the reader is provided with clues from which the identity of the perpetrator of the crime may be deduced before the solution is revealed at the end of the book. • Locked room mystery: A specialized kind of a whodunit in which the crime is committed under apparently impossible circumstances, such as a locked room in which no intruder could have entered or left. • Cozy: A subgenre of detective fiction in which sex, profanity or violence are downplayed orPage 54 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon. treated humorously.Later and contemporary contributions to the whodunit • The historical whodunnit: Also a sub-genre of historical fiction. The setting of the story and the crime has some historical significance • The inverted detective story: Also known as "howcatchem", the commission of the crime and the identity of the perpetrator is revealed to the reader first, then the rest of the story describes the detectives attempt to solve the mystery. • The American hard-boiled school: Distinguished by the unsentimental portrayal of violence and sex, the sleuth usually also confronts danger and engages in violence. • The police procedural: The detective is a member of the police, and thus the activities of a police force are usually convincingly depicted. • The legal thriller: The major characters are instead lawyers and their employees, and they become involved in proving their cases. • The spy novel: The major characters are instead spies, usually working for an intelligence agency. • Caper stories and the criminal novel: Stories told from the point of view of the criminals. • The psychological suspense: This specific sub-genre of the thriller genre also incorporates elements from detective fiction, as the protagonist must solve the mystery of the psychological conflict presented in these types of stories. • Spoofs and parodiesCrime fiction and mainstream fictionWhen trying to pigeon-hole fiction, it is extraordinarily difficult to tell where crime fiction starts andwhere it ends. This is largely attributed to the fact that love, danger and death are central motifs infiction. A less obvious reason is that the classification of a work may very well be related to the authorsreputation.For example, William Somerset Maughams (1874–1966) novella Up at the Villa (1941) could verywell be classified as crime fiction. This short novel revolves around a woman having a one-night standwith a total stranger who suddenly and unexpectedly commits suicide in her bedroom, and the womansattempts at disposing of the body so as not to cause a scandal about herself or be suspected of killingthe man. As Maugham is not usually rated as a writer of crime novels, Up at the Villa is hardly everconsidered to be a crime novel and accordingly can be found in bookshops among his other,"mainstream" novels.A more recent example is Bret Easton Elliss (born 1964) seminal novel American Psycho (1991) aboutthe double life of Patrick Bateman, a Wall Street yuppie and serial killer in the New York of the 1980s.Even though in American Psycho the most heinous crimes are depicted in minute detail, the novel hasnever been labelled a "crime novel", maybe because it is never explicitly mentioned whether Batemanactually commits the crimes or rather just fantasizes about them.On the other hand, U.S. author James M. Cain is normally seen as a writer belonging to the "hard-Page 55 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.boiled" school of crime fiction. However, his novel Mildred Pierce (1941) is really about the rise tosuccess of an ordinary housewife developing her entrepreneurial skills and—legally—outsmarting herbusiness rivals, and the domestic trouble caused by her success, with, in turn, her husband, her daughterand her lover turning against her. Although no crime is committed anywhere in the book, the novel wasreprinted in 1989 by Random House, alongside Cains thriller The Postman Always Rings Twice (1934),under the heading "Vintage Crime".When film director Michael Curtiz adapted Mildred Pierce for the big screen in 1945, he lived up to thecinemagoers and the producers expectations by adding a murder that is not in the novel. As potentialcinemagoers had been associating Cain with hard-boiled crime fiction only, this trick—exploited inadvertisements and trailers—in combination with the casting of then Hollywood star Joan Crawford inthe title role made sure that the film was going to be a box office hit even before it was released.Seen from a practical point of view, one could argue that a crime novel is simply a novel that can befound in a bookshop on the shelf or shelves labelled "Crime". (This suggestion has actually been madeabout science fiction, but it can be applied here as well.) Penguin Books have had a long-standingtradition of publishing crime novels in paperback editions with green covers and spines (as opposed tothe orange spines of mainstream literature), thus attracting the eyes of potential buyers already whenthey enter the shop. But again, this clever marketing strategy does not tell casual browsers what theyare really in for when they buy a particular book."High art" versus "popular art"The discrepancy between taste and acclaimUp to the 1960s or so, reading the paperback edition of a crime novel was usually considered a cheapthrill — with the word "cheap" used in both meanings: "inexpensive" and "of minor quality". Theeducated and civilized world was often interested, at least ostensibly, in the "high art" categorised byclassical music, paintings by renowned artists, famous literature and plays like those of WilliamShakespeare. The term "popular art" referred to folk music, jazz, or rock n roll, photography, thedesign of everyday objects, comics, science fiction, detective stories or erotic fiction (the lattercirculating in private prints only to beat the censor), to quote a few examples. The idea of a "mainstream" of literary output suggested that any book deviating, in either content or form or both, from theestablished norm of "high art" was "cheap", and anyone interested in popular culture was uneducatedand unsophisticated and most probably originated in a lower socio-economic division of the contextualsociety. The universities and the other institutions of higher learning also looked down on artistsproducing "popular art" and categorically refused to critically assess it.This often did not correlate with the immense popularity of popular art on both sides of the Atlantic,sometimes due to sensationalism. For example, the British had been fascinated by Edgar Wallaces(1875–1932) crime novels ever since the author set up a competition offering a reward to any readerwho could figure out and describe just how the murder in his first book, The Four Just Men (1906),was committed.Page 56 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.A reassessment of critical idealsIn the long run, the vast output of popular fiction could no longer be ignored, and literary critics —gradually, carefully and tentatively — started questioning and assessing the complete notion of theperceived gap between "high art" (or "serious literature") and "popular art" (in America often referredto as "pulp fiction", often verging on "smut and filth"). One of the first scholars to do so was Americancritic Leslie Fiedler. In his book Cross the Border — Close the Gap (1972), he advocates a thorough re-assessment of science fiction, the western, pornographic literature and all the other subgenres thatpreviously had not been considered as "high art", and their inclusion in the literary canon: The notion of one art for the cultural, i.e., the favored few in any given society and of another subart for the uncultured, i.e., an excluded majority as deficient in Gutenberg skills as they are untutored in taste, in fact represents the last survival in mass industrial societies (capitalist, socialist, communist — it makes no difference in this regard) of an invidious distinction proper only to a class-structured community. Precisely because it carries on, as it has carried on ever since the middle of the eighteenth century, a war against that anachronistic survival, Pop Art is, whatever its overt politics, subversive: a threat to all hierarchies insofar as it is hostile to order and ordering in its own realm. What the final intrusion of Pop into the citadels of High Art provides, therefore, for the critic is the exhilarating new possibility of making judgments about the goodness and badness of art quite separated from distinctions between high and low with their concealed class bias.In other words, it was now up to the literary critics to devise criteria with which they would then beable to assess any new literature along the lines of "good" or "bad" rather than "high" versus "popular".Accordingly, • A conventionally written and dull novel about, say, a "fallen woman" could be ranked lower than a terrifying vision of the future full of action and suspense. • A story about industrial relations in the United Kingdom in the early 20th century — a novel about shocking working conditions, trade unionists, strikers and scabs — need not be more acceptable subject-matter per se than a well-crafted and fast-paced thriller about modern life.But, according to Fiedler, it was also up to the critics to reassess already existing literature. In the caseof U.S. crime fiction, writers that so far had been regarded as the authors of nothing but "pulp fiction"— Raymond Chandler, Dashiell Hammett, James M. Cain, and others — were gradually seen in a newlight. Today, Chandlers creation, private eye Philip Marlowe — who appears, for example, in hisnovels The Big Sleep (1939) and Farewell, My Lovely (1940) — has achieved cult status and has alsobeen made the topic of literary seminars at universities round the world, whereas on first publicationChandlers novels were seen as little more than cheap entertainment for the uneducated masses.Nonetheless, "murder stories" such as Dostoyevskys Crime and Punishment or Shakespeares Macbethare not dependent on their honorary membership in this genre for their acclaim.Pseudonymous authorsAs far as the history of crime fiction is concerned, some authors have been reluctant to publish theircrime novels under their real names. More currently, some publish pseudonymously because of thePage 57 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.belief that since the large booksellers are aware of their historical sales figures, and command a certaindegree of influence over publishers, the only way to "break out" of their current advance numbers is topublish as someone with no track record.In the late 1930s and 40s, British County Court judge Arthur Alexander Gordon Clark (1900–1958)published a number of detective novels under the alias Cyril Hare in which he made use of hisprofoundly extensive knowledge of the English legal system. In Tragedy at Law (1942). Scottishjournalist Leopold Horace Ognall (1908–1979) authored over ninety novels as Hartley Howard andHarry Carmichael. When he was still young and unknown, award-winning British novelist JulianBarnes (born 1946) published some crime novels under the alias Dan Kavanagh. Other authors takedelight in cherishing their alter egos: Ruth Rendell (born 1930) writes one sort of crime novels as RuthRendell and another type as Barbara Vine; John Dickson Carr also used the pseudonym Carter Dickson.The author Evan Hunter (which itself was a pseudonym) wrote his crime fiction under the name of EdMcBain.Film and literature: The case of crime fictionCrime fiction and the motion picture industry have complemented each other well over the years. Bothcater to the need of the average audience to escape into an idealist world, where the good reaps therewards, and the bad incur their punishment. Adaptations of crime fiction into films have been hugelysuccessful.For a detailed explication of the history of the relationship between crime fiction and the film industry,see the main article crime film and mystery film.Crime fiction has also expanded to the world of videogames, an example being the Ace Attorney series,in which players investigate a murder in order to prove a suspect innocent and find the true culprit.Availability of crime novelsQuality and availabilityAs with any other entity, quality of a crime fiction book is not in any meaningful proportion to itsavailability. Some of the crime novels generally regarded as the finest, including those regularly chosenby experts as belonging to the best 100 crime novels ever written (see bibliography), have been out ofprint ever since their first publication, which often dates back to the 1920s or 30s. The bulk of booksthat can be found today on the shelves labelled "Crime" consists of recent first publications usually noolder than a few years.Classics and bestsellersFurthermore, only a select few authors have achieved the status of "classics" for their published works.A classic is any text that can be received and accepted universally, because they transcend context. Apopular, well known example is Agatha Christie, whose texts, originally published between 1920 andher death in 1976, are available in UK and US editions in all English speaking nations. ChristiesPage 58 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.works, particularly featuring detectives Hercule Poirot or Miss Jane Marple, have given her the title theQueen of Crime and made her one of the most important and innovative writers in the development ofthe genre. Her most famous novels include Murder on the Orient Express (1934), Death on the Nile(1937), and the worlds best-selling mystery And Then There Were None (1939).[2]Other less successful, contemporary authors who are still writing have seen reprints of their earlierworks, due to current overwhelming popularity of crime fiction texts among audiences (One only has tolook at the amount of crime related television series to observe the astonishing popularity). Oneexample is Val McDermid, whose first book appeared as far back as 1987; another is Florida-basedauthor Carl Hiaasen, who has been publishing books since 1981, all of which are readily available.Forgotten classicsOn the other hand, English crime writer Edgar Wallace, who was immensely popular with the Englishreadership during the early decades of the 20th century (and who achieved fame in German-speakingcountries due to the many B movies made in the 1950s, 60s, and 70s that were based on his novels),had almost been forgotten in his home country until House of Stratus eventually started republishingmany of his 170 books around the turn of the millennium. Similarly, the books by the equallysuccessful American author Erle Stanley Gardner (1889–1970), creator of the lawyer Perry Mason,which have frequently been adapted for film, radio, and TV, were only recently republished in theUnited Kingdom — books such as The Case of the Stuttering Bishop (1937), The Case of the Green-Eyed Sister (1953), etc.Even television adaptations are not enough to save some authors. Gladys Mitchell rivalled AgathaChristie for UK sales in the 1930s and 1940s but only one of her 66 novels remains in print despite aBBC television series of the The Mrs Bradley Mysteries in 1999.Revival of past classicsFrom time to time publishing houses decide, for commercial purposes, to revive long-forgotten authorsand reprint one or two of their more commercially successful novels. Apart from Penguin Books, whofor this purpose have resorted to their old green cover and dug out some of their vintage authors, Panstarted a series in 1999 entitled "Pan Classic Crime," which includes a handful of novels by EricAmbler, but also American Hillary Waughs Last Seen Wearing .... In 2000, Edinburgh-basedCanongate Books started a series called "Canongate Crime Classics," in which they published JohnFranklin Bardins The Deadly Percheron (1946) — both a whodunnit and a roman noir about amnesiaand insanity — and other novels. However, books brought out by smaller publishers like CanongateBooks are usually not stocked by the larger bookshops and overseas booksellers.Sometimes older crime novels are revived by screenwriters and directors rather than publishing houses.In many such cases, publishers then follow suit and release a so-called "film tie-in" edition showing astill from the movie on the front cover and the film credits on the back cover of the book — yet anothermarketing strategy aimed at those cinemagoers who may want to do both: first read the book and thenwatch the film (or vice versa). Recent examples include Patricia Highsmiths The Talented Mr. Ripley(originally published in 1955), Ira Levins Sliver (1991), with the cover photograph depicting a steamysex scene between Sharon Stone and William Baldwin straight from the 1993 movie, and, again, BretEaston Elliss American Psycho (1991). Bloomsbury Publishing PLC on the other hand have launchedPage 59 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.what they call "Bloomsbury Film Classics" — a series of original novels on which feature films werebased. This series includes, for example, Ethel Lina Whites novel The Wheel Spins (1936), whichAlfred Hitchcock — before he went to Hollywood — turned into a much-loved movie entitled TheLady Vanishes (1938), and Ira Levins (born 1929) science fiction thriller The Boys from Brazil (1976),which was filmed in 1978.Older novels can often be retrieved from the ever-growing Project Gutenberg database.See also • The Top 100 Crime Novels of All Time • Detective fiction • Murder mystery game • Mystery fiction • Mystery film • List of crime writers • List of female detective characters • Whodunit • Hardboiled • Art theft • Crime Writers Association • Crime comics • Giallo • Scandinavian noirReferences 1. ^ Marzolph, Ulrich (2006). The Arabian Nights Reader. Wayne State University Press. pp. 240– 2. ISBN 0-8143-3259-5. 2. ^ Davies, Helen; Marjorie Dorfman, Mary Fons, Deborah Hawkins, Martin Hintz, Linnea Lundgren, David Priess, Julia Clark Robinson, Paul Seaburn, Heidi Stevens, and Steve Theunissen (14 September 2007). "21 Best-Selling Books of All Time". Editors of Publications International, Ltd.. Retrieved 2009-03-25. • Binyon, T J: "Murder Will Out". The Detective in Fiction (Oxford, 1990, ISBN 0-19-282730-8) • The Crown Crime Companion. The Top 100 Mystery Novels of All Time Selected by the Mystery Writers of America, annotated by Otto Penzler, compiled by Mickey Friedman (New York, 1995, ISBN 0-517-88115-2) • De Andrea, William L: Encyclopedia Mysteriosa. A Comprehensive Guide to the Art of Detection in Print, Film, Radio, and Television (New York, 1994, ISBN 0-02-861678-2) • Duncan, Paul: Film Noir. Films of Trust and Betrayal (Harpenden, 2000, ISBN 1-903047-08-0) • The Hatchards Crime Companion. 100 Top Crime Novels Selected by the Crime Writers Association, ed. Susan Moody (London, 1990, ISBN 0-904030-02-4) • Hitt, Jim: Words and Shadows. Literature on the Screen (New York, 1992, ISBN 0-8065-1340-Page 60 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon. 3) • Mann, Jessica: Deadlier Than the Male (David & Charles, 1981. Macmillan,N.Y, 1981) • McLeish, Kenneth and McLeish, Valerie: Bloomsbury Good Reading Guide to Murder. Crime Fiction and Thrillers (London, 1990, ISBN 0-13-359092-5) • Ousby, Ian: The Crime and Mystery Book. A Readers Companion (London, 1997). • Symons, Julian: Bloody Murder. From the Detective Story to the Crime Novel: A History (Harmondsworth, 1974). • Waterstones Guide to Crime Fiction, ed. Nick Rennison and Richard Shephard (Brentford, 1997). • Willett, Ralph: The Naked City. Urban Crime Fiction in the USA (Manchester, 1996). • Classic Crime FictionExternal links • Worlds Best Detective, Crime, and Murder Mystery Books • Short reviews of more than 400 crime fiction booksRetrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Crime_fiction&oldid=513167863"Categories: • Crime fiction • This page was last modified on 17 September 2012 at 14:31. • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.Page 61 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.WhodunitFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaA whodunit or whodunnit (for "Who done [did] it?") is a complex, plot-driven variety of the detectivestory in which the puzzle is the main feature of interest. The reader or viewer is provided with cluesfrom which the identity of the perpetrator of the crime may be deduced before the solution is revealedin the final pages of the book. The investigation is usually conducted by an eccentric amateur or semi-professional detective.Page 62 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Contents • 1 History • 2 Exampl es of whodun its • 2 . 1 P a r o d y a n d s p o o f • 2 . 2 H o m i c i d e iPage 63 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.HistoryThe "whodunit" flourished during the so-called "Golden Age" of detective fiction, between 1920 and1950, when it was the predominant mode of crime writing. Many of the best-known writers ofwhodunits in this period were British — notably Agatha Christie, Nicholas Blake, G. K. Chesterton,Christianna Brand, Edmund Crispin, Michael Innes, Dorothy L. Sayers, Gladys Mitchell, JosephineTey. Others — S. S. Van Dine, John Dickson Carr, and Ellery Queen — were American, but imitatedthe "English" style. Still others, such as Rex Stout, Clayton Rawson, and Earl Derr Biggers, attempteda more "American" style.Over time, certain conventions and clichés developed which limited surprise on the part of the reader,vis-à-vis details of the plot the identity of the murderer. Several authors excelled, after successfullymisleading their readers, in revealing an unlikely suspect as the real villain of the story. They often hada predilection for certain casts of characters and settings, with the secluded English country house atthe top of the list.One reaction to the conventionality of British murder mysteries was American "hard-boiled" crimefiction, epitomized by the writings of Raymond Chandler, Dashiell Hammett, and Mickey Spillane,among others. Though the settings were grittier, the violence more abundant and the style morecolloquial, plots were, as often as not, whodunits constructed in much the same way as the "cozier"British mysteries.Currently popular are live "whodunit" experiences, including game form, where guests at a privateparty might use cards, a board, or video from a pre-packaged box, to perform the roles of the suspectsand detective; and there are a number of murder mystery dinner theaters, where either professional orcommunity theatre performers take on those roles, and present the murder mystery to an audience,usually in conjunction with a meal. Typically before or immediately following the final course, theaudience is given a chance to offer their help in solving the mystery.Examples of whodunits • "The Three Apples" in the One Thousand and One Nights, the earliest archetype for the whodunit murder mystery • Wilkie Collinss The Moonstone (1868), widely regarded as one of the first true whodunits • Gaston Lerouxs The Mystery of the Yellow Room (1907), a locked-room mystery • Anna Katharine Greens Initials Only (1911) • E. C. Bentleys Trents Last Case (1913) • Agatha Christies The Mysterious Affair at Styles (1920) introduces Hercule Poirot. • A. A. Milnes The Red House Mystery (1922), by the author of the Winnie the Pooh books. • Agatha Christies The Murder of Roger Ackroyd (1926), featuring Belgian sleuth Hercule Poirot in one of Christies best-known works • Dorothy L. Sayerss Unnatural Death (1927), one of the first Lord Peter Wimsey novels • S. S. Van Dines The Greene Murder Case (1928) • Ronald Knoxs The Footsteps at the Lock (1928) — though Knox is better remembered as the author of ten commandments for writing whodunits and for his short story "Solved byPage 64 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon. Inspection" • Anthony Berkeleys The Poisoned Chocolates Case (1929) features six different solutions to the murder (and is an expansion of Berkeleys classic short story, "The Avenging Chance") • Ellery Queens The Greek Coffin Mystery (1932), regarded by some as the best of his early novels in the Golden Age style • C. P. Snows Death Under Sail (1932), his first novel, after which he turned to mainstream fiction; it features unusually complex characters for a mystery of this period • Rex Stouts The League of Frightened Men (1935), the second Nero Wolfe novel • John Dickson Carrs The Hollow Man (1935, U.S. title The Three Coffins), usually considered the quintessential locked-room mystery, replete with a tongue-in-cheek philosophical disquisition on the subject by the detective, Dr. Gideon Fell • Nicholas Blakes Thou Shell of Death (1935), a locked-room mystery • Josephine Teys A Shilling for Candles (1936) — which became the basis for Alfred Hitchcocks film Young and Innocent (1937) • Ethel Lina Whites The Wheel Spins (1936) — which was filmed by Hitchcock as The Lady Vanishes (1938) (with a changed ending) • Clayton Rawsons Death from a Top Hat, a locked-room mystery • Michael Inness Lament for a Maker • Cyril Hares Tragedy at Law (1942) • Helen McCloys Cue for Murder (1942), set in the Broadway district and featuring Dr. Basil Willing • Christianna Brands Green for Danger (1944), which was made into a celebrated film in (1946) • Edmund Crispins The Moving Toyshop (1946), a Golden Age mystery which also parodies certain conventions of the genre • Carlo Emilio Gaddas That Awful Mess on Via Merulana (1946) is notable for not telling whodunnit at the end. • Shear Madness, a long-running play that opened in 1980.Recent additions to the subgenre of the whodunit include the novels of Simon Brett, the Thackery Phinnovels of John Sladek, Lawrence Blocks The Burglar in the Library (1997) (which is a spoof set in thepresent in an English-style country house), Kinky Friedmans Road Kill (1997), Ben Eltons DeadFamous (2001), and Gilbert Adairs The Act of Roger Murgatroyd (2006).An important variation on the whodunit is the inverted detective story (also referred to as a"howcatchem" or "howdunnit") win which the guilty party and the crime are openly revealed to thereader/audience and the story follows the investigators efforts to find out the truth while the criminalattempts to prevent it. The Columbo TV movie series is the classic example of this kind of detectivestory (Law & Order: Criminal Intent also fits into this genre). This tradition dates back to the inverteddetective stories of R Austin Freeman, and reached an apotheosis of sorts in Malice Aforethoughtwritten by Francis Iles (a pseudonym of Anthony Berkeley). In the same vein is Iless Before the Fact(1932), which became the Hitchcock movie Suspicion. Successors of the psychological suspense novelinclude Patricia Highsmiths This Sweet Sickness (1960), Simon Bretts A Shock to the System (1984),and Stephen Dobynss The Church of Dead Girls (1997).Page 65 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Parody and spoofIn addition to standard humor, parody, spoof, and pastiche have had a long tradition within the field ofcrime fiction. Examples of pastiche are the Sherlock Holmes stories written by John Dickson Carr, andhundreds of similar works by such authors as E. B. Greenwood. As for parody, the first SherlockHolmes spoofs appeared shortly after Conan Doyle published his first stories. Similarly, there havebeen innumerable Agatha Christie send-ups. The idea is to exaggerate and mock the most noticeablefeatures of the original and, by doing so, amuse especially those readers who are also familiar with thatoriginal.One of the earliest parodies of the whodunit genre in general is Englishman E. C. Bentleys (1875–1956) novel Trents Last Case (1913), which introduced Philip Trent, a detective who gets everythingwrong right from the start: assigned to investigate the murder of English millionaire SigsbeeManderson, who is found shot in the library of his country house, Trent makes his first major mistakewhen he falls head over heels in love with the main suspect. In the course of his investigation he jumpsat the wrong clues, in his reasoning he carefully eliminates the wrong suspects, and finally he arrives ata conclusion concerning the identity of Mandersons murderer which turns out to be completely wrong(though Trent is not presented as a bumbler at all). At the end of the novel, the real perpetrator casuallyinforms him during dinner that he/she has shot Manderson. These are Trents final words to themurderer: [...] Im cured. I will never touch a crime-mystery again. The Manderson affair shall be Philip Trents last case. His high-blown pride at length breaks under him. Trents smile suddenly returned. I could have borne everything but that last revelation of the impotence of human reason. [...] I have absolutely nothing left to say, except this: you have beaten me. I drink your health in a spirit of self-abasement. And you shall pay for the dinner.A more recent example of a spoof, which at the same time shows that the borderline between seriousmystery and its parody is necessarily blurred, is U.S. mystery writer Lawrence Blocks novel TheBurglar in the Library (1997). The burglar of the title is Bernie Rhodenbarr, who has booked aweekend at an English-style country house just to steal a signed, and therefore very valuable, firstedition of Chandlers The Big Sleep, which he knows has been sitting there on one of the shelves formore than half a century. Alas, immediately after his arrival a dead body turns up in the library, theroom is sealed off, and Rhodenbarr has to track down the murderer before he can enter the library againand start hunting for the precious book.Murder by Death is Neil Simons spoof of many of the best-known whodunit sleuths. In the 1976 film,Sam Spade (from The Maltese Falcon) becomes Sam Diamond, Hercule Poirot becomes Milo Perrier,etc. The film makes particular fun of the relationship between each detective and his or her sidekick.The characters are all gathered in a large country house, given meaningless clues, and all of them fail tosolve the mystery.Another example is the Lord Darcy stories by Randall Garrett. Despite their fantasy fiction setting, theyare straight whodunits. However, the names of many of the supporting characters are puns, suggestingGarretts friends, or the lead characters in other detective stories. Often, the personality of the characteralso reflects this.Tom Stoppards The Real Inspector Hound is a send up of crime fiction novels and features a bumblingPage 66 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.detective.The 2001 film Gosford Park paid homage to the classic whodunit premise, while at the same timepresenting an original story.Homicide investigationThe term whodunit is also used among homicide investigators to describe a case in which the identityof the killer is not quickly apparent.[citation needed] Since most homicides are committed by peoplewith whom the victim is acquainted or related, a whodunit case is usually more difficult to solve.See also • Crime fiction • Detective fiction for an overview • Historical whodunnit • Howcatchem • List of crime writers • Murder mystery • Mystery fiction • Mystery film • The Murder Mystery CompanyRetrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Whodunit&oldid=515868552"Categories: • Crime fiction • Detective fiction • Puzzles • This page was last modified on 3 October 2012 at 22:28. • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.Page 67 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Spy fictionFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaSpy fiction, literature concerning the forms of espionage, was a sub-genre derived from the novelduring the nineteenth century, which then evolved into a discrete genre before the First World War(1914–18), when governments established modern intelligence agencies in the early twentieth century.As a genre, spy fiction is thematically related to the novel of adventure (The Prisoner of Zenda, 1894,The Scarlet Pimpernel, 1905), the thriller (such as the works of Edgar Wallace) and the politico–military thriller (The Schirmer Inheritance, 1953, The Quiet American, 1955).[1][2]Page 68 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Contents • 1 History • 1 . 1 P r e - F i r s t W o r l d W a r • 1 . 2 I n t e r - w a r p e rPage 69 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.HistoryIn nineteenth-century France, the Dreyfus Affair (1894–99) contributed much to public interest inespionage.[3] For some twelve years (ca. 1894–1906), the Affair, which involved elements ofinternational espionage, treason, and anti-Semitism, dominated French politics. The details werereported by the world press: an Imperial German penetration agent betraying to Germany the secrets ofthe General Staff of the French Army; the French counter-intelligence riposte of sending a charwomanto rifle the trash in the German Embassy in Paris, were news that inspired successful spy fiction.[citation needed]Pre-First World WarEarly examples of the espionage novel are the American stories of The Spy (1821) and The Bravo(1831), by James Fenimore Cooper. The Bravo attacks European anti-republicanism, by depictingVenice as a city-state where a ruthless oligarchy wears the mask of the "serene republic". Kim (1901)by Rudyard Kipling concerns the Anglo–Russian Great Game of imperial and geopolitical rivalry andstrategic warfare for supremacy in Central Asia, usually in Afghanistan. In Continental Europe, TheScarlet Pimpernel (1905) by Baroness Orczy chronicled an English aristocrats derring-do in rescuingFrench aristocrats from the Reign of Terror of the populist French Revolution (1789–99).In Britain, the term "spy novel" was defined by The Riddle of the Sands (1903) by Robert ErskineChilders. It described amateur spies discovering a German plan to invade Britain, thus being an earlyexample of the invasion literature sub-genre. William Le Queux and E. Phillips Oppenheim became themost widely read and most successful British writers of spy fiction, especially of invasion literature.Despite having been their genres first and second writers, their prosaic style and formulaic stories,produced voluminously from 1900 to 1914, proved of low literary merit.Meanwhile, the fictional detective Sherlock Holmes, created by Arthur Conan Doyle, is a spyhunter forBritain in the stories "The Adventure of the Second Stain" (1904), and "The Adventure of the Bruce-Partington Plans" (1912). In "His Last Bow" (1917), he served Crown and Country as a double agent,transmitting false intelligence to Imperial Germany on the eve of the Great War.The Secret Agent (1907) by Joseph Conrad examines the psychology and ideology motivating thesocially marginal men and women of a revolutionary cell determined to provoke revolution in Britainwith a terrorist bombing of the Greenwich Observatory.During the War, the propagandist John Buchan, became the pre-eminent British spy novelist. His well-written stories portray the Great War as a "clash of civilisations" between Western civilization andbarbarism. His notable novels are The Thirty-nine Steps (1915), Greenmantle (1916) and sequels, allfeaturing the heroic Scotsman Richard Hannay. After the War, in France, Gaston Leroux published thespy thriller Rouletabille chez Krupp (1917), in which a detective, Joseph Rouletabille, engages inespionage.Inter-war periodAfter the successful Russian Revolution (1917), the quality of spy fiction declined, because theBolshevik enemy had won the Russian Civil War (1917–23); thus, the inter-war spy story usuallyPage 70 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.concerns combating the Red Menace, which was then perceived as another "clash of civilizations".Despite poor writing and plotting, spy fiction endured. Former Intelligence officers and agents beganwriting spy fiction from inside the trade. Examples are Ashenden or: the British Agent (1928) by W.Somerset Maugham, about counter-revolutionary British espionage against Bolshevik Russia, and TheMystery of Tunnel 51 (1928) by Alexander Wilson whose novels conveyed an uncanny portrait of thefirst head of the Secret Intelligence Service, Mansfield Smith-Cumming, the original C.The genre was not all about clashing civilizations; Water on the Brain (1933) by former intelligenceofficer Compton Mackenzie was the first successful spy novel satire. [1]Away from the professionals, Epitaph for a Spy (1938), "The Mask of Dimitrios" (US: A Coffin forDimitrios, 1939), and Journey into Fear (1940) by Eric Ambler, concern the fortunes of amateursentangled in espionage. The politics and ideology are secondary to the personal story that involved thehero or heroine. Amblers Popular Front–period œvre has a left-wing perspective about the personalconsequences of "big picture" politics and ideology, which was notable, given spy fictions usual right-wards tilt in defence of the Establishment attitudes underpinning empire and imperialism. Amblersearly novels Uncommon Danger (1937) and Cause for Alarm (1938), in which NKVD spies help theamateur protagonist survive, are especially remarkable among English-language spy fiction.Second World WarAbove Suspicion (1939) by Helen MacInnes, about an anti-Nazi husband and wife spy team, featuresliterate writing and fast-paced, intricate, and suspenseful stories occurring against contemporaryhistorical backgrounds. MacInness other spy novels include Assignment in Brittany (1942), Decisionat Delphi (1961), and Ride a Pale Horse (1984).Manning Coles published Drink to Yesterday (1940), a grim story occurring during the Great War,which introduces the hero Thomas Elphinstone Hambledon. The next novels featuring Hambledonwere lighter-toned, despite occurring either in Nazi Germany or Britain during the Second World War(1939–45). After the War, the Hambledon adventures fell to formula, losing critical and popularinterest.There were also some Childrens spy novels made in the 21st century about WW2 includingHendersons Boys which was a spin off CHERUB, the same thing but based in the present day.Cold WarThe metamorphosis of the Second World War (1939–45) into the Soviet–American Cold War (1945–91) gave impetus to spy novelists. In the 1950s, Desmond Cory and Ian Fleming introduced the secretagent with a licence to kill, the government-sanctioned assassin. Former British Intelligence officerGraham Greene examined the morality of espionage in left-wing, anti-imperialist novels such as TheHeart of the Matter (1948) set in Sierra Leone, the seriocomic Our Man in Havana (1959) occurring inthe Cuba of dictator Fulgencio Batista before his deposition by Fidel Castros popular CubanRevolution (1953–59), and The Human Factor (1978) about British support for the apartheid NationalParty government of South Africa, against the Red Menace.Page 71 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.BritishA noteworthy Cold War spy is the heroic, upper-class James Bond, secret agent 007 of the BritishSecret Service, a mixture of assassin and counter-intelligence officer introduced in Casino Royale(1953) by Ian Fleming. Despite the commercial success of Flemings fantastical anti-Communistnovels, other former spies, such as John le Carré and Len Deighton, created anti-heroic menprotagonists who used the immoral tactics. Their novels, which were written and structured in thegenres 1930s style, feature protagonists antithetical to James Bond. Le Carrés middle-class GeorgeSmiley is a middle-aged spy burdened with a faithless, upper-class wife who publicly cuckolds him forsport. Deightons anonymous spy, protagonist of The IPCRESS File (1962), Horse Under Water (1963),Funeral in Berlin (1964), and others, is a working-class man. Adam Diments Philip McAlpine is along-haired, hashish-smoking fop in the novels The Dolly Dolly Spy (1967), The Great Spy Race(1968), The Bang Bang Birds (1968) and Think, Inc. (1971).Noteworthy examples of the journalistic style and successful integration of fictional characters withhistorical events were the politico–military novels The Day of the Jackal (1971) by Frederick Forsythand Eye of the Needle (1978) by Ken Follett. Under the pseudonym "Adam Hall", Trevor Dudley-Smith wrote the Quiller spy novel series, beginning with The Berlin Memorandum (US: The QuillerMemorandum, 1965), a hybrid of glamour and dirt, Fleming and Le Carré. The writing is literary andthe tradecraft believable. Other examples are the Peter Marlow series, beginning with The PrivateSector (1971) by Joseph Hone, which is set during Israels Six Day War (1967) against Egypt, Jordan,and Syria, and William Garners secret agents, the fantastic Michael Jagger, in Overkill (1966), TheDeep, Deep Freeze (1968), The Us or Them War (1969) and A Big Enough Wreath (1974) and therealistic John Morpurgo in Think Big, Think Dirty (1983), Rats Alley (1984), and Zones of Silence(1986).AmericanIn time, US spy novelists achieved a measure of parity in a genre dominated by British writers. In1955, Edward S. Aarons began publishing the Sam Durell CIA "Assignment — " series, which beganwith Assignment to Disaster (1955). Donald Hamilton published Death of a Citizen (1960) and TheWrecking Crew (1960), beginning the series featuring Matt Helm, a CIA assassin and counter-intelligence agent. Hamiltons novels were adult and well-written, but the cinematic interpretationswere adolescent parody. The Nick Carter-Killmaster series of spy novels, initiated by Michael Avalloneand Valerie Moolman, but authored anonymously, ran to over 260 separate books between 1964 and theearly 1990s and invariably pitted American, Soviet and Chinese spies against each other. The ScarlattiInheritance (1971) by Robert Ludlum is usually considered the first American modern (glamour anddirt) spy thriller weighing action and reflection. In the 1970s, former CIA man Charles McCarry beganthe Paul Christopher series with The Tears of Autumn (1978), which was well-written, with believabletradecraft. With the proliferation of male protagonists in the spy fiction genre, writers and bookpackagers also started bringing out spy fiction with a female as the protagonist. One notable spy seriesis The Baroness, featuring a sexy female superspy, with the novels being more action-oriented, in themold of Nick Carter-Killmaster.The British Firefox (1977) by Craig Thomas, detailing the Western (Anglo–American) theft of asuperior Soviet jet aeroplane, established the techno-thriller, in which technology and its threatsdetermine plot. The first American techno-thriller was The Hunt for Red October (1984) by TomPage 72 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Clancy. It introduced CIA deskman (analyst) Jack Ryan as a field agent; he reprised the role in thesequel The Cardinal of the Kremlin (1987).RussianJulian Semyonov was an influential spy novelist, writing in the Eastern Bloc, whose range of novelsand novel series featured a White Russian spy in the USSR; Max Otto von Stierlitz, a Soviet mole inthe Nazi High Command, and Felix Dzerzhinsky, founder of the Cheka. In his novels, Semyonovcovered much Soviet intelligence history, ranging from the Russian Civil War (1917–1923), throughthe Great Patriotic War (1941–45), to the Russo–American Cold War (1945–91). In 1973, his novelSeventeen Moments of Spring (1968) was adapted to television as a twelve-part mini-series about theSoviet spy Maksim Isaev operating in wartime Nazi Germany as Max Otto von Stierlitz, charged withpreventing a separate peace between Nazi Germany and America which would exclude the USSR. Theprogramme TASS Is Authorized to Declare... also derives from his work.Cinema and televisionMuch spy fiction was adapted as spy films in the 1960s, ranging from the fantastical James Bond seriesto the realistic The Spy Who Came in from the Cold (1965), and the hybrid The Quiller Memorandum(1966).In television, the American adaptation of Casino Royale (1954) featured Jimmy Bond in an episode ofthe Climax! anthology series. The narrative tone of television espionage ranged from the drama ofDanger Man (1960–68) to the sardonicism of The Man from U.N.C.L.E (1964–68) and the flippancy ofI Spy (1965–68) until the exaggeration, akin to that of William Le Queux and E. Phillips Oppenheimbefore the First World War (1914–18), degenerated to the parody of Get Smart (1965–70). However,the circle closed in the late 1970s when The Sandbaggers (1978–80) presented the grit and bureaucracyof espionage.In the 1980s, US television featured the light espionage programmes Airwolf (1984–87) and MacGyver(1985–92), each rooted in the Cold War yet reflecting American citizens distrust of their government,after the crimes of the Nixon Government (the internal, political espionage of the Watergate Scandaland the Vietnam War) were exposed. The spy heroes were independent of government; MacGyverworks for a non-profit, private think tank, and aviator Hawke and two friends work free-lanceadventures. Although each series features an intelligence agency, the DXS in MacGyver, and theFIRM, in Airwolf, its agents could alternately serve as adversaries as well as allies for the heroes.Post–Cold WarBecause the end of the Cold War in 1991, mooted the USSR, the Iron Curtain countries, and Russia ascredible enemies of democracy, espionage novelists were at a (temporary) loss for nemeses. The USCongress even considered disestablishing the CIA, considering its chartered mission, of defeating the"International Communist Conspiracy", had vanished. The New York Times newspaper ceasedpublishing a spy novel review column. Nevertheless, counting on the aficionado, publishers issued spynovels by writers popular during the Cold War proper, among them Harlots Ghost (1991) by NormanMailer and novels by Nelson DeMille, W.E.B. Griffin, and David Morrell.Page 73 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.In the US, the new novels Moscow Club (1991) by Joseph Finder, Masquerade (1996) by Gayle Lynds,and The Unlikely Spy (1996) by Daniel Silva, and in the UK, A Spy By Nature (2001) by CharlesCumming and Remembrance Day (2000) by Henry Porter, maintained the spy novel in the post–ColdWar world.Post–9/11The terrorist attacks against the US on 11 September 2001, and the subsequent War on Terror,reawakened interest in the peoples and politics of the world beyond its borders. Espionage genre elderssuch as John le Carré, Frederick Forsyth, Robert Littell, and Charles McCarry resumed work. At theCIA, the number of manuscripts submitted for pre-publication vetting doubled between 1998 and 2005.[4] Some post-attack period novels are about intelligence officers and the profession of intelligence,and some are by insiders (as were W. Somerset Maughum and Graham Greene for their generations).[5] American examples are Saigon Station (2003) by Charles Gillen, The Dream Merchant of Lisbon(2004) and No Game For Amateurs (2009) by Gene Coyle, Edge of Allegiance (2005) by Thomas F.Murphy, A Train to Potevka (2005) by Mike Ramsdell, Voices Under Berlin (2008), by T.H.E. Hill andNorth from Calcutta (2009) by Duane Evans.[6][7] British examples are At Risk (2004), Secret Asset(2006), Illegal Action (2007), and Dead Line (2008), by Dame Stella Rimington (formerly the DirectorGeneral of MI5 from 1992 to 1996) and The Code Snatch (2001) by Alan Stripp, formerly acryptographer at Bletchley Park.In every medium, spy thrillers introduce children and adolescents to deception and espionage at earlierages, as in the Agent Cody Banks film, the Alex Rider adventure novels by Anthony Horowitz, chick litnovels such as Id Tell You I Love You, But Then Id Have to Kill You and the CHERUB series, byRobert Muchamore. Ben Allsop, one of Englands youngest novelists, also writes spy fiction. His titlesinclude Sharp and The Perfect Kill. Recent television espionage programmes are La Femme Nikita(1997–2001), Alias (2001–2006), 24 (2001-2010), Spooks in the UK (release as MI-5 in the USA andCanada) (2002-2011), NBCs Chuck (2007-present), and FXs Archer (2009-present). Recent English-language spy films are The Bourne Identity (2002), Mission: Impossible (1996); Munich (2005),Syriana (2005), The Constant Gardener (2005) and Casino Royale (2006), a relaunching of the JamesBond series.In contemporary digital video games, the player can be a vicarious spy, as in the Metal Gear, especiallyin the series third installment, Metal Gear Solid, unlike the games of the Third-Person Shooter genre,Syphon Filter, and Splinter Cell. The games feature complex stories and cinematic images. Games suchas No One Lives Forever and the sequel No One Lives Forever 2: A Spy in H.A.R.M.s Way humorouslycombine espionage and 1960s design. Evil Genius (game), contemporary to NOLF series, allows theplayer to be the villain and its strategy occurs real time.The International Thriller Writers (ITW) established themselves in 2004, and held their first conferencein 2006. The Spyland espionage theme park, in the Gran Scala pleasure dome, in Zaragoza province,Spain, will open in 2012.Sub-genres • Spy-fi: espionage and science fiction are integral to glamorous escapist fantasies emphasisingPage 74 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon. derring-do, rather than detection and investigation, in thwarting either world domination or world destruction, et cetera. • Spy comedy: usually parody the clichés and camp elements characteristic to the espionage genre. • Spy horror: spy fiction with horror fiction.Notable writers • Eric Ambler • Desmond Bagley • Frederick Forsyth • Alistair MacLean • Ted Bell • Alan Furst • Norman Mailer • Raymond Benson • John Gardner • Somerset Maugham • John Buchan • Michael Gilbert • Charles McCarry • William F. Buckley Jr. • Tony Gilroy • Andy McNab • A.J. Butcher • Graham Greene • Kyle Mills • John le Carré • Jan Guillou • David Morrell • Ally Carter • Adam Hall • Robert Muchamore • Robert Erskine Childers • Donald Hamilton • James Munro • Tom Clancy • Robert Harris • Manning OBrine • Brian Cleeve • Jack Higgins • E. Phillips Oppenheim • Manning Coles • Charlie Higson • Baroness Orczy • Sir Arthur Conan Doyle • R J Hillhouse • James Phelan • Stephen Coonts • Anthony Horowitz • Anthony Price • Desmond Cory • E. Howard Hunt • William le Queux • Joe Craig • David Ignatius • Daniel Silva • Charles Cumming • Robert Littell • Desmond Skirrow • Len Deighton • Robert Ludlum • Ross Thomas • Joseph Finder • Gayle Lynds • Brad Thor • Ian Fleming • Helen MacInnes • Leon Uris • Vince Flynn • Ian Mackintosh • Dennis Wheatley • Ken FollettSee also • Spy-fi • Spy film • List of fictional secret agents • List of thriller authors • Thriller fiction • Thriller film • List of genresPage 75 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Notes 1. ^ Cuddon, J. A. The Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory, Third Edition (1991) pp. 908–09. 2. ^ Drabble, Margaret. The Oxford Companion to English Literature, Sixth Edition (2000) pp. 962–63. 3. ^ Cook, Chris. Dictionary of Historical Terms (1983) p. 95. 4. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2005/03/15/books/15spyb.html 5. ^ http://spywise.net/trend.html 6. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi- studies/studies/vol.-53-no.-3/pdfs/U-%20Bookshelf%2028-Sep2009-web.pdf 7. ^ http://spywise.net/trend.htmlReferences • Aronoff, Myron J. The Spy Novels of John Le Carré: Balancing Ethics and Politics (1999). • Britton, Wesley. Spy Television. The Prager Television Collection. Series Ed. David Bianculli. Westport, CT and London: Praeger, 2004. ISBN 0-275-98163-0. • Britton, Wesley. Beyond Bond: Spies in Fiction and Film. Westport, CT and London: Praeger, 2005. ISBN 0-275-98556-3. • Britton, Wesley. Onscreen & Undercover: The Ultimate Book of Movie Espionage. Westport, CT and London: Praeger, 2006. ISBN 0-275-99281-0. • Cawelti, John G. The Spy Story (1987) • Priestman, Martin, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Crime Fiction (2003).External links • Spy-Wise is a spy fiction website. • Spy Fiction Iliad, Henry V, The Spy, The Riddle of the Sands, The Thirty-Nine Steps, GreenmantleRetrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Spy_fiction&oldid=516104786"Categories: • Spy fiction • Thrillers • Works about espionage • This page was last modified on 5 October 2012 at 06:48. • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.Page 76 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.Page 77 of 78
    • The Butler Didnt Do It! - A Mystery Writing Solutions Compendium by Apollyon.All Good Things Come To An End!I hope you enjoyed this compilation. I am in the process of preparing an email newsletter for you toalso devour, if you would prefer to receive it, please send a message to apollyonsys.zn87@yahoo.comas soon as possible, and I shall send you the link to the subscription form! (No, I do not manage thenewsletter from a Yahoo email. Relax. The newsletter will be managed by either (a) Nourish, or (b)Mailchimp.)Thanks for reading The Butler Didnt Do It!Have a splendid day! Watch the caboose, Charlie....Page 78 of 78