Six Sigma and the CMM Better Software Development  Terrence W. Craft Omaha SPIN June 15, 2004
Goals <ul><li>Strive for 0 defects </li></ul><ul><li>Proceed systematically </li></ul><ul><li>Check everything </li></ul><...
What’s a Process? A sequence of steps performed for a given purpose,  for example, the software development process. - IEE...
A Mature Process <ul><li>Consistent with the way work actually gets done </li></ul><ul><li>Defined, documented, and contin...
What Are the Benefits  of a Mature Process? <ul><li>Enables you to focus on the system (and that’s about 85% of the cause ...
Change Is a Process <ul><li>Disciplined change is the key to success. </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement includes </li></ul><ul...
Value of Fixing Defects Early Error Correction Costs By Phase $$$ Relative Cost  to Correct Error Operation Detailed Desig...
Taking Dead Aim <ul><li>Six Sigma = 99.99966% accurate </li></ul><ul><li>Five Sigma = 99.9767% </li></ul><ul><li>Four Sigm...
Why Sigma (  ) Levels Matter Number of defects per million opportunities <ul><li>6 Sigma = 3.4 </li></ul><ul><li>5 Sigma ...
Why Close Isn’t Good Enough 99% accuracy equals… <ul><li>117,000 pieces of lost first-class mail per hour </li></ul><ul><l...
99.9% Quality <ul><li>Even at 99.9% quality there would be… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At least 20,000 wrong drug prescriptions...
D-M-A-I-C D efine M easure A nalyze I mprove C ontrol D-M-A-I-C is the roadmap for improving existing processes. Reduce de...
DMAIC <ul><li>Define </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project charter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholder analysis </li></ul></ul>...
Where To Use DMAIC <ul><li>Green Belt efforts </li></ul><ul><li>PITs/PATs/Tiger Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Project management...
Did You Know? Less than 20% of 194 companies monitoring software quality say they use Six Sigma to improve the quality of ...
What Are These Things? <ul><li>The  Capability Maturity Model  describes the stages through which software organizations e...
What Is the Capability  Maturity Model (CMM)? <ul><li>A common-sense application of process management  and quality improv...
Result Key Process Areas Level Characteristic Continuous process capability improvement   Product quality planning; tracki...
Six Sigma CMM Six Sigma & CMM Relationship It is not necessary to change.  Survival is not mandatory.  W. Edwards Deming  ...
Working Together <ul><li>Showing improvements; ROI, quantifiable results. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Six Sigma tools and focus ...
Why Use Both? <ul><li>CMM  is the leading framework for assessing and improving an organization’s software practices.  It ...
Capability Versus Performance <ul><li>Process capability – the range of expected results that can be achieved by following...
Process Variation <ul><li>Which pilot would you recommend? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you think your ...
THE ROLE OF THE PROCESS OWNER IS TO MANAGE THE PROCESS LIFECYCLE. Understand Performance gap Measure  process  performance...
Quick Definitions <ul><li>DMAIC – Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes seen as DMAII...
PDCA is Where It's At Credit for PDCA to Walter Shewart; also often  attributed to W. Edwards Deming. 26
Bottom Line CMM gives us the “ what ” should be done; Six Sigma gives us the “ how ” to do it. When the thinking changes, ...
Summary <ul><li>Using Six Sigma to help implement a CMM will provide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discrete and macro measures to...
Questions, Comments, Concerns? … in other words, does this make sense? 29
Let’s Talk <ul><li>Email & voice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tel. 402-222-5598/402-88...
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  • Introductions Expectations Other considerations?
  • Benefits of Software Process Improvement: Quality improves while time for testing is reduced. Customers see better service with faster time to market. Profits are increased. Companies report saving four to eight times the money they spend on Process Improvement. Success becomes more predictable. Good people want to come here and stay.
  • Quality: Company X tracked 841 defects per implementation before turnover They tracked 12,929 defects per implementation after turnover . $100 before testing. $1000 - 2000 during integration and test $10000 - 20000 post delivery from Crosstalk , Mar 2004
  • Information to Convey: Questions to Ask: Exercises to Facilitate:
  • 9 21
  • Can measure capability. Pipe only so big. Performance a function of capability.
  • Information to Convey: Questions to Ask: Exercises to Facilitate:
  • Six_Sigma Overview

    1. 1. Six Sigma and the CMM Better Software Development Terrence W. Craft Omaha SPIN June 15, 2004
    2. 2. Goals <ul><li>Strive for 0 defects </li></ul><ul><li>Proceed systematically </li></ul><ul><li>Check everything </li></ul><ul><li>Improve continuously </li></ul>Inspect input, observe output 2
    3. 3. What’s a Process? A sequence of steps performed for a given purpose, for example, the software development process. - IEEE-STD-610 as compared to: Procedure – a written description of a course of action to be taken to perform a given task. - IEEE-STD-610 3
    4. 4. A Mature Process <ul><li>Consistent with the way work actually gets done </li></ul><ul><li>Defined, documented, and continuously improving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>understood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>living </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supported visibly by management and others </li></ul><ul><li>Well controlled—process fidelity is audited and enforced </li></ul><ul><li>Constructive use of product and process measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Disciplined use of technology </li></ul>4
    5. 5. What Are the Benefits of a Mature Process? <ul><li>Enables you to focus on the system (and that’s about 85% of the cause of problems) </li></ul><ul><li>People develop their potential more fully and are more effective within the organization </li></ul><ul><li>By defining, measuring, and controlling the process, improvements are more successful and sustained </li></ul><ul><li>The likelihood increases of appropriate technology, techniques, and tools being introduced successfully </li></ul>5
    6. 6. Change Is a Process <ul><li>Disciplined change is the key to success. </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluating improvement proposals and planning actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establishing process improvement teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conducting pilot programs for process improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>updating procedures, training, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improvements are transferred into everyday practice </li></ul><ul><li>across the organization. </li></ul>6
    7. 7. Value of Fixing Defects Early Error Correction Costs By Phase $$$ Relative Cost to Correct Error Operation Detailed Design Integration Validation Implementation TIME
    8. 8. Taking Dead Aim <ul><li>Six Sigma = 99.99966% accurate </li></ul><ul><li>Five Sigma = 99.9767% </li></ul><ul><li>Four Sigma = 99.379% </li></ul><ul><li>Three Sigma = 93.32% </li></ul><ul><li>Two Sigma = 69.1% </li></ul><ul><li>One Sigma = 31% </li></ul>Failure is the opportunity to begin again more intelligently. - Henry Ford 8
    9. 9. Why Sigma (  ) Levels Matter Number of defects per million opportunities <ul><li>6 Sigma = 3.4 </li></ul><ul><li>5 Sigma = 233 </li></ul><ul><li>4 Sigma = 6,210 </li></ul><ul><li>3 Sigma = 66, 807 </li></ul><ul><li>2 Sigma = 308,537 </li></ul><ul><li>1 Sigma = 690,000 </li></ul>Six Sigma = process improvement and management philosophy focused on reducing process output variation. 9
    10. 10. Why Close Isn’t Good Enough 99% accuracy equals… <ul><li>117,000 pieces of lost first-class mail per hour </li></ul><ul><li>800,000 mishandled personal checks each day </li></ul><ul><li>23,087 lemons among new computers shipped each month </li></ul><ul><li>7.2 hours per month without electricity </li></ul>Even if you’re on the right track, you’ll get run over if you just sit there. - Will Rogers
    11. 11. 99.9% Quality <ul><li>Even at 99.9% quality there would be… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At least 20,000 wrong drug prescriptions per year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsafe drinking water almost 1 hour each month </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No telephone or TV transmission for nearly 10 minutes each week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two long or short landings at O’Hare each day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25,000 lost or incorrectly delivered articles of mail per hour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 9,000 wrong felony convictions per year </li></ul></ul>11
    12. 12. D-M-A-I-C D efine M easure A nalyze I mprove C ontrol D-M-A-I-C is the roadmap for improving existing processes. Reduce defects to improve the capability of a process to exceed customer expectations 12
    13. 13. DMAIC <ul><li>Define </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project charter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholder analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SIPOC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VOC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validating the measurement system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing a sampling strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding variation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process capability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analyze </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing potential causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verifying causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regression analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DOE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generating solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing risks and piloting solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring control charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key learnings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CMM assessment </li></ul></ul>Where there is an open mind there will always be a frontier. - Charles F. Kettering
    14. 14. Where To Use DMAIC <ul><li>Green Belt efforts </li></ul><ul><li>PITs/PATs/Tiger Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Project management </li></ul><ul><li>Quick hits </li></ul><ul><li>Opening a business </li></ul>D efine, M easure, A nalyze, I mprove, C ontrol 14
    15. 15. Did You Know? Less than 20% of 194 companies monitoring software quality say they use Six Sigma to improve the quality of internally developed applications. InformationWeek Research’s Software Quality 2003 report. 83% not using Six Sigma 17% using Six Sigma 15
    16. 16. What Are These Things? <ul><li>The Capability Maturity Model describes the stages through which software organizations evolve as they define, implement, measure, control, and improve their s/w processes. The model provides a guide for selecting process improvement strategies by facilitating the determination of current process capabilities and the identification of issues most critical to s/w quality and process improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Six Sigma is a smarter way to manage a business or a department. Six Sigma puts the customer first and uses facts and figures to drive better solutions. The foundation includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent defects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce variation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the customer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes decisions based on facts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage teamwork. </li></ul></ul>16
    17. 17. What Is the Capability Maturity Model (CMM)? <ul><li>A common-sense application of process management and quality improvement concepts to software development and maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>A community-developed guide </li></ul><ul><li>A model for organizational improvement </li></ul><ul><li>The underlying structure for reliable and consistent CMM-based appraisal methods </li></ul>17
    18. 18. Result Key Process Areas Level Characteristic Continuous process capability improvement Product quality planning; tracking of measured software process Management oversight and tracking of project; stable planning and product baselines Key Process Areas Ad hoc (success depends on heroes) &quot;People&quot; Productivity & Quality Risk Productivity & Quality Software configuration management Software quality assurance Software subcontract management Software project tracking & oversight Software project planning Requirements management Peer reviews Intergroup coordination Software product engineering Integrated software management Training program Organization process definition Organization process focus Capability Maturity Model Software process defined and institutionalized to provide product quality control Software quality management Quantitative process management Process change management Technology change management Defect prevention Optimizing (5) Managed (4) Defined (3) Repeatable (2) Initial (1) 18
    19. 19. Six Sigma CMM Six Sigma & CMM Relationship It is not necessary to change. Survival is not mandatory. W. Edwards Deming 19
    20. 20. Working Together <ul><li>Showing improvements; ROI, quantifiable results. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Six Sigma tools and focus on measurements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requirements – the model assumes you have them. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maybe not. Six Sigma can help define, quantify, and illuminate </li></ul></ul>Do what you can, with what you have, where you are. - Theodore Roosevelt
    21. 21. Why Use Both? <ul><li>CMM is the leading framework for assessing and improving an organization’s software practices. It gives us the “what” should be done. </li></ul><ul><li>Six Sigma is a business management discipline focused on engineering for superior quality as defined by the customer needs. Six Sigma gives us the tools for “how” to do it. </li></ul>21
    22. 22. Capability Versus Performance <ul><li>Process capability – the range of expected results that can be achieved by following a process, initially established at the organization level. A predictor of future project outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Process performance – a measure of the actual results achieved from following a process. Refers to a particular project in the organization. </li></ul>22
    23. 23. Process Variation <ul><li>Which pilot would you recommend? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you think your processes perform? </li></ul><ul><li>Would you recommend your process? </li></ul>A project is a problem scheduled for solution - J. M. Juran
    24. 24. THE ROLE OF THE PROCESS OWNER IS TO MANAGE THE PROCESS LIFECYCLE. Understand Performance gap Measure process performance Understand Customer needs and benchmark competitors Define the process Improve individual performance (training, tools, attitudes, replacement) Improve process Modify design Replace design Perform process Set performance target Develop & execute improvement plan D M A I C D M A D V THE PROCESS IMPROVEMENT LIFECYCLE 24
    25. 25. Quick Definitions <ul><li>DMAIC – Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes seen as DMAIIC – Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Implement, Control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DMADV – Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, Verify </li></ul>Whatever is worth doing at all is worth doing well. - Philip Dormer Stanhope
    26. 26. PDCA is Where It's At Credit for PDCA to Walter Shewart; also often attributed to W. Edwards Deming. 26
    27. 27. Bottom Line CMM gives us the “ what ” should be done; Six Sigma gives us the “ how ” to do it. When the thinking changes, the organization changes, and vice versa. - Gerald Weinberg 27
    28. 28. Summary <ul><li>Using Six Sigma to help implement a CMM will provide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discrete and macro measures to ensure improvement targets are achieved, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a proven way to close process gaps, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control processes to insure sustainability </li></ul></ul>D efine, M easure, A nalyze, I mprove, C ontrol 28
    29. 29. Questions, Comments, Concerns? … in other words, does this make sense? 29
    30. 30. Let’s Talk <ul><li>Email & voice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tel. 402-222-5598/402-880-7656 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Follow-up </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you for coming today! </li></ul>30
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