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  • Steps in filing up the HOQ and its calculations Research or perform customer survey to develop a list of Customer Quality Requirements Example: a training book should be: easy to use, accurate have clear design, be brief Identify importance to customer for each of the customer requirements Asses company competitive performance based on customer requirement Identify how your product offering measures against competition then score on a scale 1-5, 5 being the best The company evaluation is shown in black line and connects the existing position of the company Prioritize Customer Requirement Set target values for improvement. These values should be made while considering the sale potential!! => give or assign whished stage The target values are highlighted in blue Calculate absolute weight for each opportunity A full calculation of the absolute weigh for customer requirement for this HOQ is presented on the next slide Based on customer requirement develop list of technical requirements that create a desired product Example: for the training material it should have: clear formatting style, timely renewals, good coverage of topics, good graphics, understandable word choice, table of contents Asses relationships between customer requirement and technical needs Identify correlations between customer requirement and technical requirement and scale the relationship 1= week correlation 3= moderate correlation 9= strong correlation Evaluate technical requirements against competitors Prioritize technical Requirement Set target values for technical improvement and calculate the absolute weight for each technical requirement This values are not presented on the graph!!! Identify Correlations between technical requirements Calculate importance Weighting and Prioritize
  • TRIZ.ppt

    1. 1. LSSG Black Belt Training Innovation: The Next Frontier for Six Sigma
    2. 2. LSS and TRIZ <ul><li>Innovation is “HOT” </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of the Corporate Innovation Officer </li></ul><ul><li>New career opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly, improvement and innovation methodologies are becoming a significant source of competitive advantage! </li></ul><ul><li>Patents and continuous improvements are becoming blurred. What is “obvious” or “ordinary” or “incremental” or a “simple combination of pre-existing inventions? </li></ul><ul><li>TRIZ and LSS - a perfect complement - the next evolutionary step, incorporating proven innovation methodologies and tools with continuous improvement methods and tools. </li></ul>
    3. 3. House of Quality: A Popular Six Sigma Tool The “Roof’ Describes Contradictions! 1 2 3 A = Us X = major competitor 1 4 5 6 7 Target Values Difficulty (qualitative 1-5) Absolute Weight Relative Weight how’s 3.2 4.0 4.5 4.9 4.8 3.5 5 4 2 3 3 4 15.9 92.5 18.2 32.6 46.2 66.9 9.2 101.3 55.4 34.9 67 84.9 A A A A A A 8 Technical Requirements Formatting Style Timing of Renewals Dept of Coverage Use of Graphics Choice of Language Table of Contents Importance to Customer Customer Requirements Easy of use Accuracy Relevance Clarity Briefness 3.2 5.0 4.5 3.8 2.5 Competitive evaluation 1 2 3 4 5 X A A X X A A X X A Technical evaluation (5 is best) 5 4 3 2 X A X A A X X A XA A X Relationships Strong = 9 Moderate =3 Week =1 Correlation Strong Positive Positive Negative Target Value (qualitative ) 3.4 4.6 4.4 4.0 4.2 Ratio = Target Value/ Company Now 1.0 1.5 1.1 1.6 1.0 Abs Weight = Ratio*Importance 3.2 7.5 4.9 6.1 2.5 % Importance Abs Weight 13.1 31.2 20.7 24.8 10.2 A A A A A
    4. 4. <ul><li>TRIZ </li></ul><ul><li>(Teoriya Resheniya Izobreatatelskikh Zadatch) </li></ul><ul><li>(Pronounced ‘trees’ with a roll on the ‘r’) </li></ul><ul><li>A Methodology for Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>by resolving contradictions! </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Triz History </li></ul><ul><li>English acronym for a Russian phrase translating to the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Began as the work of Genrich Altshuller, a patent officer in the Russian Navy in 1946 </li></ul><ul><li>Based on a review of 2.5 million patents to date (200,000 by Altshuller!) </li></ul><ul><li>Aim is to provide a systematic and rigorous way to be more inventive in our problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Focus is on resolution of inherent design contradictions by removing them at their source, rather than compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Allows people to study the ideas and the ways that contradictions were solved (“creates the ability to almost automate the inventive process!”) </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Triz History (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Now a well-developed collection of principles, tools and techniques, including the “40 Inventive Principles (IPs)” and the “Contradiction Matrix” </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily about technical and physical problems, but the current focus is to apply these ideas to services! </li></ul><ul><li>Now being combined with Lean Six Sigma – a natural, especially with DMADV/DFSS to create Six Sigma capable processes to start (extends HOQ!) </li></ul><ul><li>Has its own methodology (ARIZ), but can also be adapted to DMAIC/DMADV </li></ul>“ What Six Sigma lacks in the area of systematic innovation TRIZ encapsulates in almost every tool and technique.” (Geoff Tennant)
    7. 7. Genrich Altshuller: The Father of Triz <ul><li>“ In his first book, How to Learn to Invent , [Alshuller] laughs at the popular opinion that one must be born to be an inventor. He criticizes the trial and error method used to make discoveries.” (Lev Shulyak) </li></ul><ul><li>“ You can wait a hundred years for enlightenment, or you can solve the problem in 15 minutes with relative ease.” (Genrich Altshuller) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Imagination is more important than knowledge.” (Albert Einstein) </li></ul><ul><li>“” Knowledge on how to think in a non-standard way, that is to imagine, is just more important.” (Anatoly Guin) </li></ul>
    8. 8. The Triz Methodology <ul><li>Study patterns and stages of innovation. Identify current position to determine future direction and potential. </li></ul><ul><li>Approach innovation at the systems level to consider all aspects of the environment; consider functionality and hidden resources </li></ul><ul><li>Use an algorithm for problem-solving (e.g., ARIZ, DMAIC) </li></ul><ul><li>Solve contradictions; do not compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Create the ideal system – maximum benefit at zero cost and zero harm </li></ul><ul><li>Use idle resources (e.g., air, knowledge, skills); add (at zero cost) to increase functionality </li></ul><ul><li>Use the 40 Inventive Principles (IPs) and Contradiction Matrix (grid of most popular IPs for specific parameter conflicts) </li></ul><ul><li>Separate the contradictions </li></ul><ul><li>Add a third factor </li></ul><ul><li>Use science and knowledge for answers </li></ul><ul><li>Remove the unnecessary/Ask Why? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Key Triz Concept: Ideality/Ideal Design <ul><li>Provides all required functions without the physical existence of any system </li></ul><ul><li>Uses “free” resources (such as gravity, air, knowledge, the effects of shape memory, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>The measure is the sum of the benefits divided by the sum of the “costs” and “harms” </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits are any useful functions or desired outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Costs should include direct costs and costs to society (Taguchi) </li></ul><ul><li>Harms should include failure modes, harmful effects, and any other undesired outcome </li></ul>
    10. 10. Understanding the Problem: Define the Ideal Outcome <ul><li>Triz tool is called “The Ideal Final Result” </li></ul><ul><li>Use Brainstorming, including “Solution Park” </li></ul><ul><li>Do NOT think about “HOW” we get what we want! Concentrate on BENEFITS! </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine we have a “MAGIC WAND” </li></ul><ul><li>Ask everyone in the room to define their ideal outcome and create consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Define who we are and at what systems level we are operating </li></ul><ul><li>Decide what we want – the benefits/future state </li></ul><ul><li>Visualize the solution (future state map, 9 Windows,etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Search for resources to deliver the benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Identify contradictions for further improvement using Triz </li></ul>
    11. 11. Triz Tool: Nine Windows (or Screens) Used to identify the ideal state, resources that can be used, and understand where the “real” problem lies. Past Present Future Macro System System Micro System
    12. 12. Triz Tool: Nine Windows Bradford University Example Past Present Future Macro System System Micro System Students gain employment from local companies How to insure a good pool of able students? How to inspire enthusiasm for engineering? More girls at university; Engineering seek as “geeky” What We Want: Full quota of good students graduating in engineering form Bradford Problem: How to attract many capable engineering students to Bradford? Engineering is less understood and not a popular choice; Qualifications are harder; Business more popular; Male dominated What will the government want? What will the University want? Loyal, qualified staff; good facilities; demand for graduates by local companies Low status and salaries of engineers in UK; Mfg base in decline
    13. 13. Triz Tool: Nine Windows <ul><li>Combined with SWOT Analysis </li></ul>Past Present Future Macro System System Micro System S O W T S S S S S W W W W W W W W S S S O O O O O O T T T T T T O O T T
    14. 14. The 40 Inventive Principles (IPs) *Most commonly used principles (J. Zhang) <ul><li>Intermediary/Mediator </li></ul><ul><li>Self Service </li></ul><ul><li>Copying </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive and Short-Term (Instead of Expensive and Durable); Cheap Disposables </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction Substitute; Replacement of a Mechanical System* </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumatics and Hydraulics </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible Shells and Thin Membranes or Film </li></ul><ul><li>Porous Material </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Property Change/Changing Color </li></ul><ul><li>Homogeneity </li></ul><ul><li>Discarding and Recovering/Rejected and Regenerating Parts </li></ul><ul><li>Parameter Change/Transformation of the Physical-Chemical Properties of the System or Parts* </li></ul><ul><li>Phase Transition </li></ul><ul><li>Application of Heat Expansion (Thermal Expansion) </li></ul><ul><li>Using Strong Oxidants </li></ul><ul><li>39. Inert Atmosphere/ Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Composite Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Segment* </li></ul><ul><li>Separate/Extract* </li></ul><ul><li>Localized Characteristics/ Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Merge/Consolidate </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-Functionality/ Universality </li></ul><ul><li>Nesting Principle </li></ul><ul><li>Counterweight </li></ul><ul><li>Prior Counteraction </li></ul><ul><li>Prior Action* </li></ul><ul><li>Beforehand Compensation/ Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Equi-Potentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Other Way Around/ Reverse </li></ul><ul><li>Curvature Increase/ Spheroidality </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Parts* </li></ul><ul><li>Partial or Excessive Action </li></ul><ul><li>Change or Move to a New Dimension </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical Vibration </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic Action </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity of Useful Action </li></ul><ul><li>Hurrying/Rush Through or Skipping Over </li></ul><ul><li>Blessing in Disguise/ Convert Harm into Benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul>
    15. 15. Separation Principles <ul><li>The Principles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of Parts and Whole: Can the actions/parts/ systems be broken up into smaller parts, or combined into one whole? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation in Time: Can actions/parts/system be separated in time, or happen before or after the other? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation in Space: Can the conflict be resolved by physically moving the actions/parts/systems? Can removing a separation in space combine actions/parts/systems to remove the conflict? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation on Condition: Can the actions/parts/systems be treated/handled differently based on internal or external conditions? </li></ul></ul>These principles are usually used first, as they can often propose a solution quickly!
    16. 16. Triz Tool: The Contradiction Matrix <ul><li>The contradiction (in design features) is at the heart of TRIZ. The CM Matrix is a starting point for solution generation, once two features have been found that are currently in a trade-off situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of contradictions are considered: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical (i.e., as one gets better, the other must get worse, such as strong and light weight), and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical (i.e., when one parameter must be in two opposing states at the same time, such as big vs. small, short vs. long, etc.). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only 1250 typical system contradictions in 39 design parameters have been found to date </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of TRIZ is to eliminate the trade-off and allow both features to exist without contradiction. Without innovation, designers typically compromise by trading off the two extremes. The method focuses on identifying a single measure (of a feature), and exaggerating the two extremes. </li></ul><ul><li>The CM Matrix is now a 39 X 39 Matrix with 39 Design Parameters on each side. Each entry contains from 1-4 of the Inventive Principles (IPs) that should be considered. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Triz Tool: The Contradiction Matrix 9: Prior Counter- action - 7,29, 34 - 29,30, 34 - 13, 14,8 - 2,28, 13,38 9: Speed 8: Counterweight - - - 35,8, 2,14 19,14 35,10 19,14 - 8: Volume of a Stationary Object 7: Nesting - - 1,7, 4,17 - 1,7, 4,35 - 2,26, 29,40 7: Volume of a Mobile Object 6: Universality - - - 26,7, 9,39 - 30,2, 14,18 - 6: Area of a Stationary Object 5: Consolidation - 7,14, 17,4 - - 14,15 18,4 - 2,17, 29,4 5: Area of a Mobile Object 4: Asymmetry 35,8, 2,14 - 17,7, 10,40 - - 35,28 40,29 - 4: Length of a Stationary Object 3: Local Quality - 7,17, 4,35 - 15,17, 4 - - 8,15, 29,34 3: Length of a Mobile Object 2: Extraction 5,35, 14,2 - 35,30, 13,2 - 10,1, 29,35 - - 2: Weight of a stationary Object 1: Segmentation - 29,2,40,28 - 29,17, 38,34 - 8,15,29,34 - 1: Weight of a Mobile Object Inventive Principles (40) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Charac- teristics (39)
    18. 18. Triz: Not Just for Manufacturing! An Illustration <ul><li>IP14: Curvature Increase (Spheroidality) </li></ul><ul><li>Curvature can be increased by moving from lines to curves, from linear to circular motion, and in one, two, or three dimensions. Use rotational motion and forces rather than linear. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., Ball bearings in toys, coil springs in mattresses, circular tables, domed roofs, knuckle joints as hinges for windows, corkscrew cucumber slicer, non-linear organizational structures, 360 degree feedback, people with “rounded personalities” performing customer service, rolling forecasts of customer requirements, ergonomic furniture, meals on wheels, quality circles, circular work cells, using 3D virtual models, using educational globes rather than maps for instruction, using smoothing techniques for forecasting of data, encouraging out-of-the-box versus linear thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of other applications? </li></ul>
    19. 19. Example IP: Periodic Action (IP19) <ul><li>Replace a continuous action with a periodic one (impulse) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use impulse sprinkler on lawn to reduce damage to soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic repetition of advertising messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic evaluation/auditing of processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If the action is already periodic, change its frequency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Batch manufacturing – small customized products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass customization – individual production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute monthly customer communications, in addition to annual surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use pauses between impulses to provide additional action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventative maintenance of equipment and facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan pauses in negotiations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get work done between meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture lessons learned for knowledge management </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Example IP: Continuity of Useful Action (IP20) <ul><li>Carry on work continuously; make all persons/systems work at full capacity all the time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous compounding of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide 24 hour, 7 day service to customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use retired employees during peak work times, absences, and vacations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bring the services for special education students to the regular classroom, rather that having students go elsewhere for services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remove idle and intermediate motion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use mobile phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create life-long learning opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct training during pauses in work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employ multi-skilled personnel at bottleneck functions to avoid customer delays </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Common Service Contradictions <ul><li>Diversity versus Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Customization versus Standardization </li></ul><ul><li>Functionality versus Ease of Use </li></ul><ul><li>General Information versus Detailed Information </li></ul><ul><li>Security/Privacy versus Transparency </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization versus Personalization </li></ul>
    22. 22. Mini-Case: Techo Edge Canteen <ul><li>Techno Edge is a university canteen open from 8:30am to 6:30pm on weekdays, and from 8:30am to 2:00pm on Saturdays. Since it is not convenient to purchase food elsewhere outside of the operation hours of the canteen, students have requested an extension of hours of operation. The solution, however, may not be welcomed by the food operators for reasons of cost ineffectiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>The Contradiction: Longer hours to meet student demand vs. cost-effective staffing </li></ul>
    23. 23. Mini-Case: Techo Edge Canteen The Solution Using TRIZ <ul><li>The General Solution: Take effective measures to stretch the operation time, or concentrate the demand of the customers into a shorter period of time, as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>IP1: Separation in space : Use outside contractors to provide phone ordering/direct delivery. </li></ul><ul><li>IP1: Separation within a whole and its parts : Separate the dining needs of customers into types and patterns – provide niche services, such as late delivery. </li></ul><ul><li>IP1: Separation in time : Divide the operation into two parts. Use a different operator to provide night-time services. </li></ul><ul><li>IP25: Self-Service and IP10: Preliminary Action : Provide food vending machines and microwave ovens to relieve peak hour demand and late night customers. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Class Exercise: Icebreaker <ul><li>It is necessary to move cargo in the winter through waterways that can be covered by as much as 10 feet of ice. Traditionally, ice breakers have been used to open a channel through the ice for a convoy of ships to follow. </li></ul><ul><li>The ice breaker can only advance at a speed of 2 km/hr. We need to increase this rate to at least 6 km/hr, although faster would be even more desirable. </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative means of transportation are not acceptable. Our investigation shows that the icebreaker has the most efficient engine available in the industry at this time. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Reverse TRIZ <ul><li>Similar in concept to failure analysis in Six Sigma </li></ul><ul><li>But can also identify contradictions in the system related to potential failures that are not obvious </li></ul><ul><li>Asks the question, “If I were going to sabotage the system, how would I do it? </li></ul><ul><li>The idea is to find the weak spots in the system </li></ul><ul><li>Once the contradictions are identified, the 40 principles can be used to resolve the failure </li></ul>
    26. 26. Triz Tool: Smart Little People Question: In looking at this page, what are you thinking?
    27. 27. TRIZ Tool: Smart Little People (SLP) <ul><li>Using “Smart Little People” helps to overcome the psychological inertia in our thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine an army of smart but very small people that can do anything, think for themselves, and work down to the atomic level. </li></ul><ul><li>Then imagine how they could do a job differently or with fewer of them involved. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, it takes 6 SLP to hold up a heavy pipe. How could they do it with less people? </li></ul>
    28. 28. Example: Smart Little People (SLP) <ul><li>Problem: T o protect workers in a metallurgical shop from flying melted metal drops, special screens are installed.  The smaller the mesh, the better the protection.  If the mesh is small, however, it is difficult to see through the screen.  What can be done? </li></ul><ul><li>To apply the SLP method, we should consider two types of creatures: flying creatures that represent the metal drops, and guards.  The guards are positioned in the form of a grid (see the picture, below).  They try to catch all the flying creatures, but some sneak through the cells anyway. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Example: SLP (continued) <ul><li>A similar situation can be seen on a tennis court.  How can we catch all the balls?  The easiest way is to place many catchers on the court -- but then there is no game.  The &quot;solution,&quot; of course, involves only one player, who moves quickly from place to place to cover the court. </li></ul><ul><li>We can do something analogous with our guards: have them move around quickly to cover all the necessary space. </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: use a rotating or vibrating grid that will retain all the drops while allowing us to see through it. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Summary - LSS and TRIZ <ul><li>Innovation is “HOT” </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of the Corporate Innovation Officer </li></ul><ul><li>New career opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly, improvement and innovation methodologies are becoming a significant source of competitive advantage! </li></ul><ul><li>Patents and continuous improvements are becoming blurred. What is “obvious” or “ordinary” or “incremental” or a “simple combination of pre-existing inventions? </li></ul><ul><li>TRIZ and LSS - a perfect complement - the next evolutionary step, incorporating proven innovation methodologies and tools with continuous improvement methods and tools. </li></ul>
    31. 31. LSS and TRIZ – A Natural!! <ul><li>TRIZ can be used with Lean Six Sigma to: </li></ul><ul><li>Extend the House of Quality – resolve contradictions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bust” process bottlenecks – reduce cycle time </li></ul><ul><li>Capture knowledge – using TRIZ IPs and characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Expand the toolbox – add TRIZ tools to LSS </li></ul><ul><li>Many other possibilities! </li></ul>
    32. 32. Sources <ul><li>Altshuller, G.S. 40 Principles: TRIZ Keys to Technical Innovation , trans, and ed. Shulyak, L. and Rodman, S., Technical Innovation Center, Worcester, MA., 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>Averboukh, E. Six Sigma Trends: Six Sigma in Financial Services , TRIZ Journal, March, 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Bligh, A. The Overlap Between TRIZ and Lean , March, 2006, </li></ul><ul><li>Dourson, S. The 40 Inventive Principles Applied to Finance , TRIZ Journal, October, 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Gadd, K. Triz at Bradford University: Solving an Organisational Problem using TRIZ , April, 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Guin, A. School-factory will Die. What’s On? TRIZ Journal, April, 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Marsh, D., Waters, F., and Marsh, T. 40 Inventive Principles with Applications in Education , TRIZ Journal, April, 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Retseptor, G. 40 Inventive Principles in Marketing, Sales, and Advertising , TRIZ Journal, April, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Retseptor, G. 40 Inventive Principles in Quality Management , TRIZ Journal, March, 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>Tennant, G. TRIZ for Six Sigma, Mulbury Six Sigma, 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>Terninko, J. Selecting the Best Direction to Create the Ideal Product Design , TRIZ Journal, July, 1998. </li></ul><ul><li>Zhang, J. Chai, K.H., and Tan, K.C. 40 Inventive Principles with Applications in Service Operations Management , TRIZ Journal, December, 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>Zhang, J. Chai, K.H., and Tan, K.C. Applying TRIZ to Service Conceptual Design: An Exploratory Study , TRIZ Journal, March, 2005. </li></ul>Check out the archives of the TRIZ Journal for additional articles at , and for other resources.