Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Project Code: JZ-0801




Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and
         Implementation
               Submitted to the facul...
Abstract

       The purpose of this project was to gain a strong understanding of Six Sigma management
philosophy, concep...
Acknowledgements

       First and foremost, we would like to thank Professor Joe Zhu for guiding our progress
and advisin...
Authorship

Abstract:
     Written by: Matthew McCarthy
     Edited by: Eric Zuendoki
Acknowledgements:
     Written by: M...
Organizational & Educational Training
           Written by: Eric Zuendoki
           Edited by: Matthew McCarthy
Methodol...
Executive Summary

        Six Sigma is a continuous quality improvement methodology created by Motorola in the
1980s, and...
certification level or program intent. This gave the group a solid understanding of Six Sigma
through many different persp...
Table of Contents

Abstract .................................................................................................
Results .....................................................................................................................
List of Figures

Figure 1 – Principles of Total Quality Management, Martin (1993) ...........................................
Literature Review

Total Quality Management & Six Sigma

Quality

       Quality is a necessary characteristic for Industr...
or service should perform, as well as what types of functionalities the product or service should
have. From a total quali...
It is important to note a primary figure to the total quality management approach, before
addressing its major components....
4. Cooperation is a fundamental ingredient that leads to improvement. Competition is
           often at work and helps de...
is still related to the customer, because these products still have to meet customer needs and
desires. According to Kirkp...
According to Charbonneau and Webster (1978), “the quality control function exists
    primarily as a service organization,...
a quality analyst to identify the sources of variation that can be controlled within the
production process, and make the ...
organizational strategies taken to increase the level of quality in a product, such as training,
team-building, and manage...
established. These quality concepts cover a wide range of operations, ranging from final product
inspection to the inspect...
mathematical processes included in the Total Quality Management principles are the seven
statistical models for quality as...
company have less definition and detail, and at times, none at all. As the manufacturing
community began accepting the not...
and prepare students to meet the future needs of today’s rapidly changing industrial
    workplace.”
Total quality managem...
inputs. Any way you look at it, it’s a guess. But if a company loses sight of where it is going,
which should be improveme...
are improved. The Six Sigma architects at Motorola focused on making improvements in all
operations within a process, prod...
The term target audience can be defined in many ways. The most appropriate context to
interpret the phrase in this project...
organizations as the vehicle for increasing productivity, growing the business, and building a
new culture. Raytheon Six S...
Raytheon Six Sigma training focuses on both theory and concepts and the statistical
processes. Each Six Sigma certified em...
Training Theory

       What exactly are the benefits of training and why do organizations feel they need it?
Training, es...
organization’s motive and intent behind following certain procedures. This broadened view of
training allows for trainees ...
Before attempting to analyze the major components of a topic and incorporating them
into an academic curriculum, course, o...
Designing a Six Sigma Training Program/Educational Course

       With regards to Six Sigma, the level of detail that a tr...
Methodology

Research & Data Collection Summarization

       The goal of this project was to create a training program an...
of the Industrial Engineering department at WPI. In addition our team developed and applied a
modeling process that would ...
program into a training program offering Six Sigma certification. The timeline and
objectives for the research, data colle...
and training programs of independent businesses. The different systems where Six Sigma can be
applicable to improve perfor...
group who participate in the survey with regards to their knowledge and experience in Six Sigma.
In addition, our team wis...
sense of the important material to employees that practice in Six Sigma activities on a daily basis.
Our team assessed the...
programs offered by corporations and independent businesses). The following academic courses
& training programs were anal...
addition, there exists a wide range of training program theory and guidelines for creating a
training program. This inform...
comprehensiveness, quality, and performance of a training program. Our team had organized our
research on TQM, Six Sigma, ...
1. The Training Mission

   2. Structural Design

   3. Staffing Design

   4. Educational and Industrial Resources

   5....
2. Definition of the type of training program. With regards to Six Sigma, a training
          program must incorporate mo...
Sigma, this is where the focus of theory as well as practice is stressed, due to the nature of the
topic as discussed prev...
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation

1,159

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,159
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
46
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation"

  1. 1. Project Code: JZ-0801 Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation Submitted to the faculty of Worcester Polytechnic Institute in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science Submitted by: ______________________________ Matthew McCarthy _______________________________ Eric Zuendoki Submitted To: ________________________________________________ Professor Joe Zhu, Department of Management April 21, 2008
  2. 2. Abstract The purpose of this project was to gain a strong understanding of Six Sigma management philosophy, concepts, and practices and to apply this knowledge to creating a Six Sigma academic course or training program. This was done through three main methods: preliminary research and data collection, the creation of a design model for Six Sigma academic course/training program establishment, and the creation of a Six Sigma academic course/training program syllabus. The preliminary research consisted of conducting a Six Sigma knowledge survey with the students of Worcester Polytechnic Institute, interviewing a Six Sigma expert, and examining current Six Sigma educational programs in other universities, businesses, and organizations. As a result of our observations, we determined that Six Sigma has become a large part of many companies and should be implemented into more engineering programs at universities nation-wide, including Worcester Polytechnic Institute. This can be done through a project based course, as well as more Six Sigma based Interactive and/ or Major Qualifying Projects. ii
  3. 3. Acknowledgements First and foremost, we would like to thank Professor Joe Zhu for guiding our progress and advising this project. His encouragement and interest in our project assisted in the smooth operation and timeliness of our activities. We would also like to thank Alison Howett, Six Sigma Expert from Raytheon, for taking time to answer on questions and offer our team a considerable amount of information regarding Six Sigma in a corporate entity. Our team also thanks and acknowledges the student body of Worcester Polytechnic Institute, for taking the time to address our survey and answer our questions thoroughly. Thank to you all other individuals that aided in the completion of this project, we greatly appreciated your help. iii
  4. 4. Authorship Abstract: Written by: Matthew McCarthy Edited by: Eric Zuendoki Acknowledgements: Written by: Matthew McCarthy & Eric Zuendoki Executive Summary Written by: Matthew McCarthy & Eric Zuendoki Literature Review: Total Quality Management & Six Sigma Quality Written by: Eric Zuendoki Edited by: Matthew McCarthy Quality Control & The Quality Control Function Written by: Eric Zuendoki Edited by: Matthew McCarthy Total Quality Management Written by: Eric Zuendoki Edited by: Matthew McCarthy Implementation of Total Quality Models Written by: Eric Zuendoki Edited by: Matthew McCarthy The Shift to Six Sigma Written by: Eric Zuendoki Edited by: Matthew McCarthy Target Audience Written by: Matthew McCarthy Edited by: Eric Zuendoki Raytheon Six Sigma Written by: Matthew McCarthy Edited by: Eric Zuendoki iv
  5. 5. Organizational & Educational Training Written by: Eric Zuendoki Edited by: Matthew McCarthy Methodology Research & Data collection Summarization Written by: Matthew McCarthy & Eric Zuendoki Research & Data Collection Plan Written by: Eric Zuendoki Edited by: Matthew McCarthy The Design Model Written by: Eric Zuendoki Edited by: Matthew McCarthy Results Survey Conclusions Written by: Matthew McCarthy & Eric Zuendoki Six Sigma Training Program/Academic Course Analysis Written by: Eric Zuendoki Edited by: Matthew McCarthy Six Sigma Training Program/Academic Course Syllabus Written by: Eric Zuendoki Edited by: Matthew McCarthy v
  6. 6. Executive Summary Six Sigma is a continuous quality improvement methodology created by Motorola in the 1980s, and developed from the concepts of Total Quality Management. The Six Sigma architects at Motorola focused on making improvements in all operations within a process in order to eliminate wastefulness and defects, producing results far more rapidly and effectively than traditional strategies offered. Today, this strategy can be seen in companies all around the world. Customer satisfaction is the underlying concern of companies, and Six Sigma is a way to ensure that customer satisfaction is being met. Despite the attention given to Six Sigma, there is still not enough proper training. There are a small number of universities that offer Six Sigma training. Worcester Polytechnic Institute does not have a formal Six Sigma course or training program. The overlying goal of this project was to create a training program/academic course template at the university level that can be used in the creation of a Six Sigma academic course, resulting in a larger student participation level and knowledge base of Six Sigma. Before a new strategy could be created, our group had to increase our knowledge about the topic. This was accomplished by researching the fundamentals and background of Six Sigma as well as existing Six Sigma training programs and academic courses used by successful universities and corporations. Literature written by Six Sigma experts provided our group with solid foundation to build our design model. In order to gauge the current knowledge of WPI students in the area of Six Sigma, a survey questionnaire was sent out to the entire student body at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Due to the fact that neither group member had gone through formal Six Sigma training, interviews of Six Sigma experts were conducted to gain information about the different Six Sigma approaches. Effective use of existent resources was an important aspect of this project. Assessment of the current Six Sigma courses and training programs began with conducting evaluations of five current Six Sigma academic programs and three independent Six Sigma training programs. Through these evaluations, the group was able to determine the important aspects covered in all of the programs. It was also noted that each of these programs tended to be different and cover different aspects more than others, due to difference in vi
  7. 7. certification level or program intent. This gave the group a solid understanding of Six Sigma through many different perspectives. This preliminary research prepared the project group to create the Six Sigma training program/academic course design model. The main focus of this model was to observe the critical components of Six Sigma, determined by the group through their research. This was broken down into six steps: 1) The Training Mission, 2) Structural Design, 3) Staffing Design, 4) Educational and Industrial Resources, 5) Participant Performance Evaluation Measures, and 6) Training Program Evaluation Measures. This led to the creation of the Six Sigma training program/academic course syllabus. This included the complete blueprint of the course, including structure, course books, and organization of the program. Furthermore, a set of recommendations was provided to aid in process of creating a Six Sigma academic course or training program at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. The recommendations were primarily based on our observations and interpretation of the results gathered via the questionnaires, interview, and current program evaluations. These recommendations summarize the conclusions that can be drawn from the information obtained. vii
  8. 8. Table of Contents Abstract ..................................................................................................................................... ii Acknowledgements................................................................................................................... iii Authorship .................................................................................................................................iv Executive Summary ...................................................................................................................vi Table of Contents........................................................................................................................1 Literature Review........................................................................................................................4 Total Quality Management & Six Sigma .................................................................................4 Quality.................................................................................................................................4 Quality Control & the Quality Control Function...................................................................7 Total Quality Management.................................................................................................11 The Shift to Six Sigma .......................................................................................................15 Target Audience ....................................................................................................................17 Raytheon Six Sigma: .............................................................................................................18 Organizational & Educational Training..................................................................................20 Training Theory .................................................................................................................21 Designing a Six Sigma Training Program/Educational Course ...........................................24 Methodology.............................................................................................................................25 Research & Data Collection Summarization ..........................................................................25 Research & Data Collection Plan...........................................................................................27 Preliminary Research .........................................................................................................27 Student Surveys at Worcester Polytechnic Institute ............................................................28 Six Sigma from the Perspective of Experience ...................................................................29 Modeling a Six Sigma Program..........................................................................................30 Recommendations for Implementation & Improvement .....................................................31 The Design Model .................................................................................................................31 Premise & Purpose of the Design Model............................................................................31 Training Program/Academic Course Design Model ...........................................................33
  9. 9. Results ......................................................................................................................................41 Survey Conclusions ...............................................................................................................41 Six Sigma Training Program/Academic Course Analysis.......................................................44 Six Sigma Programs of Academic Institutions....................................................................45 Six Sigma Programs of Independent Businesses and Organizations....................................52 Six Sigma Training Program/Academic Course Syllabus .......................................................55 Recommendations & Conclusions .........................................................................................58 Design Model Conclusions ................................................................................................58 Future Project Recommendations.......................................................................................58 Learning Experience ..........................................................................................................59 References ................................................................................................................................61 Appendix A: Six Sigma Survey.................................................................................................63 Appendix B: Six Sigma Analysis Interview...............................................................................65 Questions for Six Sigma Certification Holders.......................................................................65 Questions regarding Six Sigma Training at Raytheon ............................................................68 2
  10. 10. List of Figures Figure 1 – Principles of Total Quality Management, Martin (1993) ...........................................12 Figure 2: Raytheon Six Sigma Chart .........................................................................................19 Figure 3: Raytheon's Business Strategy .....................................................................................20 Figure 4 - Six Sigma Analysis: Project Objective Timeline & Flow Chart .................................27 Figure 5 - Bar Graph indicating student majors familiar with Six Sigma....................................42 Figure 6 - Line Graph displaying student majors and their experience with Six Sigma outside of the classroom. ...........................................................................................................................43 3
  11. 11. Literature Review Total Quality Management & Six Sigma Quality Quality is a necessary characteristic for Industrial Engineers to observe, study, and understand. Process improvements often begin at an analysis of the level of quality in a system or organization. For organizations that offer products and services to customers, a system within this company is a process that produces, maintains, or supports a product or service. According to Kirkpatrick (1970), “a system is a physical or conceptual entity comprised of interdependent parts that interact within boundaries established to achieve some common goal or goals.” Outputs of systems include products, services, or components to create products and services. An example of a system would be a manufacturing line that produces the raw materials for product prototyping, or the process at a hospital that supports incoming emergency patients. In both examples, the quality of each system can be analyzed independently from its contribution to the whole facility of organization. This definition of system aids a proper definition of quality within the realm of Industrial Engineering topics. According to El-Haik (2005), quality can be defined as “the degree to which the design vulnerabilities do not adversely affect product performance.” It is important to note that this definition is universally applicable to not simply products and product design, but also service and service process design. Also, the design vulnerabilities of a product or service can either be inherit in the type of product or services being created, or perhaps established by improper conceptual design. Regardless of which type of vulnerability may exist, the quality of a product or service is only decreased when it affects either the process that creates it by increasing costs, time, and constraints, or by affecting the end product or service that a customer uses. This implies that quality is not merely achieving the perfection of a product or service, but rather, high quality is achieving perfection of product or service performance, or getting as close to it as possible. In spite of this definition of quality, it is also necessary to identify the determinant of quality for a product or service. In some situations, the quality of a product or service is determined by the individuals in the design sector. Often, decisions of product characteristics are decided by top management, and these decisions are based on their view of how well a product 4
  12. 12. or service should perform, as well as what types of functionalities the product or service should have. From a total quality management perspective, the quality of a product should have many determinants, other than opinions of top management and the designer intention. According to Charbonneau and Webster (1978), to properly understand a concept such as the quality control function, it is important to understand the concept of quality in a broader perspective. Essentially, quality is established by the customer, and the product or service designed and manufactured for sale is intended to meet these customer requirements. Inferior quality, as indicated by the appearance or performance, is ultimately reflected in its relation to the customer. This includes sales increases, declines, and if not corrected, can potentially lead to the termination of a product, service, or organization altogether. As quality is approached from a customer satisfaction perspective and an organizational ideal, rather than a simple product requirement, it can be conceptualized as a product or service characteristic that is affected by several types of organizational processes, from production processes and manufacturing concerns, to managerial implementations of quality assurance and company mind-states. According to Charbonneau and Webster (1978), “the total quality control concept was originated by Dr A.V. Feigenbaum in the 1950’s, and is difficult to teach because it is much a “state of mind” as it is a “course of action.” It involves all organizational members— from top management to hourly workers—with the concept that product quality should be the first and foremost initiative in everyone’s mind. More specifically, product quality is defined as “the composite product characteristics of engineering and manufacturing that determine the degree to which the product in use will meet the expectations of the customer.” When the quality of a product or service is understood to be affected by components beyond manufacturing, philosophical concepts and managerial theories are developed and become methods for organizations to improve on the quality of a product in addition to pure mathematical calculations, applicable to all processes within all systems. This evolution of quality as understood in Industrial Engineering disciplines has paved the way for theories and concepts such as Total Quality Management, Six Sigma, Just-In-Time (JIT), and other managerial process and quality improvement methods established around the premise of customer satisfaction by continuous quality improvements. 5
  13. 13. It is important to note a primary figure to the total quality management approach, before addressing its major components. This figure established the fundamental theories that form the base for the quality management programs, requirements, and initiatives of today. The philosophies of William Edwards Deming focus on the same notion stated earlier, which is that quality is the main determinant of a company’s success, and is influenced by several components of an organization and its systems. In addition to this, Deming went against the popular business conception of quality and its relationship to a company. Deming, a college statistician and pioneer of total quality management theories and practices, used this concept of quality as an instrument to increase the productivity and success of organizations throughout Japan in the 1950s, as well as production improvements during World War II here in the United States. The varieties of methods in which this quality concept can be implemented into an organization are solely dependent on the organizational mind-state. According to Aguayo (1990), “one of the most fascinating aspects of Deming’s teachings, one that radically departs from conventional thinking, is his treatment of the relationships among quality, costs, productivity, and profit. According to Deming, as quality is increased, costs decrease.” This is fundamentally different than the typical business concepts taught in many management majors, which insist that an increase in quality comes at a cost to the company as a decrease in profits. According to Aguayo (1990), Deming’s philosophy of quality can be broken down into four axioms: 1. Quality and costs are not opposites, or trades-offs, with one being improved at the expense of the other. Instead both can be constantly improved. 2. The meaning of quality is different from conventional views that mistake exotic materials and fail-safe designs for quality. In Deming’s view, quality is best understood from the point of view of the customer, but one important component of quality is improvement of uniformity. 3. Variation is a naturally occurring phenomenon. It is not an exception or fault. Variation is treated differently depending on whether we are dealing with a stable or unstable system. A stable system creates both success and failures. Lowering the number of defects in a stable system can only be achieved by working on the system 6
  14. 14. 4. Cooperation is a fundamental ingredient that leads to improvement. Competition is often at work and helps determine which products and which companies survive, but there are times when competition is irrelevant and times when competition is inappropriate Quality Control & the Quality Control Function Quality has a rather distinct definition when related to engineering fields and processes. An understanding the fundamental properties of quality and its relation to Industrial Engineering bridges the gap between what quality is and the quality improvement methods that have been developed in many Industrial Engineering disciplines over the years. Traditional views of quality control led to the development of statistical and mathematical models that may directly increase the quality of production for a product. These models focused on increasing quality after design specifications and requirements were made. This approach focuses on maintaining a desired variability range for a product as it is produced. This acceptable range is usually determined by the design engineers prior to the initiation of production. According to El-Haik (2005), quality loss has two ingredients: quality loss due to unwanted variability within a production process and loss due to deviation from the original target design specifications and requirements. Maintenance of the quality level for a product was originally focused on the production process for a product. Methods to achieve high quality involve mathematical and statistical calculations to produce a desired variability range in the production process and maintain a low level of defects and complications. These methods are post-production oriented, and involve catching problems after they occur. Although these processes maintain the level of quality in a product, the benefits of these processes are limited, mainly because this view of quality control is restricted to the scope of production, and after all design parameters have been determined. Before the beginning stages of the production process, engineers are focused on creating and designing a product, and there are certain characteristics and guidelines that a production process would have to meet in order to ensure that the product operates as it is supposed to. These guidelines are related to safety of production, defect levels in a product, and variation parameters, which are all set by the engineers prior to production initiation. The processes that engineers go through in order to set these parameters for a product can be tied into quality control if done properly and efficiently. Even within the manufacturing realm, the idea of quality 7
  15. 15. is still related to the customer, because these products still have to meet customer needs and desires. According to Kirkpatrick (1970), “the control of product quality is a function of two related activities of the production system.” The first activity involves the development of the general and technical specifications for the product. The second activity is the assurance of product conformance to the technical specifications. Quality control begins at establishing the specifications, technical properties, and functionality requirements of a product. This step allows for engineers to focus on creating a product that their system can support and maintain. This maintenance is limited by the financial and technical resources allocated and willing to be allocated for a product by an organization. Future resource allocations for product quality should also be considered during this first stage. High quality can be achieved at low costs if all dimensions of the product can be controlled by the resources an organization already has. In addition, if this control is initiated prior to the production of a product, the control level is greater and more effective. Quality becomes a complication and potentially a cost liability for a product when resources outside of the company have to be gathered in order to raise the quality of a product to an acceptable level. This means that before initiating the production of a product, it is important to assess how well the current system can support the product’s quality, and whether or not this is sufficient for the customer. This beginning process can define how difficult or how easy it is to maintain the quality of a product after production is initiated. Quality models such as inspection programs are more of supplementary criteria to quality enhancement rather than a determinant of it. After the proper considerations are taken by an organization, quality control can be most efficient and successful. As previously mentioned, traditional quality control strategies focused on the production aspects of a product, and mostly involved processes in the manufacturing industry. The quality control processes used to maintain the quality of a product during the production process include, but are not limited to, routine inspections, defect analysis, product reworking, materials handling, and production process control. These activities focus on maintaining the predetermined quality specifications made by the creators of the product or service. The frequency of these activities in manufacturing facilities led them to be incorporated into a combination of uniform mathematical and statistical analysis techniques applicable to many different manufacturing environments. These techniques, when combined, create an engineering principle called the Quality Control Function. This function has the following characteristics: 8
  16. 16. According to Charbonneau and Webster (1978), “the quality control function exists primarily as a service organization, interpreting specifications established by the product engineering and assisting the manufacturing department in producing to meet these specifications. As such, the function is responsible for collecting and analyzing vast quantities of data and presenting the findings to various other departments for appropriate corrective action.” The quality control function can be properly viewed as a set of quality maintenance activities, and not necessarily a set of quality enhancement activities. It is important to stress this observation because it highlights the limitation of traditional quality control activities as process improvement strategies that occur mostly after product design and production initiation. This is a limitation because the quality of a product is largely determined prior to its production initiation. According to El-Haik (2005), “traditional quality practice is devoted primarily to the downstream portion of the design process, with emphasis placed on inspection schemes. The concentration is currently shifting upstream to the concept design stage.” According to Kirkpatrick (1970), the quality control function is a collection of activities within a production system. Sales, purchasing, product design, process development, manufacturing, inspection, are all functions of the production line, with sub- activities directly related and devoted to the quality of a product. The quality function focuses on the technical activities that support the quality of a product. These mathematical and statistical models support such decisions as the calibration of the tools and machines used to create a product, methods of handling the materials used to create a product, the manufacturing process used to compose the product, and the inspection techniques used to ensure the product is meeting the intended quality specifications during production and post- production. Included in the quality control function are several variance analysis techniques for certain variance parameters and requirements. According to Aguayo (1990), “when Walter A. Shewhart, the father of statistical quality control, first began to track the problem of quality at Bell Laboratories in the 1920s, he emphasized the need to minimize variation and understand the sources behind variation.” As previously stated, a certain level of variation may be beyond the control of quality maintenance strategies, and it is important for 9
  17. 17. a quality analyst to identify the sources of variation that can be controlled within the production process, and make the necessary decisions to maintain this control. Contrary to the traditional quality control techniques is a problem prevention approach as a means to reach high quality in products. This concept and process stresses the importance of product control from the beginning of the product life cycle to the end, as a method to ensure that the quality of a product meets its intended desire and specifications of the organization, as interpreted from the customer. This involves not only the quality of the product or service, but the quality of the entire process leading to the product’s production, and including all activities after the product’s production. According to El-Haik (2005), “design decision making has a significant impact on lead time, function and form, quality, and cost of the end result. Studies suggest that decisions made during the early stages of the design phase commit 80% of the total costs associated with developing and manufacturing a product.” Quality is related to all aspects of a product, and not simply what occurs on the production line after parameters have been decided. The early stages of product design and specification affect the costs related to quality far in the future, so many successful quality increasing implementations begin at the design stage, before the product enters production. This also allows production and inspection quality analysts to focus on the dimensions of quality specific to the production process, and not worry about design related quality issues, because they were previously addressed accordingly. This also assists the technical focus of the statistical models for the production aspects. True quality control involves all stages of a product, and this gives light to the theory that quality is not simply affected by production processes, but all activities before and after the production process as well. According to Kirkpatrick (1970), “quality control is a staff function, whose objective is to coordinate the production facilities to produce a product at the quality level defined by the design specifications. In addition, the quality control department should not attempt to assume the individual quality responsibilities that are integral parts of the day-to-day work of the line, staff, and function groups which hold them.” Statistical and mathematical processes only reinforce the improvement of quality, but alone, do not achieve the total quality requirements for a product. This definition of quality control transforms the traditional outlook of quality in production and broadens it to involve all organizational decisions for a product. This involves all planning, inspections, defect analysis, manufacturing processes, and post product production operations related to the product. More importantly, this involves all of the 10
  18. 18. organizational strategies taken to increase the level of quality in a product, such as training, team-building, and management leadership. The concept of addressing factors outside of the production line for a product as contributors to quality improvements comes from this understanding of quality control. Developed from this understanding is a theoretical and practical concept that has shifted the way the industrial world views quality, and its relation to products and services. Total Quality Management Industrial Engineering focuses on process improvement in both the engineering and managerial aspects of an organization achieved primarily by mathematical models, quality control functions, and management techniques applicable to many engineering products, services, systems, and organizations. There exists a management topic within the Industrial Engineering field ties together process improvement, philosophies of quality & quality control, best practices in engineering and management, and several other components related to the quality output of an organization as a whole. This concept is called Total Quality Management, or TQM. According to Sakthival (2007), “the TQM model is considered as an integrated system of principles, methods and best practices that will provide a framework for organizations to strive for excellence in everything they do. The concepts and principles of TQM, which are effectively used in today’s competitive production and business environments, have become indispensable in today’s business of higher education.” Total Quality Management is a method for an organization to effectively implement quality enhancing strategies into their functional systems, as well as their managerial departments, in order to maintain continuous improvements of quality for all products and services. This implementation of quality improving initiatives can be facilitated not only by mathematical processes and models, but organizational consistency and excellence. Total Quality Management involves theories and practices that are crucial to quality improvement in a variety of organizational systems, and these systems range from manufacturing systems producing medical components for a medicine distributor, to modifications in patient query processes in hospitals to ensure that the hospital is supporting its community as efficiently and as effectively as possible. According to Lo and Sculli (1996), “during the last decade or so, the world has also seen considerable developments in the pursuit of quality; the concepts of total quality management have evolved and standards such as the ISO 9000 series have been 11
  19. 19. established. These quality concepts cover a wide range of operations, ranging from final product inspection to the inspection of purchased parts and raw materials, and even personnel selection.” The development of TQM concepts into international standards such as ISO 9000 is one of the many examples of TQM concepts influencing the design and practices of an organization. Within these standards and other quality management material are several variations of the original principles of Total Quality Management, created by William Edwards Deming. Total Quality Management as a theory was developed from Deming’s 14 Points for Management. Figure 1 – Principles of Total Quality Management, Martin (1993) Figure 1 is a summarization of this theory into a set of Total Quality Management principles, applicable to many types of organizations. These principles combine all aspects of quality management, from mathematical processes, to organizational management tasks. Such 12
  20. 20. mathematical processes included in the Total Quality Management principles are the seven statistical models for quality assessment. According to the Tague (2005), these seven basic models are: 1. Cause-and-effect diagram (Ishikawa or Fishbone chart): Identifies many possible causes for an effect or problem and sorts ideas into useful categories. Good management brainstorming technique for identifying root causes of an issue. 2. Check sheet: A structured, prepared form for collecting and analyzing data; a generic tool that can be adapted for a wide variety of purposes. 3. Control charts: Graphs used to study how a process changes over time. 4. Histogram: The most commonly used graph for showing frequency distributions, or how often each different value in a set of data occurs. 5. Pareto chart: Displays on a bar graph which factors are more significant. 6. Scatter diagram: Graphs pairs of numerical data, one variable on each axis, to look for relationships between pairs of data. 7. Stratification: A technique that separates data gathered from a variety of sources so that patterns can be identified. These can also be referred to as flow charts or flow diagrams containing large amount of data. Implementation of Total Quality Management Models Total Quality Management involves all functions within an organization, accompanied with the concept that quality is affected by all divisions, departments, and operations in an organization. In recent years, TQM has become the primary approach for organizations to understand and address the dimensions of their systems that affect quality. From small industrial companies to Fortune500 organizations, Total Quality Management has become a fundamental theory and practice, enhancing quality improvement initiatives into more developed and detailed quality models. These TQM concepts have the power to increase the profitability and competitive-edge of an organization, as well as support a healthy and structured company environment. Despite these improvements offered by TQM, the implementation of a TQM model into an organization is not as simple as believing in TQM theories and placing the model into practice. Although the benefits and rewards from implementing a total quality management system are clear and distinct, the methods of implementing a complete TQM model into a 13
  21. 21. company have less definition and detail, and at times, none at all. As the manufacturing community began accepting the notions of Total Quality Management, many management employees began attending conferences, seminars, and courses teaching the characteristics and concepts of a total quality management system (Aravindan & Devadasan, 1996). The industry began to pay close attention to quality management experts due to the potential advantages of implementing a total quality management model into their organizations. This trend began to spread into the global market approximately thirty years after the birth of total quality management in the 1950s, and many corporations began to implement TQM concepts into their processes and management disciplines. However, According to Aravindan and Devadasan (1996), “ten years after the TQM movement gained momentum, manufacturers and quality managers started to re-examine the real benefits accruing from it. In this context, it was realized that exhaustive research work, covering the study of the present status, with a firm commitment to develop practical implementation strategies of TQM, was found to be necessary.” Transforming the concepts of total quality management into physical processes within a system is a difficult task. It involves exhaustive research of total quality management by an organization and well established, knowledgeable management leadership to guide implementation. In addition, these concepts are best understood through an academic discipline or certification curriculum, because so many different mathematical models and management practices are involved in total quality management. The ability to apply the statistical models and management techniques of TQM to a specific industry or organization is enhanced through academic training regarding the material. This training focuses on implementation techniques and strategies that are concrete and effective, especially if they are accurately performed. For this reason, total quality management is a primary topic in many Industrial Engineering programs, and also because of its relation to principles of Industrial Engineering regarding process improvement and quality. According to Eskandari et al (2007), “While the types of industries where industrial engineers are working are evolving, changes in the types of roles and responsibilities that Industrial Engineers are performing within these industries are occurring as well. Given these anticipated changes in industries and consequently in the types of assigned roles, Industrial Engineering (IE) programs need to revise their curriculum to educate 14
  22. 22. and prepare students to meet the future needs of today’s rapidly changing industrial workplace.” Total quality management is changing the organizational and operational structure of industrial systems currently in place today. Industrial Engineering programs, in order to stay accurately representative of its student’s position in the industry, need to shift the focus of programs towards teaching the principles of total quality management and other relevant improvement strategies practiced in the industry, thoroughly. These programs should address the principles of total quality management, methods of implementation among various industrial systems, and also assess the types of difficulties that organizations face when implementing total quality management theory and practices. The Shift to Six Sigma Criticisms of total quality management will assess that a focus on quality improvement does not always guarantee successful processes and procedures that will increase the performance and productivity of an organization. In addition, processes to increase quality cost money, especially if they are activities that react to problems instead of preventing problems, as discussed earlier. With this in mind, it would seem as if total quality management is an insufficient means of achieving better quality. After all, better quality has the intent of increasing sales and profit for an organization, and all of the quality models have a desired end result of improving profitability for an organization, but under a total quality management strategy, an organization may actually harm their processes more-so than improve them, due to the assumed costs, effort, and cooperation that is necessary. Also, the assumption that improving the quality of a process alone will immediately result in better sales is a poor assumption, because there are quality improvements that the customer may never see or be directly affected by. Total quality management addresses the concept of customer based improvements, but many of the models are production based improvements, with very little to do with the overall operational processes in an organization, which are more management driven. According to Aguayo (1990), “to try to justify long-term actions on the basis of their impact on the balance sheet is the modern equivalent of determining how many angels can occupy the head of a pin. Costs and payoffs are important no doubt about it, but there are not enough and in many cases are just useless or deception. The projected return for a given course of action depends on the assumptions and 15
  23. 23. inputs. Any way you look at it, it’s a guess. But if a company loses sight of where it is going, which should be improvement in the standard of living of its customers, it will surely suffer along with its customers.” Although total quality management concepts and theory confirm that all organizations should focus on providing customer-driven products and services, the main statistical models of total quality management have no means of addressing the considerations of the customer directly. This flaw in total quality management limits the usability of its processes, and calls for the need of a more management oriented quality improvement strategy. Total Quality Management is a system of management strategies involving broad scale of quality enhancement techniques focusing on an organization’s production processes. From this concept, stems another management technique that incorporates quality as not just affected by the organization, but also all entities functioning with the organization, within the organization, and outside of the organization. According to Harry and Schroeder (2000), “Six Sigma is not merely a management concept, but a business process that allows companies to greatly improve their minimal performance criteria by designing and monitoring everyday business activities in ways that minimize waste and resources while increasing customer satisfaction.” This notion of everyday improvement is beyond the scope of concepts and strategies of the total quality management. Six Sigma was originally a quality concept created to minimize the defects of a production process to a certain variation, called six sigma. This concept developed into an organizational ideology and philosophy that incorporates all management, customer, and business related activities as potential contributions to defects in a system. A defect, in a production line, can be defined as any attribute that goes against the design specifications of a product or service and causes this product or service to not satisfy customer expectations. In Six Sigma management theory, a defect is any wasteful process in an organization or connected to that organization that either negatively affects or has no effect on the quality of an end product or service or doesn’t affect it at all. Unlike total quality management, Six Sigma management attempts to address all issues that are not value adding to the organization and all relationships that are not value adding. According to Harry and Schroeder (2000), “the difference between previous total quality approaches and the Six Sigma concept was a matter of focus. Total quality management (TQM) programs focus on improvements in individual operations with unrelated processes. The consequences is that with many quality programs, regardless of how comprehensive they are, it takes many years before all the operations within a given processes 16
  24. 24. are improved. The Six Sigma architects at Motorola focused on making improvements in all operations within a process, producing results far more rapidly and effectively.” By definition, Six Sigma can be seen as total quality management in an even larger scope than TQM attempts to address, by redefining the relationship between quality and organizational profits. The Six Sigma management concept, when implemented concisely and thoroughly, is more of a self- sustaining engine that raises the profitable income of a company by reorganizing and restructuring its processes, operations, and way of business by striving for highest profit at lowest costs continuously. The importance of statistics in Six Sigma is the final connection that needs to be made between Six Sigma and the business world. The name “six sigma” itself is derives from the statistical concept that the defects of a production system, process, or procedure maintain fewer than six sigma defects. Statistics can provide mathematical representations of either a problem or a solution within an organization of company. It is always important to be able to back up any conclusions about a particular process with proof of its effectiveness or its shortcomings. Proper use of statistics allows for this type of evidence. According to Harry and Schroeder (2000), “Once people get beyond the symbols, formulas, and charts they usually find that statistics make problems (and the questions) much clearer and simpler…It’s really the simplicity of statistics that allows us to measure, improve, and monitor the processes within our organizations. Statistics are a tool that separates commonsense reasoning from extraordinary reasoning...Statistics allows companies to collect data, translate that data into information, and then interpret the information so that decisions can be made based on fact, rather than intuition, gut feel, or past experience. Statistics create the foundation for quality, which translates to profitability and market share.” Statistical analysis techniques allow a company to draw a detailed and concise picture of the problems plaguing their system. These problems can then be addressed head on by engineers and management personnel in an effort to solve the problem and increase revenue for the company. Usually, when the problem is clear and understand by top management, decisions to remedy the problem are just as clear. This leads the organization on the path towards perfection and reduction of defects and waste producing processes in their systems. Target Audience 17
  25. 25. The term target audience can be defined in many ways. The most appropriate context to interpret the phrase in this project would be “The consumer group most likely to buy a specific product and identified by region, age, demographics, or economic status. Determining who the appropriate audience to reach trying is an essential part of formulating any new idea. Without defining the proper market, it is nearly impossible to accurately devise a plan to successfully create a new product or idea. This is particularly important when dealing with the creation of a new college course or training program. For this particular project, the target audiences needed to be initially broken down into two sections: external and internal audiences. The external audiences were determined from our research of the manufacturing industry and education field. It was determined that the audience for this particular project is students, professors, or any other individuals interested in entering the manufacturing industry, particularly those people interested in engineering or operations. More generally, a new college course or training program would be reaching out to individuals that are interested in furthering their knowledge in the particular topic, in this case Six Sigma. Internal audiences were determined from our research as employees of the educational institution or leaders of the particular training center. This includes professors, department heads, or any other faculty member that may be responsible for teaching this course. It is important to be aware of who would be needed to facilitate this new idea. Raytheon Six Sigma: Raytheon is a company that focuses on national defense and homeland security. There are more than 72,000 employees around the world. In 2007, they had 21.3 billion dollars in sales. Raytheon is broken up into six major business units: Integrated Defense Systems, Missile Systems, Intelligence and Information Systems, Network Centric Systems, Raytheon Technical Services Company LLC, and Space and Airborne Systems. These business units offer a wide range of products and services to the government as well as other customers. Raytheon’s corporate vision is “Aspiring to be the most admired defense and aerospace systems supplier through world-class people and technology”. Six Sigma is a prominent aspect of Raytheon’s corporate culture. “Raytheon Six Sigma™ is the philosophy of Raytheon management, embedded within the fabric of our business 18
  26. 26. organizations as the vehicle for increasing productivity, growing the business, and building a new culture. Raytheon Six Sigma is the continuous process improvement effort designed to reduce costs” (Raytheon Website, 2008). Raytheon Six Sigma can be best defined by six major steps—visualize, commit, prioritize, characterize, improve, and achieve. Figure 2: Raytheon Six Sigma Chart http://www.raytheon.com/ourcompany/r6s/r6s_process/index.html Raytheon’s Six Sigma training has three distinct levels. There are specialist, expert, and master expert training levels. Specialist training is done in addition to ones regular position at Raytheon, while expert and master expert training is done as a full-time job. The breakdown of time each training takes is below. 1. Specialist – 30-60 days 2. Expert – 1 year 3. Master Expert – 2 years + Specialist training and qualification is a requirement for all employees at Raytheon. For expert training, employees can choose to do it, it is not a requirement. In fact, there are very advanced screening processes to get into the expert track. 19
  27. 27. Raytheon Six Sigma training focuses on both theory and concepts and the statistical processes. Each Six Sigma certified employee is expected to demonstrate the ability to put the theories learned into practice. There are many different books used during the training, but some of the most important are: 1. The Goal by Goldratt 2. The Profit Zone by Slywotzky, Morrison 3. Getting to Yes by Fisher, Ury, Patton 4. Clockspeed by Fine 5. Innumberacy by Paulos 6. Design for Six Sigma by Creveling, Slutsky and Antix Figure 3: Raytheon's Business Strategy http://www.apqc.org/portal/apqc/ksn/Raytheon_customer_article.pdf?paf_gear_id=contentgearhome&paf_dm=full&pageselect=contentitem&docid=120671 Six Sigma was introduced at Raytheon in 1998 by Daniel Burnham. He brought this theory to Raytheon from AlliedSignal. As of 2005, there were over 46,000 Raytheon Six Sigma Specialists, 1,200 Raytheon Six Sigma Experts, and 50 Master Experts. There was also 9,000 senior-to mid-level trained leader. Raytheon estimates that Six Sigma has provided them with 3.8 billion dollars in financial benefit. Six Sigma also provides a common language and culture for the entire company. Organizational & Educational Training 20
  28. 28. Training Theory What exactly are the benefits of training and why do organizations feel they need it? Training, especially in corporate America and the business world, is seen as a method to teach new and old employees how to properly perform job duties and tasks for an organization. Certain job duties require knowledge of large amount of material, and these duties are not easily performed without guidance or training. At times, it may even be impossible to perform certain tasks without proper training. Training becomes important to an organization when the productivity or performance of the employees either needs improvement or maintenance. With regards to productivity and performance, training can be a means of addressing company operations that do not meet previously calculated expectations. In addition, training can also be a means of teaching a new process or set of operations for employees to follow. When the quality of a process decreases, training can be used to address this issue. Training programs can be used to address issues pertaining to productivity, performance, and quality. According to Steinmetz (1976), “man has the ability to pass on to others the knowledge and skill gained in mastering circumstances. In the past, this was done by deliberate example, by signs, and by words. Through these devices the development process called training was administered; and when the message was received by another successfully we say that learning took place and knowledge or skill was transferred.” An important observation of this statement is that training should offer both the knowledge as well as the skills of a particular topic. Many training programs disregard the importance of knowledge and mainly teach the skills needed to perform a job duty or duties. While this is an adequate assessment for a job task within a company, this does not allow for proper learning of the knowledge material for a topic. Some skills, because their nature, have many applications outside of a specific job task. It is important that the scope of a particular topic be addressed in a training program so that the trainee can understand the motives of training. This increases the effectiveness of the training program as well. According to Munson (1984), “the quality of educational materials to be used is critically important, both for the consultant-led and client-led training. Although it is very time consuming, training directors are well advised to review these educational materials carefully and thoroughly…” The knowledge aspect of training would come from the educational material related to a particular topic in a training program. This material would not only offer the training program participants knowledge of their job duties outside of the organization, but also allows them to better understand the 21
  29. 29. organization’s motive and intent behind following certain procedures. This broadened view of training allows for trainees to get more from the training program and increases their capability to contribute their own knowledge into an organization’s processes. This advantage of knowledge contribution focuses more on management and leadership positions where employees have strong influence on the performance of an organization. Training programs and educational courses are very similar in that they’re both focused on combining the practical nature of a task and the theory and concepts behind a task; teaching them simultaneously to maximize the thoroughness of the information offered. According to Tickner (1966), “it is appropriate to begin an examination of the intimate association between education and training at the higher levels of education because, in most of the professions, university study is involved.” When a training program loses its connection with high level education, the material also loses its educational value and only maintains its practical nature as applicable to the guidelines set by the organization that the training program is in. It is important that any training program offer material from the educational background of the focused topic because of the enhancement to learning this material can create. Conceptual theory and ideologies of certain topics should not be left out of the training program because of their contribution to the understanding of practical applications in a broad sense. In some cases, it may be necessary to implement sections into the training program that focus on theory instead of practical application because it will enhance the ability for the individual taking the training program to learn and understand the material. According to Craig (1976), “more and more, training directors have become educational as well as training consultants to their organizations, and performance in that role requires a working knowledge of the myriad of educational programs presently offered by colleges and universities, junior colleges, evening schools, and correspondence study.” Training programs that also incorporate concepts from their related educational courses attempt to cover the entire scope of a topic beyond its applicable nature in a specific organization. When training programs facilitate this type of learning, the groups of individuals gather knowledge beyond what learning the practical use can offer, and this can potentially enhance the performance of these individuals when applying the skills learned from the training programs. Again, the advantage of aligning a training program’s initiatives and goals with the educational information and background increases the learning value of the training program, and broadens knowledge of situations in which the practical content is useful. 22
  30. 30. Before attempting to analyze the major components of a topic and incorporating them into an academic curriculum, course, or training/certification program, it is important to address the relevant tasks involved in developing and designing a successful training program. There are certain guidelines that the implementers of a certification program or academic course can go through to properly identify the major areas of a particular topic. In addition to identifying the major topics, there are other considerations such as target audience, length of training program or course curriculum, and relevant training theory. The quality of a training program is greatly affected by the effort put forth in the development and design of the program, the ability for continuous improvement of the information offered to the target audience, and the level of educational value of the information offered. Proper design of a training program or academic course involves assessing all of the important issues of a particular topic and creating processes to accurately and thoroughly teach the material, and maximize the quality of content. Some of the major issues to consider when establishing a training program are as follows: According to Carr (1992), there are three important concepts to consider when developing a training program, or as he states, “smart training”. First, the goal of “smart training” is not simply to train individuals for the tasks of a job, but to establish a program that offers the most learning, in the least amount of time. The focus of learning in training programs draws the similarity between training and education. As education offers individuals with the background to increase their performance in real situations, training should focus on teaching the elements of a task as well as the practical nature of a task. Secondly, training programs are created to improve the performance of a particular task as well as a particular group of people. This is important to note because the material in a training program needs to be applicable to real world career situations as a means to improve the performance of a process and people. Thirdly, the performance of an individual depends on what makes sense to them, what they know and what they know how to do, what they have the means to do, motive and determination, and finally the feedback system installed to gather information on their efforts. A training program should focus on developing all of these components as a means to improve the performance of an individual. 23
  31. 31. Designing a Six Sigma Training Program/Educational Course With regards to Six Sigma, the level of detail that a training/certification program or academic course has differentiates the type of program it is. Training programs involving the Six Sigma method need to be designed to incorporate all topics related to total quality management and organizational performance, because Six Sigma is derived from these ideas and practices. In addition, a training program should be designed around the major components of Six Sigma theory and functions, as seen by academic institutions, the industry and corporate America, and the original inventors of the Six Sigma process. Currently, there are Six Sigma programs in colleges, universities, and independent training programs, but among these programs, different material is focused on and different criteria form the completion and objectives of the program. When designing any training program or educational course, it is necessary to target the most relevant subject matter of the topic, and focus the program on this material. According to Odiorne (1966), “…people become so enmeshed in procedures that they lose sight of the reasons for the procedures, and the true goals (results) are displaced by false goals (activity).” It is important that any Six Sigma training program or educational course outline its objectives around the original purposes of Six Sigma. Six Sigma is a result and performance oriented management concept, focusing on all aspects that affect the quality an organization and its processes, and offering theory and methods on how to increase the quality of an organization. Although Six Sigma stems from mathematical theory and defect analysis, the management concepts of Six Sigma are much broader than mathematical calculations, and should be taught as such in a training program. Failure to do so strips away from the true meaning of Six Sigma, which has developed into not only a set of statistical methods, but a management philosophy and practice. 24
  32. 32. Methodology Research & Data Collection Summarization The goal of this project was to create a training program and academic course outline that can be implemented into an academic institution as a course, an organization or corporation as a training/certification program, or an independent company as outline within a particular Six Sigma certification program. Six Sigma programs focus on a comprehensive analysis of quality in business organizations in corporate America, as well as around the world. The development of Six Sigma Management theory from total quality management concepts was discussed in the previous portion of this paper. These two major aspects will be the basis for our team to develop a course outline and training program syllabus that focused on the major topic areas of Six Sigma as a Management theory and organizational practice. In order to obtain this goal, our team established a set of design objectives a training program concerning Six Sigma should follow, and this resulted in the completion of a training program/course syllabus for a Six Sigma Training Program, as well as recommendations for implementation within an academic institution or business. The following is a summary of the setting of our design project. This project was done over a fourteen week period, broken up into two seven week terms. This project took place at Worcester Polytechnic Institute, located in Worcester, Massachusetts. The first seven week term began January 10, 2008 and lasted until February 29, 2008. This term consisted of initial research and methodology development. The team discussed possible methods for developing a Six Sigma course or training program with professors, high-ranking members of a national corporations (Raytheon and Amphenol RF), and other students at WPI. Research into different Six Sigma concepts, current Six Sigma certification in corporations, and other academic institutions around the country were done during this initial seven week session. Within the first seven week period our team established the following goals. The second half of the project began March 11, 2008 and lasted until April 30, 2008. During this time, our team initiated the design the other design activities for our project including the interviewing objective, and the Six Sigma Course/Training Program Modeling objectives The team contacted employees that are closely related to the Six Sigma programs at Raytheon, Amphenol RF, and Villanova University, as well as Professor and Advisor to the group Joe Zhu 25
  33. 33. of the Industrial Engineering department at WPI. In addition our team developed and applied a modeling process that would assess the information obtained from the survey and interviews. This modeling process involved the assessment of Six Sigma programs in academic institutions, corporations, and independent small businesses. Through this assessment, our team was able to create an outline Six Sigma topics crucial to obtaining a thorough theoretical, practical, and process knowledge background of Six Sigma. This program can be implemented into Six Sigma certification programs to strengthen the knowledge background of the program, as well as in academic institutions wishing to incorporate an in-depth study of Six Sigma in their Industrial Engineering & Management programs. A summary of the objectives for the entire 14 Week process is as follows: Objective A: Obtain information of the current Six Sigma knowledge background of the students at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Objective B: Conduct interviews with employees who have a certification in Six Sigma processes and management theory and also interview employees with a strong Six Sigma knowledge base. Objective C: Create a Six Sigma course/training program syllabus that can be implemented into an academic institution as a course, or a certification/training program using the training program/academic course design model established by our team through our research. Objectives D: Offer recommendations and methods for implementing the Six Sigma program as course in an academic curriculum or training program within a corporation or independent business offering Six Sigma certification. In order to achieve the objectives previously stated, our team has developed a design model that will assist in the organization, analysis, and interpretation of the data collected from the research and interviews conducted, as well as the surveys given to the students at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. This design model incorporates the training program theory discussed previously. The guidelines of the design model were developed from the research conducted during the first seven weeks of this project, in C-Term of 2008 at WPI. These guidelines include requirements for establishing a comprehensive training program focusing on the major concepts of Six Sigma management practices and theory, course design outlines and specifications for Six Sigma topics, and methods to incorporate the Six Sigma training 26
  34. 34. program into a training program offering Six Sigma certification. The timeline and objectives for the research, data collection, design processes, and results analysis conducted by the team are more clearly shown in (Enter Figure Value Here). Figure 4 - Six Sigma Analysis: Project Objective Timeline & Flow Chart Research & Data Collection Plan Preliminary Research Preliminary Research occurred during the first seven weeks of the project, in the academic C-Term of 2008 at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Six Sigma as a process is interrelated with such concepts as Total Quality Management, Quality Control, Quality Assessment, and Statistical Modeling. An analysis of the relationship between Six Sigma and these concepts allowed for our team to create the research space for this project. This project focuses on Six Sigma as not only a set of practices to follow to improve operational and management quality within the systems of an organization, but also as an organizational management concept and theory, applicable to several different types of systems within Corporate America, including major corporate entities and organizations, academic institutions, 27
  35. 35. and training programs of independent businesses. The different systems where Six Sigma can be applicable to improve performance exist in such fields as the medical industry, the manufacturing and production industry, supply chain management systems, and several other industrial systems that involve product, process, and service quality. This research space that our team is focusing involves total quality management and it’s relation to Six Sigma management practices. The Design Model used to interpret and collect data from our interviews, surveys, and research is supposed by the preliminary research that addresses the major topics of total quality management and Six Sigma. Our analysis techniques are drawn from our observations made during the preliminary research portion of this project. In addition, this research assists in developing a clear and detailed understanding of the most relevant topics in TQM and Six Sigma Theory. Student Surveys at Worcester Polytechnic Institute One of the first evaluation methods completed was the distribution of a Six Sigma Survey. The survey was distributed to the entire undergraduate body at WPI, via email. Students were asked to optionally fill out the survey and return to Matt McCarthy through email. The survey can be found in Appendix A. The purpose of this survey was to gather the current day perspective of Six Sigma from the students at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Worcester Polytechnic Institute has a student body mainly of engineering students. Six Sigma management is a process that involves not only management personnel, but engineering students across many disciplines, and Worcester Polytechnic Institute meets that engineering criteria. Six Sigma management is a process that most engineers are going to come across at one time or another during their engineering career, because of the multitude of activities that are involved with Six Sigma processes and theory. Due to this, engineering students have the opportunity to adapt to the industry by learning more about Six Sigma and its practices. For the purposes of our project, our team wished to gather a statistical background of how many students are currently knowledgeable of Six Sigma as both a defect analysis technique and a management practice. Our team also asked questions involved student interest in Six Sigma theory and management concepts. The questions identified types of student, their graduating periods, and any Six Sigma experience they feel was relevant to their academic career. These questions were intended to give the group a means to analyze the students at WPI 28
  36. 36. group who participate in the survey with regards to their knowledge and experience in Six Sigma. In addition, our team wishes to gather a better understanding of the Six Sigma management concepts currently discussed at Worcester Polytechnic Institute, which departments focused on Six Sigma concepts, and the types of classes that Six Sigma is discussed in. Questions that aided in the understanding of the current student knowledge base were as follows: • Are you familiar with the term “Six Sigma”? If yes, please rate your familiarity with the term • Have you taken any classes at WPI that have discussed Six Sigma concepts? If yes what is the course(s) and what aspect(s) of Six Sigma were discussed? These questions, along with the others in the survey, gave the group a good understanding of how familiar WPI students are with Six Sigma, and also what courses currently in place at WPI are effective ways of discussing Six Sigma concepts. Also, this survey allowed our team to match our Six Sigma training program/academic course syllabus model to the needs of students at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Six Sigma from the Perspective of Experience As with many academic institutions that supply students with the knowledge to perform a certain task, often the experience of performing in real world industrial situations is the differentiating factor of performance from one student to another. In order to achieve Objective B, our team conducted interviewed with employees who have the strength of experience with regards to Six Sigma Management theory and practices. The purpose of these interviews was to gather the perspective and experiences of employees currently in top corporations, independent businesses, and academic institutions that have activities related to Six Sigma. This information would assist in establishing the topic criteria for a Six Sigma syllabus. A main criterion for many Six Sigma certification programs is prior project management experience or project execution experience, especially for higher level Six Sigma certification programs at the Black Belt level. The interview participants include employees from Amphenol RF, Raytheon, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Villanova University, and Carnegie Mellon. These employees vary in their knowledge of Six Sigma processes, from Green Belt certified employees, to teachers of Six Sigma in other academic institutions. The usefulness of this variation is to gather a broadened 29
  37. 37. sense of the important material to employees that practice in Six Sigma activities on a daily basis. Our team assessed the value of the information we would obtain from the companies and universities by analyzing their academic programs and addressing their corporation’s current place and ranking in the business world. Our criteria for the interview selection were individuals that have a certification in Six Sigma, teach Six Sigma, or have participated in a project where Six Sigma related activities occurred. Because of the broad nature of the Six Sigma topic as a defect analysis technique and a management concept, our interviewing pool too was broad in the sense that the employees, professors, and certified Six Sigma interviewee came from many different fields of the industry. These fields included academic institutions, industry corporations, and independent businesses. Modeling a Six Sigma Program The modeling of a Six Sigma Program involves achieving Objective C. In order to properly establish a Six Sigma academic course/training program syllabus, the design of such a program should be based on the current industry understanding of important and major topics related to the field. In order to gather a comprehensive and thorough understanding of the relevant Six Sigma Management topics, an analysis of existing programs needs to take place. This step will allow for our team to assess how academic institutions, corporations, and independent businesses feel Six Sigma should be taught, what these entities feel should be taught and why, and under which guidelines should Six Sigma be analyzed, Through this analysis, our team will be able to identify similarities and differences between a variety of Six Sigma programs that currently exist. This is a crucial step to our design process, for it allows our team to create a theme for the Six Sigma training program/academic course that will be accurate to the current understanding of the topic among several different programs. Also, because of the wide range and variety of topics related to the Six Sigma approach and the multitudes of methods it can be implemented into a corporation, this process is necessary and will reduce the broad nature of the Six Sigma topic for our syllabus by identifying similarities between the programs chosen to be observed. The programs chosen were grouped into the following fields: Academic Programs & Certification Programs and Independent Corporation and Business Training Programs (training 30
  38. 38. programs offered by corporations and independent businesses). The following academic courses & training programs were analyzed by our team for this project. 1. Academic Institution Training & Certification Programs a. Carnegie Mellon: Six Sigma Certification Program & Courses b. Villanova University: Six Sigma Certification Program & Courses c. University of Tennessee: Black Belt Six Sigma Training Program d. Arizona State University: Six Sigma Black Belt Certification Program e. North Carolina State University: Six Sigma Black Belt Certification Program 2. Independent Corporation and Business Training Programs a. Aveta Business Solutions: Six Sigma Online Training Program i. Yellow, Green, & Black Belt Certification Options b. American Society for Quality: Six Sigma Black Belt Certification Program c. Benchmark Six Sigma: Business Excellence Workshops i. Includes Six Sigma Yellow Belt Training Program Recommendations for Implementation & Improvement After the development of our syllabus, it is necessary to discuss the implementation strategies and improvements that can be added to the program. This section will analyze the thoroughness of our developed training program/course syllabus and the areas it can be applied to. In addition, this section will assess the usefulness of incorporating the academic course outline and syllabus into current certification programs as a facilitation of the knowledge and theoretical foundation needed in Six Sigma training programs. The ability to integrate this course outline and training program syllabus into existent certification programs and academic courses is the main objects and goal of this project. Therefore, our recommendations on how to implement this course into such programs will be included in this section. The Design Model Premise & Purpose of the Design Model An academic course and a training program have many similarities. Both involve a focused topic that is usually derived from a broader area of study, theory, or expertise. In the case of a Six Sigma training program, this is no different, as observed in the literature review. In 31
  39. 39. addition, there exists a wide range of training program theory and guidelines for creating a training program. This information assists in the combination of educational theory and knowledge with the practical tasks and requirements of a business or corporation in order to establish a training program that gives employees the knowledge they would need to perform a specific duty or task. These specific tasks may include the operation of a mechanical device in a manufacturing system, or the operation of a computer in a medical service system at a hospital. The importance of training programs is that they incorporate the practical and real-life nature of a process, and assist employees through teaching and application as a method to increase the performance and abilities of the employees. With regards to Six Sigma, the scope of the participant goes beyond employees of a company and focuses more on management personnel looking to acquire knowledge on how to increase the overall quality, performance, and organizational mentality of a business, incorporating all aspects of the business that affect quality of products, services, and the organization. Because of Six Sigma’s excessive theoretical background, our team stresses the importance of creating a training program that encompasses the theory and practices of Six Sigma as offered by the creators of the management idea. Also, the educational value of Six Sigma theory offers as much of a practical understanding of the topic as does the statistical analysis techniques and project management templates that assist in top management decision making. Our team had developed a model to assess the information obtained from interviews, surveys, and analysis of Six Sigma programs in academic institutions and businesses. This model focuses on achieving the objective of creating a Six Sigma training program/academic course that can be implemented into an academic institution, corporation, or small independent business stated earlier in this section. The usefulness of this training program as an academic course is that there are assignments to assess the information learned by the participants of the training program. These same assignments can be used as performance requirements for passing the training program as a course in an academic institution. These same requirements can be used as a means to measure whether a participant of the training programs has learned the information in order to receive Six Sigma certification. The design model focuses on the quality and performance of the training program being created, and the model is applicable to either the creation of or currently existing Six Sigma programs in America. Training program theory offers a wide range of criteria and methods that, if taken advantage of, can greatly enhance the 32
  40. 40. comprehensiveness, quality, and performance of a training program. Our team had organized our research on TQM, Six Sigma, and training program theory, into a design model for a training program that includes a set of guidelines for increasing the educational value of the training program, training program characteristics and requirements that enhance the quality and performance of the training program, and performance measurement techniques that can be used to evaluate the participants of the training program and the program itself. This design model will assess the aspects of the programs that can be applied to the establishment of an academic course or training program focusing on Six Sigma and its relationship with corporate business in the fields of medical services and manufacturing. This design model also takes into account the information learned from researching Total Quality Management, Six Sigma, and training program practices. Training Program/Academic Course Design Model The design model created by our team through research of Six Sigma management theory and practices is separated into several categories. These categories assess the aspects of a training program that our team suggests should be addressed while creating a training program and the methods that the training program creator/coordinator can use to implement these categories and the topics into the training program focusing on Six Sigma. This design model was applied to the training programs and academic course curriculums focusing on Six Sigma processes that our team analyzed. The purpose of this application was the compare the design model created by our team with the current training programs and academic curriculums focusing on Six Sigma and Six Sigma related topics that currently exist. This was combined with the information obtained from the surveys and interviews done by the team. The purpose of this design model was to be used to create a training program/academic course that incorporates all of the beneficial practices currently in training programs and academic courses. This, in combination with the material gathered from our research on TQM, Six Sigma, and training program theory, will serve as a template for training program design with regards to Six Sigma. The end result of this design model is a comprehensive syllabus that can be used to teach Six Sigma management practices and theory, including the statistical defect analysis techniques of Six Sigma, within either a training program or an academic course. The following is an outline of the categories of the design model for the training program/academic course: 33
  41. 41. 1. The Training Mission 2. Structural Design 3. Staffing Design 4. Educational and Industrial Resources 5. Participant Performance Evaluation Measures 6. Training Program Evaluation Measures The Training Mission This first category involves defining the purpose and intent of the training program. The deliverable of this category is a detailed mission statement about the training program. Within this mission statement, there should be a definition of the scope of information discussed, an assessment of the participant market targeted by this training program, and a proper assessment of the value of the information in the training program for the participants. Development of the training mission is to offer not only the participants, but also individuals who inquire on the training program, a concise and detailed explanation of what the training program has to offer for them. Included with the mission statement is a summarization of the activities in the training program. These activities are developed from the next four components of the design model, which are the core of what the training program offers to its participants. This summarization is in the form of a short outline of the topics offered in the training program, but for the purposes of making this model applicable to the design of an academic course, this summarization can be more developed and in the form of a course syllabus. The main components of the training mission are separated as follows: 1. Clear definition of the scope, market, value, and purpose of the training program. This includes all goals the training program intends to achieve for its participants. With regard to Six Sigma, this should be, at a minimal level, a detailed outline of the core Six Sigma management concepts, theories, business practices used, and types of initiatives taken. 34
  42. 42. 2. Definition of the type of training program. With regards to Six Sigma, a training program must incorporate more than a mere overview of the topic, especially if the program has the intention of being a certification program. A combination of educational theory and discussion should be complemented by practical case studies related to the Six Sigma approach and practice with statistical analysis techniques used in Six Sigma management. Because both practice and theory share equal importance when discussing Six Sigma, both should be incorporated into a Six Sigma program to maximize the training program value. 3. For the purposes of this design model, the training mission requirements of the training program will be limited to a Six Sigma training program that does not offer Yellow, Green, or Black Belt certification. Although these certifications can be offered through a training program, there are addition requirements to the design model that will need to be addressed. These will be discussed in the results portion of the report. 4. Six Sigma management concepts are branching into a variety of industrial fields. More specifically, the fields of medical services and manufacturing are finding benefits in implementing Six Sigma strategies and processes to further increase the quality of the system. For the purposes of our design model, the relationship between Six Sigma and its capabilities as a management concept in the medical service and manufacturing industries is a major component of the design model, and a focus of the program. This also ties the relationship between Six Sigma and Industrial Engineering. Structural Design Structural Design with regards to this design model is the organization of the material discussed in the training program as well as how the information is given in the training sessions. Because this training program focuses on Six Sigma management theory and practices and the audience is industrial engineers, management engineers, and business managers, there need not be multiple versions of the training session for separate groups of individuals. The structural design of a training program should be directly related to what needs to exist in the training program to increase the performance of the participant after they complete it. In the case of Six 35
  43. 43. Sigma, this is where the focus of theory as well as practice is stressed, due to the nature of the topic as discussed previously. This is also where the separation between a focus on theory or practical applications and statistical techniques is drawn. In order to develop a training program that confidently and accurately supplies it’s participants with useful information that will increase not only their knowledge of Six Sigma and its applicable nature, but their performance in businesses and corporations, it is important for the training program coordinators to do a front- end analysis of Total Quality Management and Six Sigma management topics and practices. The Six Sigma approach has several important theories and concepts that go beyond practical application, such as the dramatic change in how a business defines the quality of their products and operations when operating under Six Sigma. This particular point, as with other important Six Sigma knowledge and criteria, should be incorporated into Six Sigma training programs as necessary elements of learning, along with the statistical analysis techniques and methods used to achieve Six Sigma. The structural design element of the design model had been separated into the following categories of information. These categories cover the key areas and principles of Six Sigma management, and were establish through our teams research: Six Sigma Management Theory 1. The Birth of Six Sigma and Total Quality Management Concepts a. This includes discussion of the relevant contributors to initial Six Sigma management theory and it’s derivation from the Total Quality Management concepts of William Edwards Deming. Also include the Six Sigma initiatives taken at Motorola by Art Sundry and Mikel Harry. 2. Six Sigma as a Management Concept and Philosophy a. Key principles of Six Sigma as a management concept and philosophy should be discussed in a comprehensive program. Among these principles is the importance of metrics and measurements in quality control. 3. Total Quality Management and its relation to Six Sigma 4. Redefinition of Quality and it’s relation to Six Sigma 36

×