Six Sigma Continuous Improvement

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Six Sigma Continuous Improvement

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Six Sigma Continuous Improvement “The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them.” —Albert Einstein 4.1 SIX SIGMA CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT PRINCIPLES Advancement to near perfection (maximum profitability) is virtually impos- sible without integration of proper engineering design, material, process, and control strategies—in other words, achieving higher standard deviations in exist- ing and future production processes. Six Sigma tools uncover the unseen root causes of potential problems and attack them to eliminate defect opportunities. This means that Six Sigma takes the necessary measurements at the early stages of product or process development before the problem occurs. Alternatively, it will focus on the processes indicating that their sigma level is either too low and cannot improve or a high sigma level (5 or more), which is too challenging to improve. One should keep in mind that the cost of redesign or correcting after- math problems is extremely high and costly. (See Chapter 8 for more details.) Six Sigma can be achieved only with cross-functional groups or joint efforts throughout the organization with great intensity—that is, if it is required by corporate culture and deployed firmly. Indeed, Six Sigma has to be applied from raw material all the way to the finished product and the shipping department. Essentials of Lean Six Sigma Copyright © 2006 by Academic Press, Inc. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. 43 ch004-P370502.indd 43 4/19/2006 5:45:40 PM
  2. 2. 44 Six Sigma Continuous Improvement ts ofi r Pr e gh Process Hi Management Six-Sigma Customer Driven Increased Value Performance Statistical Re Analysis du ced Va ria tio n Figure 4.1 Six Sigma breakthrough performance model. The performance of this is shown in Figure 4.1, the Six Sigma breakthrough model, with three main objectives: higher profit, increased value, and reduced variation. Six Sigma science of continuous improvement concentrates on two processes that each include three steps: Process Characterization 1. Define project and process measurement (diagnosis) 2. Evaluate existing sigma (capability study) 3. Analyze process data Process Optimization/Simulation 4. Improve and optimize process 5. Evaluate new sigma (capability study) 6. Control and maintain the process Or the above steps can be summarized in DMAIC (define/measure [diagnosis], analyze, improve [optimize], control). 4.2 SIX SIGMA SYSTEMS Six Sigma systems include the following concepts: 1. The fastest rate of improvement in customer satisfaction, cost, quality, process speed, and invested capital. 2. A business improvement and growth system, which leads to a new level of performance. ch004-P370502.indd 44 4/19/2006 5:45:40 PM
  3. 3. Six Sigma Continuous Improvement 45 Process Characterization (Existing Process) Define Project Measure Process Six Sigma Estimate Existing Sigma Approach Analyze Data Process Optimization (New Process) Improve Process Estimate New Sigma Process Control And Maintain Figure 4.2 Representation of Six Sigma define and measure, analyze, improve or optimize, and control (DMAIC) levels. 3. A systematic data-driven approach to analyzing the root cause of manufacturing, as well as business problems/processes and dramatically improving them. 4. Improved decisions based on knowledge and data. 5. A financial results-driven system ($ performance paramount). 6. A project-driven system based on customer needs. 7. A system applicable to all parts of a business. 8. Aimed at the problem where the solution is not known. 9. A system with proven performance. 10. Improve customer satisfaction and supplier relationships. 11. Expand knowledge of product and processes. 12. Develop a common set of tools and improvement techniques. Figure 4.2 illustrates the graphical representation of Six Sigma improvement steps. 4.3 SIX SIGMA IMPROVEMENT AND TRAINING MODELS One may obtain Six Sigma training certification by completing the improve- ment models for Green Belt and Black Belt. These trainings are available through academic institutions, as well as quality societies or other certified organizations. ch004-P370502.indd 45 4/19/2006 5:45:40 PM
  4. 4. 46 Six Sigma Continuous Improvement Objective Tools and Techniques Production THEME THEME THEME Systems Control In = 2 Out = 2 Work Changed Communication Environment Idea Idea Idea Idea Idea Idea Idea Idea In = 1 Out = 3 In = 2 Out = 2 Idea Idea Idea Idea Idea Idea Idea Idea Organizational Workplace Motivation/ Structure Conflict Affinity Diagram/ In = 4 Out = 1 Identify Business Drivers In = 1 Out = 4 Customer Define Idea Idea Idea Idea Idea Driver (Cause) Expectations/ Outcome (Effect) Satisfaction Interrelation Diagram In = 3 Out = 1 Select Customer Critical Processes Quality Function Deployment Define Projects SIPOC Process Map Hows Develop Implementation Plan QFD S I P O C Project Charter Whats Relationship Matrix 70 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 60 50 Paint 1111 111 1 11111 40 Develop Key Process Measures Data Collection Plan Test 1 11111 111 111 30 Measure 20 Collect and Analyze Data Check/Data Sheet Perf 111 111 1111 111 10 0 Identify the Vital Few that Have the Pareto Chart 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Greatest Impact Gage R&R 70 Estimate Process Capability Histogram 60 50 Cp & CpK Measurement Systems Analysis Process Capability 40 30 20 10 0 AB1 A B2 AB3 AB4 A B5 Machines Methods Wrong Selection Availability Maintenance Outdated Practices Calibration Variation/ Opportunity Training Analyze Hardness Understand Cause and Effects Available Resources Surface Finish Create Multi-vari Analysis Cause and Effect Diagram Manpower Materials Determine Variance Components Scatter Diagram Variable Y Assess Correlation Variable X Failure Mode Effects Analysis Start Risk Task Task Prioritization Improve Number Develop and Evaluate Solutions Task N Decision Deployment Flowchart Implement Variation Reduction Y Tree Diagram Task Finish Task A cti v i ty Standardize Process S u b- G o a l A cti v i ty FMEA Finish Assess Risk Factors A cti v i ty G oa l S ub-G oa l A cti v i ty A cti v i ty A cti v i ty S u b- G o a l A cti v i ty Process Control Plan Customer Front Desk Misc UCL ProcessPizza Orders Description Process Customer CHECKING Process Flowchart Job Respon- Who Indicatorsto When Fre- Time Cook Delivery sibility Checking AND quency Specs/Checks Control Check Conting. Limits Targets Item Plan x 00:00 01:30 Implement Process Control Takes Order P1 Each Passes to Cook Ticket on oven Time Cook Each Process Control Plan 04:30 Insertion stamp Front order Printing Each LCL Control 10:15 Loads Pizza Implement Control Charts for Key 11:30 Cooks Pizza P3 P3 order Cook 11 minutes Cook Control/Precontrol Chart Pay for Pizza no Done? Into Oven seconds 30 Variables Q1 35:30 Q2 yes Deliver 2/96 Poka-Yoke Date Rev# by ¦ Mistake Proof Processes Pareto Chart (ongoing) Evaluate Results Process Capability (ongoing) No Mistakes Figure 4.3 Six Sigma Green Belt improvement model. ch004-P370502.indd 46 4/20/2006 12:32:31 PM
  5. 5. Six Sigma Continuous Improvement 47 Objective Tools and Techniques Production T HEME T HEME T HEME S em Cont y r t s o n I =2 O =2 ut Changed Wkor Communication E nv ionm r en Idea Idea Idea Idea Idea Idea Idea Idea n I =1 Out =3 n I =2 Out = 2 Idea Idea Idea Idea Idea Idea Idea Idea Organizationa W k pl ce or a Identify Business Drivers Affinity Diagram/ Structure M i at n ot i v o Confc il n I =1 O =4 ut n I =4 O =1 ut Idea Idea Idea Idea Idea Cus t ome Driver (Cause) Define E pect t n x ai o Outcome (Effect) Select Customer Critical Interrelation Diagram n I =3 S at ct n a o f i s i O =1 ut Processes Quality Function Deployment Define Projects SIPOC Process Map Hows QFD Develop Implementation Plan Project Charter S I P O C Whats Relationship Matr i x 70 Day1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 60 50 Paint 1111 111 1 11111 40 Develop Key Process Measures Data Collection Plan Test 1 11111 111 111 30 20 Collect and Analyze Data Check/Data Sheet Measure Perf 111 111 1111 111 10 0 Identify the Vital Few that Have the Pareto Chart 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Greatest Impact Gage R&R 70 Estimate Process Capability Histogram 60 50 Cp & CpK Measurement Systems Analysis Process Capability 40 30 20 10 0 AB1 AB2 AB3 AB4 AB5 Machines Methods Wr ong S el c i n e to Avai b y al l it Mai ten a c n n e Out da edP r acti es t c Ca r a on b i l ti Variation/ Opportunity T r ai i g nn Ha dnes s r X Understand Cause and Effects Analyze Avai b Res o c ae l l ur es S ur f a Fin i h ce s Cause and Effect Diagram Create Multi-vari Analysis Multi-vari Charts Manpower Materials Determine Variance Components Scatter Diagram 1.1 1.2 1.3 2.1 2.2 2.3 Assess Correlation Variable Y Variable X Start High Task Task Factor B Factor C Task N Decision Develop and Evaluate Solutions Design of Experiments Low Y Improve Task FTask h i ni s Implement Variation Reduction Deployment Flowchart Low Factor A High Finish Standardize Process Tree Diagram A c tiv ity Assess Risk Factors FMEA S u b -G o a l A c tiv ity A c tiv ity Failure Mode Effects Analysis G oa l S u b -G o a l A c tiv ity R isk A c tiv ity Prioritization A c tiv ity S u b -G o a l Number A c tiv ity Process Control Plan Cus t omer Fr on t De k s Mi cs UCL P r oce ss Pi za ip on oce s Cust om Or ders Descr t iP r z s er CHE CK I NG Jor oce s Fl wcha t Pb s o r s Who When s - R e or t c t po n I ndi aFr e-o Co ok De er y v i l AND ecs/ o Si pyChecks n g Co tr Checki n n Ti e m Check Co ti g. s b quen c n t l i y x TLiai ge sPtem mst I rt a ln Implement Process Control 0 0 :0 1: 3 0 00 T a Or der kes P 1 Ea ch T i ket on c T m a Co i E ch ok e Process Control Plan 0 4: 30 10 : 15 P a s e t o Co s s ok I ns er t ion oven s tampFr on t P r iortich na g E der n LCL Implement Control Charts for Key Lo P iz za ads Co P iP 3 oks zza P3 or der ok 11 min ut e Co s Cook Control Control/Precontrol Chart 11: 3 0 n o Do e n ? I nt o Ove s e 3 0n conds Variables P a f or Pi za y Q2 z Q1 3 5 : 3 0 yes De er v i l Poka-Yoke 2 /t R e9 6 Da e v# by ¦ Mistake Proof Processes Pareto Chart (ongoing) Evaluate Results Process Capability (ongoing) No M i s t akes Figure 4.4 Six Sigma Black Belt improvement model. ch004-P370502.indd 47 4/20/2006 11:36:59 AM
  6. 6. 48 Six Sigma Continuous Improvement On the other hand, you can apply all the procedures and guidelines of this book to any desired projects. Once you have knowledge and experience, you can participate in certified examinations through a quality organization. The training models for the Green Belt and Black Belt are cited in Figures 4.3 and 4.4. The details of these models are discussed in Chapter 8. ch004-P370502.indd 48 4/19/2006 5:45:41 PM

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