Targeting Design for 6 Sigma

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  • Why would anyone choose 2 over 1? Where is ‘I definitively do not want to pay more council tax – I would like you to improve your processes and spend my money more efficiently’?
  • The Motorola Definition
  • Consensus: Although this goes against our MK agreement, there is some support for having small x and big X ,and primarily so that we can refer to families of variation (in Multivari and C&E diagram) as big X. We can see that having x’s and X’s on the same template could cause confusion, but we suggest changing the template to small x’s everywhere, and referring to families of variation (e.g., Multivari and C&E diagram) as big X in the teach material. Need to “Process” after Improvement to keep consistent
  • Consensus: Change Variability Reduction to Variation Reduction ( do this throughout the materials) Change the ‘lock graphic’, it is not obvious what it is and what it represents. Funnel Graphic: Use all small x’s.
  • Consensus: Change Variability Reduction to Variation Reduction ( do this throughout the materials) Change the ‘lock graphic’, it is not obvious what it is and what it represents. Funnel Graphic: Use all small x’s.
  • Tools are available to support the problem solving process. These tools, which are analytical as well as graphical, help to increase the quality and productivity of the problem solving activities. Is/Is Not analysis - To stratify the problem description Flow Diagrams - To Clarify the process sequence. To facilitate identification of deviations between the actual and the intended paths. To identity measurement stations. Pareto Diagrams - To prioritise, or to choose the starting point for an investigation. Histograms - To support the determination of the need for more detailed capability studies. To display the frequency distribution of data in easily understood, graphic form. To obtain information about variability as data are collected. Control Charts - To assess process stability. To assess change. Check Sheets - To order data. To collect variable and attribute data. To rapidly gain management support by presenting categorised data. Capability Studies - To assess the ability of the process to meet requirements. To assess the ability of the process to meet customers' needs.
  • What are the hidden opportunities?
  • It is focussed on People, Processes, Customers, IMPROVEMENT BUT HOW? ! Where is the data? Where is the method? Where is statistical thinking?
  • The next step in the process is the determination of preliminary objective targets for the design requirements, the “How Much”. We can think of the design requirement as the ruler and the target as the distance along the ruler that we would like to achieve. At this stage the targets should be based on the customer requirement and our planned quality, rather than “what can we achieve?”. As the development of the specification continues it may become necessary to adjust these targets. In this case then we can quickly identify which of the customer requirements will be affected, and assess the possible impact on our market competitiveness. If it is difficult to specify a target for a design requirement, then this may indicate that the requirement has not yet been sufficiently specified and we may need to step back to identifying the “Hows”. The design requirements together with the objective target values complete the specification for the product/service and are the output of this stage of the process. Setting these objective targets is not a trivial task and there are a number of additional pieces of information that will support the team in this process. These are described in the rest of this chapter.
  • 1
  • NOTE THERE ARE MANY FAILURES BECAUSE OF POOR LEADERSHIP ABB has 350 BBs in 160,000 employees – “Six Sigma has not worked for us” – WHY WE ASK? LEADERSHIP???
  • BUT WITHOUT LEADERSHIP THIS WILL NOT HAPPEN!!! THE BBs WILL BECOME THE NEW LEADERS!!
  • What are the opportunities in your Organisation?
  • Seems to be getting stronger in concept and definition
  • 1
  • Consensus: Change Variability Reduction to Variation Reduction ( do this throughout the materials) Change the ‘lock graphic’, it is not obvious what it is and what it represents. Funnel Graphic: Use all small x’s.
  • Consensus: Change Variability Reduction to Variation Reduction ( do this throughout the materials) Change the ‘lock graphic’, it is not obvious what it is and what it represents. Funnel Graphic: Use all small x’s.
  • Targeting Design for 6 Sigma

    1. 1. Targeting Design for 6 Sigma Martin Gibson ASI Quality Systems, 12 Beales Lane, Milton Keynes MK7 7HB Tel: 01908-259999 email: martingibson@asiqs.co.uk www.asiqs.co.uk
    2. 2. County Council Public Survey to Decide How £300m Budget Will Be Spent
    3. 3. <ul><li>‘In order to fund services, both those which we are currently provide and those which we will need to provide in the future, we will have to increase the amount of council tax above the current rate of inflation’. </li></ul><ul><li>I would be prepared to pay more council tax to improve the current level of service. </li></ul><ul><li>I would be prepared to pay more council tax to maintain the current level of service. </li></ul><ul><li>I definitely do not want to pay more council tax, even if this means that services will be reduced . </li></ul>County Council Spending
    4. 4. <ul><li>DMAIC </li></ul><ul><li>Transactional Six Sigma </li></ul><ul><li>Lean Six Sigma </li></ul><ul><li>Design for Six Sigma </li></ul><ul><li>What next? </li></ul>Six Sigma evolution . . . And Customers!
    5. 5. Motorola Six Sigma – where it all started Motorola Six Sigma Routine and effective use of Six Sigma tools: to improve quality and technology to reduce cycle time and costs
    6. 6. 1 Motorola Six Sigma = A step towards structured continual improvement 1 - Identify the Product / Service 2 - Identify the Customers and their needs 3 - Determine the Suppliers and their needs 4 - Describe the Process 5 - Eliminate the defects / Optimise the Process 6 – Continually Improve using Six Sigma (or ”6 stages towards excellence” ) 5 6 Suppliers Customers Inputs Products / Services Process Activities 2 3 4
    7. 7. Six Sigma DMAIC and DMADV <ul><li>Existing Product or Process </li></ul><ul><li>Define </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The project goals and customer deliverables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process to determine current performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analyze </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And determine the root cause(s) of the defects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process by eliminating defects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Future process performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Product or Process (DfSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Define </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The project goals and customer deliverables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And determine customer needs and specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analyze </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process options to meet the customer needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process to meet the customer needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verify </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The design performance and ability to meet customer needs </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>T he Customer is at the centre of Six Sigma </li></ul><ul><li>There are two ways to achieve Six Sigma : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing variation in the process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opening up the specification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A SIPOC Process Map defines the process to be improved </li></ul><ul><li>Product/Process measures should be directly linked to Customer Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Focus is used in the Define and Measure phases of the DMAIC Improvement Process </li></ul>Six Sigma & Customer Focus
    9. 9. <ul><li>In Six Sigma we need to have objective measures of the Customer Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>These measures are referred to as the “y’s” or process outputs </li></ul><ul><li>We need a rigorous and structured process to establish and prioritize these y’s </li></ul><ul><li>This enables us to generate/check that the specification is focused on the customer </li></ul>Outputs, “y’s”
    10. 10. DMAIC Improvement Process Define Identify Opportunity Identify y’s (Outputs) Measure y = f(x) Identify Critical x’s (Inputs) Analyse Optimise Critical x’s Improve Control Critical x’s Control Customer Focus
    11. 11. Operational DMAIC Improvement Process Define Improve Measure Control <ul><li>Control Critical x’s </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor y’s </li></ul><ul><li>Validate Control Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Close Project </li></ul>Phase Review Analyse 1 5 10 15 20 10.2 10.0 9.8 9.6 Upper Control Limit Lower Control Limit y <ul><li>Characterise x’s </li></ul><ul><li>Optimise x’s </li></ul><ul><li>Set Tolerances for x’s </li></ul><ul><li>Verify Improvement </li></ul>15 20 25 30 35 LSL USL Phase Review y=f(x 1 ,x 2 ,..) y x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . <ul><li>Identify Potential x’s </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse x’s </li></ul><ul><li>Select Critical x’s </li></ul>Phase Review Run 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 4 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 5 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 7 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 8 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 Effect C1 C2 C4 C3 C6 C5 x x x x x x x x x x x <ul><li>Select Project </li></ul><ul><li>Define Project Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Form the Team </li></ul><ul><li>Map the Process </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Customer Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Update Project File </li></ul>Phase Review <ul><li>Define Measures (y’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate Measurement System </li></ul><ul><li>Determine Process Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Determine Process Capability </li></ul><ul><li>Set Targets for Measures </li></ul>15 20 25 30 35 LSL USL Phase Review
    12. 12. Transactional DMAIC Improvement Process Define Improve Measure Control Analyse <ul><li>Develop y’s </li></ul><ul><li>Collect data </li></ul><ul><li>Validate data </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Process Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Process Capability </li></ul><ul><li>Set targets for improvement </li></ul>Phase Review Phase Review Phase Review Phase Review <ul><li>Brainstorm Potential Improvement Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Select Imp’t Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Plan and Implement Pilot </li></ul><ul><li>Verify Improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Implement Countermeasures </li></ul>Criteria A B C D Time + s - + Cost + - + s Service - + - + Etc s s - + 15 20 25 30 35 LSL USL 15 20 25 30 35 LSL USL <ul><li>Develop Detailed Process Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Map the Ideal Process </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Critical Process Steps (X’s) by looking for: </li></ul><ul><li>Process Bottlenecks </li></ul><ul><li>Rework / Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Non-value Added Steps </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of Error / Mistake </li></ul>START PROCESS STEPS DECISION STOP <ul><li>Develop and Implement Control Mechanisms for Critical x’s </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor Process Performance (y’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Validate Control Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Further Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Document </li></ul>1 5 10 15 20 10.2 10.0 9.8 9.6 Upper Control Limit Lower Control Limit y <ul><li>Select Project </li></ul><ul><li>Define Project Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Form the Team </li></ul><ul><li>Map the Process </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Customer Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Update Project File </li></ul>Phase Review
    13. 13. Team Problem Solving Process 1. Define the Problem 2. Interim Actions 3. Acquire and Analyse Data 4. Determine Root Cause 5. Evaluate Possible Solutions 6. Action Plan and Implement 7. Verify the Results 8. Standardise and Future Actions
    14. 14. Useful Tools for Defining the Problem Pareto Chart Capability Study Check Sheet • • • • • A B C D E Other 20 40 60 80 100% 50% 75% 25% Histogram Control Chart Flow Chart START PROCESS STEPS DECISION STOP IS IS NOT WHAT? WHO? WHERE? WHEN? HOW MUCH? Is/Is Not Analysis
    15. 15. <ul><li>DMAIC </li></ul><ul><li>Transactional Six Sigma </li></ul><ul><li>Lean Six Sigma </li></ul><ul><li>Design for Six Sigma </li></ul><ul><li>What next? </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s check where we are </li></ul>Six Sigma evolution . . . And Customers!
    16. 16. Problem Solving <ul><li>Memory Jogger </li></ul><ul><li>Select the problem/process that will be addressed and describe the improvement opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the current process surrounding the improvement opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Describe all of the possible causes of the problem and agree on the root cause(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an effective and workable solution and action plan, including targets for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Implement the solution or process change </li></ul><ul><li>Review and evaluate the result of the change </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect and act on learnings </li></ul><ul><li>Ford Global 8D Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Team </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Interim Containment Actions (ICAs) </li></ul><ul><li>Define & Verify Root Cause </li></ul><ul><li>Choose & Verify Permanent Corrective Actions (PCAs) for Root Cause </li></ul><ul><li>Implement & Validate Permanent Corrective Actions (PCAs) </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent Recurrence </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize Team & Individual Contributions </li></ul>
    17. 17. Ford <ul><li>Process Improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Identify </li></ul><ul><li>Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze </li></ul><ul><li>Envision </li></ul><ul><li>Implement </li></ul><ul><li>Continue </li></ul><ul><li>Design for Six Sigma </li></ul><ul><li>Identify </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The customer and specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Translate the customer specifications into functional requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optimize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using advanced statistical tools and modeling to predict and optimize the design and performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Validate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The design to ensure it meets all customer requirements </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Design for Six Sigma alternatives <ul><li>DMEDI (PWC) </li></ul><ul><li>Define </li></ul><ul><li>Measure </li></ul><ul><li>Explore </li></ul><ul><li>Develop </li></ul><ul><li>Implement </li></ul><ul><li>DCCDI (GE?) </li></ul><ul><li>Define </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The project goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Customer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis is completed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas are developed, reviewed and selected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is performed to meet the customer and business specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is completed to develop and commercialize the product/service </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Checkpoint Where are we?
    20. 20. Checkpoint What do we know?
    21. 21. Checkpoint What methods and tools do we have?
    22. 22. <ul><li>Easily identified – 5% to 8% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warranty, rejects, scrap, inspection rework </li></ul></ul>Cost of Poor Quality (Waste)
    23. 23. <ul><li>Easily identified – 5% to 8% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warranty, rejects, scrap, inspection rework </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Less obvious – 15% to 20% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle times, lost sales, lost customer loyalty, late delivery, excess inventory, engineering change orders, late to market, more set-ups, … </li></ul></ul>Cost of Poor Quality (Waste) COPQ = 25% of sales
    24. 24. The 7 Wastes <ul><li>Overproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Waiting </li></ul><ul><li>Transporting </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate processing </li></ul><ul><li>Unnecessary inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Unnecessary motions </li></ul><ul><li>Defects </li></ul><ul><li>N.B. 7W + 5S + 6 Sigma = Lean Six Sigma! </li></ul>
    25. 25. Plus the wastes of … <ul><li>Human potential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance appraisal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Excess energy / power consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Space </li></ul><ul><li>Unnecessary complexity </li></ul>
    26. 26. Business Excellence Model (from Baldridge, from Deming Award)
    27. 27. <ul><li>Quality Management Principles </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Customer focus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involvement of People </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process approach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systems approach to management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continual Improvement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Factual approach to decision making </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mutually beneficial Supplier relationships </li></ul></ul></ul>ISO 9000:2000 Quality Standard
    28. 28. Hoshin Planning and The Balanced Scorecard
    29. 29. Customer Satisfaction and Quality Function Deployment  X . . . . . . Excitement (Unspoken) Performance Requirements (Spoken) Basics (Unspoken) TIME
    30. 30. Who is/are the customer(s)? 1. End Users e.g. consumer, user, service 2. Intermediate customers e.g. retailer, distribution, OEM 3. Internal customers e.g. executive, manufacturing Most useful Least useful Least heard Most heard
    31. 31. WHAT HOW HOW MUCH Use QFD to Develop Targets and Tolerances for Y’s
    32. 32. <ul><li>Institutionalised programme management process </li></ul><ul><li>Management of timing, quality, cost………... & risk </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated programme manager & team </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrent working </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on up-front analysis, modelling & simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Close relationship with the customer </li></ul><ul><li>Is this new? </li></ul>Advanced Quality Planning or New Product Development
    33. 33. <ul><li>PLANNING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice of the Customer data, QFD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FMEA, Process Maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPC history, Warranty / Quality / Reliability indicators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design of Experiments, Multivariate Methods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PRODUCT DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monte Carlo Simulation, Variation Simulation Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FMEA, Fault Tree Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taguchi Methods, Design of Experiments, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RSM, Mixtures, Regression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-parametric methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability analysis / growth </li></ul></ul>AQP Tools & Techniques
    34. 34. <ul><li>PROCESS DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FMEA, Process Maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monte Carlo simulation, Design of Experiments, Regression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPC, Capability, Gauge R & r, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multivariate Methods, Operational Research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PRODUCT & PROCESS VALIDATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FMEA, Process Maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taguchi Methods, Design of Experiments, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RSM, Mixtures, Regression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPC, Capability, Monte Carlo simulation, OR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design of Experiments, SPC / Capability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mistake Proofing, Control Plans, 7 Basic Tools, Process Maps </li></ul></ul>AQP Tools & Techniques
    35. 35. Checkpoint Where do we go from here?
    36. 36. Process Mapping Process Measurement I nputs O utputs S I P O C A Series of activities that transforms inputs into outputs C ustomers P rocess S uppliers
    37. 37. <ul><li>Understand the Customers </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Hoshin Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Focussed QFD </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Improvement Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Projects Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Champions </li></ul><ul><li>Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Master Black Belts </li></ul><ul><li>Black Belts </li></ul><ul><li>Green Belts </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow Belts </li></ul>Translating Customer Requirements Into Key Y’s - outputs
    38. 38. Develop a strong Black Belt Community
    39. 39. .  Methods Training Environment Software Statistical Software Quality Software FMEA QFD Statistical Methods 6  Quality Tools Inter-Personal Skills 8D SPC DOE Six Steps to Six Sigma Problem Solving QFD FMEA Consulting Teamwork Leadership Involvement Data Collection Data Analysis TQM DFM Project Mgmt Team Building Teaching Statistical Six Sigma Improvement Skills Quality Standards Certification Process Development Process Improvement Process Characterization Leadership Continual Improvement Quality Standards Priority Project Reviews Curriculum. Resources Recognition / Reward Empowerment Statistical Methods Problem Solving Reduced Variation • • • • • Satisfied Customers Inter-Personal Skills Increased ROI Performance Excellence Minitab Six Sigma Black Belts
    40. 40. <ul><li>Opportunities exist everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Systems: streamline </li></ul><ul><li>New Product Development: simplify, improve </li></ul><ul><li>Processes: standardize </li></ul><ul><li>Services: share </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Complaints </li></ul><ul><li>Purchasing </li></ul><ul><li>HR – information support </li></ul><ul><li>Form: </li></ul><ul><li>Payment </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase Order </li></ul><ul><li>Travel </li></ul><ul><li>Deliveries: </li></ul><ul><li>OTIF </li></ul>Six Sigma applications
    41. 41. <ul><li>DMAIC </li></ul><ul><li>Transactional Six Sigma </li></ul><ul><li>Lean Six Sigma </li></ul><ul><li>Design for Six Sigma </li></ul><ul><li>What is Quality? </li></ul>Six Sigma evolution . . . And Customers!
    42. 42. <ul><li>The goodness or excellence of any product, process, structure or other thing that an organisation consists of or creates. </li></ul><ul><li>It is assessed against accepted standards of merit for such things and against the interests/needs of producers, consumers and other stakeholders. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smith, Journal TQM, 1993. </li></ul></ul>Holistic Quality – Holistic Improvement
    43. 43. <ul><li>Institutionalised programme management process </li></ul><ul><li>Management of timing, quality, cost………... & risk </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated programme manager & team </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrent working </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on up-front analysis, modelling & simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Close relationship with the customer </li></ul>AQP or New Product Development
    44. 44. AQP Reporting Format
    45. 45. Multiple Products, Multiple Systems
    46. 46. AQP Reports
    47. 47. Apply Systems & Statistical Thinking SYSTEM A SYSTEM B SYSTEM C SYSTEM D The Product Development System 1: Product Planning 2: Product Design & Development 3: Process Design & Development 4: Production Planning 5: Process Monitoring Time Feedback VOICE OF THE CUSTOMER VOICE OF THE PROCESS
    48. 48. Use Six Sigma to Measure and Analyze the System <ul><li>What are the key repeated problems / opportunities across and within the Products ? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the key repeated problems in the Processes used in the Product Development? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the System issues that are witnessed in the Products and Processes ? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the Leadership doing to improve the System ? </li></ul><ul><li>What Six Sigma Projects are the Leadership going to undertake to improve the System ? </li></ul>
    49. 49. “ If I had to reduce my message for management to just a few words, I’d say it all had to do with reducing variation.” Deming’s message
    50. 50. “ If I had to reduce my message for management to just a few words, I’d say it all had to do with reducing variation.” “… statistics (statistical thinking) is a basic but comprehensive way of thinking and acting which combines information, opinion and common-sense for the better design of products, systems, strategies and decision making”. Deming’s message
    51. 51. Operational DMAIC Improvement Process Define Improve Measure Control <ul><li>Control Critical x’s </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor y’s </li></ul><ul><li>Validate Control Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Close Project </li></ul>Phase Review Analyse 1 5 10 15 20 10.2 10.0 9.8 9.6 Upper Control Limit Lower Control Limit y <ul><li>Characterise x’s </li></ul><ul><li>Optimise x’s </li></ul><ul><li>Set Tolerances for x’s </li></ul><ul><li>Verify Improvement </li></ul>15 20 25 30 35 LSL USL Phase Review y=f(x 1 ,x 2 ,..) y x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . <ul><li>Identify Potential x’s </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse x’s </li></ul><ul><li>Select Critical x’s </li></ul>Phase Review Run 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 4 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 5 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 7 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 8 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 Effect C1 C2 C4 C3 C6 C5 x x x x x x x x x x x <ul><li>Define Measures (y’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate Measurement System </li></ul><ul><li>Determine Process Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Determine Process Capability </li></ul><ul><li>Set Targets for Measures </li></ul>15 20 25 30 35 LSL USL Phase Review <ul><li>Select Project </li></ul><ul><li>Define Project Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Form the Team </li></ul><ul><li>Map the Process </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Customer Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Update Project File </li></ul>Phase Review
    52. 52. Transactional DMAIC Improvement Process Define Improve Measure Control Analyse <ul><li>Develop y’s </li></ul><ul><li>Collect data </li></ul><ul><li>Validate data </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Process Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Process Capability </li></ul><ul><li>Set targets for improvement </li></ul>Phase Review Phase Review Phase Review Phase Review <ul><li>Brainstorm Potential Improvement Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Select Imp’t Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Plan and Implement Pilot </li></ul><ul><li>Verify Improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Implement Countermeasures </li></ul>Criteria A B C D Time + s - + Cost + - + s Service - + - + Etc s s - + 15 20 25 30 35 LSL USL 15 20 25 30 35 LSL USL <ul><li>Develop Detailed Process Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Map the Ideal Process </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Critical Process Steps (X’s) by looking for: </li></ul><ul><li>Process Bottlenecks </li></ul><ul><li>Rework / Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Non-value Added Steps </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of Error / Mistake </li></ul>START PROCESS STEPS DECISION STOP <ul><li>Develop and Implement Control Mechanisms for Critical x’s </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor Process Performance (y’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Validate Control Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Further Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Document </li></ul>1 5 10 15 20 10.2 10.0 9.8 9.6 Upper Control Limit Lower Control Limit y <ul><li>Select Project </li></ul><ul><li>Define Project Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Form the Team </li></ul><ul><li>Map the Process </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Customer Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Update Project File </li></ul>Phase Review
    53. 53. <ul><li>Leaders must focus on a structured approach (PDSA) by targeting: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical Thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Six Sigma Methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teamwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem Solving (inc. TRIZ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process Improvement, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systems Thinking! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>To Achieve Continual Improvement

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